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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using Technology to Advance Global Health: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24882.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

USING TECHNOLOGY TO ADVANCE GLOBAL HEALTH Proceedings of a Workshop Rachel M. Taylor and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety Board on Global Health Health and Medicine Division PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This project was supported by Anheuser-Busch InBev; Becton, Dickinson and Company; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Catholic Health Association of the United States; ExxonMobil; Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health; General Electric; Global Health Innovative Technology Fund; Intel Corporation; Johnson & Johnson; Lockheed Martin Corporation; Medtronic; Merck; Novartis Foundation; PATH; PepsiCo; Procter & Gamble Co.; The Rockefeller Foundation; Safaricom; Takeda Pharmaceuticals; United Nations Foundation; University of Notre Dame; UPS Foundation; U.S. Agency for International Development; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Global Affairs; U.S. Department of State; U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Verizon Foundation; and The Vitality Group. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/24882 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2017 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Using technology to advance global health: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24882. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process, and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON ENGAGING THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND DEVELOPING PARTNERSHIPS TO ADVANCE HEALTH AND THE SDGS1 ANN AERTS (Cochair), Head, Novartis Foundation ELAINE GIBBONS (Cochair), Executive Director, Global Corporate Engagement, PATH BOB BOLLINGER, Professor of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine REZA JAFARI, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, e-Development International ANNA THOMPSON-QUAYE, Senior Director Business Development & Strategic Partnerships, access.mobile International 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for this published Proceedings of a Workshop Series rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS v

FORUM ON PUBLIC–PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR GLOBAL HEALTH AND SAFETY1 JO IVEY BOUFFORD (Cochair), President, New York Academy of Medicine CLARION JOHNSON (Cochair), Private consultant, ExxonMobil ANN AERTS, Head, Novartis Foundation SIR GEORGE ALLEYNE, Director Emeritus, Pan American Health Organization; Chancellor, University of the West Indies RAJESH ANANDAN, Senior Vice President, Strategic Partnerships and UNICEF Ventures, U.S. Fund for UNICEF NATASHA BILIMORIA, Director, U.S. Strategy, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance DEBORAH L. BIRX, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator and U.S. Special Representative for Global Health Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State, U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) SIMON BLAND, Director, New York Liaison Office, UNAIDS ROBERT BOLLINGER, Professor of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine STEPHEN CHEGE, Director, Corporate Affairs, Safaricom GARY M. COHEN, Executive Vice President and President, Global Health and Development, Becton, Dickinson and Company BRENDA D. COLATRELLA, Executive Director, Corporate Responsibility, Merck; President, Merck Foundation BRUCE COMPTON, Senior Director of International Outreach, Catholic Health Association of the United States PATRICIA DALY, Associate Vice President, Global Health, Save the Children KATE DODSON, Vice President for Global Health Strategy, United Nations Foundation JENNIFER ESPOSITO, Worldwide General Manager, Health and Life Sciences, Intel Corporation ELAINE GIBBONS, Executive Director, Corporate Engagement, PATH ROGER GLASS, Director, Fogarty International Center DANIELLE GREENBERG, Senior Director, Global R&D; Senior Fellow, Nutrition Sciences, PepsiCo RICHARD GUERRANT, Thomas H. Hunter Professor of International Medicine, University of Virginia TREVOR GUNN, Vice President, International Relations, Medtronic JESSICA HERZSTEIN, Consultant, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force BEN HOFFMAN, Chief Medical Officer, GE Energy A. REZA JAFARI, Chairman and CEO, e-Development International JAMES JONES, Manager, Community Investment Programs, ExxonMobil ALLISON TUMMON KAMPHUIS, Leader, Children’s Safe Drinking Water Program, Social Sustainability, Procter & Gamble Co. ROSE STUCKEY KIRK, President, Verizon Foundation 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for this published Proceedings of a Workshop Series rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS vii

SEEMA KUMAR, Vice President, Innovation, Global Health & Science Policy Communication, Johnson & Johnson MARISSA LEFFLER, Center for Accelerating Innovation and Impact, U.S. Agency for International Development EDUARDO MARTINEZ, President, UPS Foundation JOHN MONAHAN, Senior Advisor to the President, Georgetown University MICHAEL MYERS, Managing Director, The Rockefeller Foundation ANDRIN OSWALD, Director, Life Sciences Partnerships, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation REGINA RABINOVICH, ExxonMobil Malaria Scholar in Residence, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health SCOTT C. RATZAN, President, Anheuser-Busch InBev Foundation B. T. SLINGSBY, Chief Executive Officer and Executive Director, Global Health Innovative Technology Fund KATHERINE TAYLOR, Associate Director and Director of Global Health Training, Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame MARY LOU VALDEZ, Associate Commissioner for International Programs, Director, Office of International Programs, U.S. Food and Drug Administration DEREK YACH, Chief Health Officer, The Vitality Group (until September 2017) TADATAKA “TACHI” YAMADA, Venture Partner, Frazier Healthcare Partners Health and Medicine Division Staff RACHEL TAYLOR, Senior Program Officer and Forum Director PRIYANKA NALAMADA, Research Associate KATHERINE PEREZ, Senior Program Assistant JULIE PAVLIN, Director, Board on Global Health Consultant JOE ALPER, Science Writer PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS viii

Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop Series was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Alain Labrique, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Alice Liu, mPowering Frontline Health Workers Magnus Mordu Conteh, World Vision International Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Garrett Mehl, World Health Organization. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS ix

Acknowledgments A number of individuals contributed to the development of this workshop and proceedings. These include a number of staff members from the Health and Medicine Division and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Faye Hillman, Sarah Kelley, Priyanka Nalamada, Julie Pavlin, Katherine Perez, Bettina Ritter, and Rachel Taylor. The planning committee contributed several hours of service to develop and execute the agenda. Reviewers also provided thoughtful remarks in reading the draft manuscript. The overall successful functioning of the Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety (PPP Forum) and its activities depends on the generosity of its sponsors. Financial support for the PPP Forum is provided by Anheuser-Busch InBev; Becton, Dickinson and Company; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Catholic Health Association of the United States; ExxonMobil; Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health; General Electric; Global Health Innovative Technology Fund; Intel Corporation; Johnson & Johnson; Lockheed Martin Corporation; Medtronic; Merck; Novartis Foundation; PATH; PepsiCo; Procter & Gamble Co.; The Rockefeller Foundation; Safaricom; Takeda Pharmaceuticals; United Nations Foundation; University of Notre Dame; UPS Foundation; U.S. Agency for International Development; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Global Affairs; U.S. Department of State; U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Verizon Foundation; and The Vitality Group. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xi

Contents ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xvii 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 The Role of Digital Health, 1-2 Organization of the Proceedings, 1-4 2 DIGITAL HEALTH WITHIN THE CURRENT GLOBAL CONTEXT 2-1 Open Discussion, 2-5 3 ENABLING A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HEALTH 3-1 Multidisciplinary Business Models for Digital Health, 3-2 World Café Discussions, 3-4 4 COUNTRY-LEVEL DIGITAL HEALTH STRATEGIES 4-1 Engaging Digital “Teenager” Companies in Global Health, 4-2 PATH’s Digital Health Initiative, 4-4 Implementing a National eHealth Strategy in Nigeria, 4-5 Asia eHealth Information Network, 4-6 Potential Opportunities to Achieve Scale, 4-8 Discussion, 4-9 5 PUSH VS. PULL AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL 5-1 Social Mobile Media to Connect, Train, Manage, and Empower Health Workers, 5-2 Value Proposition for Pulling Data from the Community, 5-4 Bottom-up Innovation to Improve Patient Engagement, 5-8 Discussion, 5-9 6 TAPPING INTO GRASSROOTS INITIATIVES AND ENTREPRENEURS 6-1 7 FINAL THOUGHTS 7-1 APPENDIXES A References, A-1 B Workshop Agenda, B-1 C Speaker and Moderator Biographical Sketches, C-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xiii

Box and Figures BOX 1-1 Statement of Task, 1-3 FIGURES 2-1 The cascade of health interventions for any disease, 2-2 2-2 IT opportunities for health interventions for any disease, 2-3 4-1 Trends in malaria case reporting in southern Zambia over several rainy seasons, 4-3 5-1 Graphic illustration of recommendations to improve the use of digital information to advance global health, 5-7 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xv

Acronyms and Abbreviations AeHIN Asia eHealth Information Network CDC U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention DALY disability-adjusted life years DHIS District Health Information Software ECAP Ebola Community Action Platform EHR electronic health record FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration ICT information and communication technology IT information technology ITU International Telecommunication Union LMIC low- and middle-income country mHealth mobile health NASEM National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine PAHO Pan American Health Organization PPP public–private partnership SDG Sustainable Development Goal UK United Kingdom UN United Nations USAID U.S. Agency for International Development WHO World Health Organization PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xvii

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To explore how the use of technology can facilitate progress toward globally recognized health priorities, the Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety organized a public workshop. Participants identified and explored the major challenges and opportunities for developing and implementing digital health strategies within the global, country, and local context, and framed the case for cross-sector and cross-industry collaboration, engagement, and investment in digital health strategies. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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