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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Envisioning the Data Science Discipline: The Undergraduate Perspective: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24886.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Envisioning the Data Science Discipline: The Undergraduate Perspective: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24886.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Envisioning the Data Science Discipline: The Undergraduate Perspective: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24886.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Envisioning the Data Science Discipline: The Undergraduate Perspective: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24886.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Envisioning the Data Science Discipline: The Undergraduate Perspective: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24886.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Envisioning the Data Science Discipline: The Undergraduate Perspective: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24886.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Envisioning the Data Science Discipline: The Undergraduate Perspective: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24886.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PRE EPUBLICAT TION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURT Y THER EDITO ORIAL COR RRECTION ENVISI IONING THE DA ATA SCI IENCE D DISCIPL LINE: TH UNDE HE ERGRADDUATE PERSPEECTIVE Inter Repor rim rt Committee on Envisioning the Data Sci C n g ience Discipli ine: The Und dergraduate Pe erspective Comput Science an Telecommu ter nd munications Bo oard Board on Mathema atical Sciences and Analyti s ics Commi ittee on Applied and Theooretical Statist tics Division on Engineeering and Phy hysical Scienc ces Board on Science Educcation Division of Behavioral an Social Sci nd iences and Ed ducation A Consensu Study Rep us port of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. 1626983 from the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/24886 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2017 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Envisioning The Data Science Discipline: The Undergraduate Perspective: Interim Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24886. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Scien tablished in 1863 by an A of Congress, signed by nces was est Act President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernm s mental instit tution to adv vise the nati on issues ion s related to science an technology. Member are electe by their p t nd rs ed peers for out tstanding contribut tions to rese earch. Dr. Marcia McNut is preside nt. M tt The National Academy of Engin neering was established in 1964 und the char d der rter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. f o p g g Members are elected by their pe s d eers for extr raordinary c contributions to enginee s ering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr. is president. ., The National Academy of Medic cine (formerly the Instit tute of Medicine) was e established i in 1970 und the charter of the National Acad der demy of Scie vise the nati on medical ences to adv ion and health issues. Members are elected by their peers f distingui for ished contributions to medicine and health Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. e h. p The three Academies work together as the National Ac cademies of Sciences, E f Engineering g, and Medicine to pro ovide indepeendent, obje ective analys and advic to the na sis ce ation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform pub policy decisions. Th e d blic he National Academies also encourage education and rese earch, recognnize outstan nding contribut wledge, and increase public unders tions to know d standing in m matters of s science, engineerring, and meedicine. Learn mo about th National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medic ore he A o g, cine at www.nationalacade emies.org. PRE EPUBLICAT TION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURT Y THER EDITO ORIAL COR RRECTION

Consensus Study Re eports published by the National A e Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and f Medicine document the eviden e nce-based co onsensus on the study’s statemen of task b an n nt by authoring committe of expe g ee erts. Repor rts typically include findings, c y conclusions, and recomme endations based on inf formation gathered by the comm g y mittee and tthe commit ttee’s deliberat tions. Each report has been subje ected to a rigorous an independ nd dent peer-reeview process and it repres a sents the po osition of the National A e Academies o the statem on ment of task k. Proceedings publish hed by the National Academies o Sciences, Engineering, and Med of dicine chronicle the prese e entations an discussio nd ons at a wworkshop, ssymposium, or other e event convened by the Na d ational Academies. The statements and opinions contained in procee s edings are thos of the participants and are not endorsed by other participant the plan se p d ts, nning committe or the National Acad ee, N demies. For infor rmation abo other pr out roducts and activities o the Natio of onal Academ mies, please visit e www.nat tionalacadem mies.org/ab bout/whatweedo. PRE EPUBLICAT TION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURT Y THER EDITO ORIAL COR RRECTION

COMMITTEE ON ENVISIONING THE DATA SCIENCE DISCIPLINE: THE UNDERGRADUATE PERSPECTIVE LAURA HAAS, NAE,1 University of Massachusetts Amherst, Co-Chair ALFRED O. HERO III, University of Michigan, Co-Chair ANI ADHIKARI, University of California, Berkeley DAVID CULLER, NAE, University of California, Berkeley DAVID DONOHO, NAS,2 Stanford University E. THOMAS EWING, Virginia Tech LOUIS J. GROSS, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville NICHOLAS HORTON, Amherst College JULIA LANE, New York University ANDREW MCCALLUM, University of Massachusetts Amherst RICHARD MCCULLOUGH, Harvard University REBECCA NUGENT, Carnegie Mellon University LEE RAINIE, Pew Research Center ROB RUTENBAR, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign KRISTIN TOLLE, Microsoft Research TALITHIA WILLIAMS, Harvey Mudd College ANDREW ZIEFFLER, University of Minnesota Staff JON EISENBERG, Board Director, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), Study Co-Director MICHELLE K. SCHWALBE, Board Director, Board on Mathematical Sciences and Analytics (BMSA), Study Co-Director LINDA CASOLA, Associate Program Officer and Editor, BMSA JANEL DEAR, Senior Program Assistant, CSTB (until May 2017) RENEE HAWKINS, Financial Manager, CSTB AMY STEPHENS, Program Officer, Board on Science Education BEN WENDER, Program Officer, BMSA 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD FARNAM JAHANIAN, Carnegie Mellon University, Chair LUIZ ANDRE BARROSO, Google, Inc. STEVEN M. BELLOVIN, NAE, Columbia University ROBERT F. BRAMMER, Brammer Technology, LLC DAVID CULLER, NAE, University of California, Berkeley EDWARD FRANK, Cloud Parity, Inc. LAURA HAAS, University of Massachusetts Amherst MARK HOROWITZ, NAE, Stanford University ERIC HORVITZ, NAE, Microsoft Corporation VIJAY KUMAR, NAE, University of Pennsylvania BETH MYNATT, Georgia Institute of Technology CRAIG PARTRIDGE, Raytheon BBN Technologies DANIELA RUS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology FRED B. SCHNEIDER, NAE, Cornell University JOHN STANKOVIC, University of Virginia MOSHE VARDI, NAS/NAE, Rice University KATHERINE YELICK, NAE, University of California, Berkeley Staff JON EISENBERG, Board Director SHENAE BRADLEY, Administrative Assistant JANEL DEAR, Senior Program Assistant (through May 2017) EMILY GRUMBLING, Program Officer RENEE HAWKINS, Financial and Administrative Manager LYNETTE I. MILLETT, Associate Director KATIRIA ORTIZ, Research Associate VIRGINIA BACON TALATI, Program Officer PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

BOARD ON MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES AND ANALYTICS STEPHEN M. ROBINSON, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Chair JOHN R. BIRGE, NAE, University of Chicago W. PETER CHERRY, Independent Consultant DAVID CHU, Institute for Defense Analyses RONALD R. COIFMAN, NAS, Yale University JAMES CURRY, University of Colorado Boulder CHRISTINE FOX, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory MARK L. GREEN, University of California, Los Angeles PATRICIA A. JACOBS, Naval Postgraduate School JOSEPH A. LANGSAM, Morgan Stanley (retired) SIMON A. LEVIN, NAS, Princeton University ANDREW W. LO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID MAIER, Portland State University LOIS CURFMAN MCINNES, Argonne National Laboratory JUAN C. MEZA, University of California, Merced FRED S. ROBERTS, Rutgers University ELIZABETH A. THOMPSON, NAS, University of Washington CLAIRE TOMLIN, University of California, Berkeley LANCE WALLER, Emory University KAREN WILLCOX, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID YAO, NAE, Columbia University Staff MICHELLE K. SCHWALBE, Board Director LINDA CASOLA, Associate Program Officer and Editor BETH DOLAN, Financial Manager RODNEY N. HOWARD, Administrative Assistant BEN WENDER, Program Officer PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

COMMITTEE ON APPLIED AND THEORETICAL STATISTICS ALFRED O. HERO III, University of Michigan, Chair ALICIA CARRIQUIRY, Iowa State University MICHAEL J. DANIELS, University of Texas, Austin KATHERINE BENNETT ENSOR, Rice University AMY HERRING, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill NICHOLAS HORTON, Amherst College DAVID MADIGAN, Columbia University JOSÉ M.F. MOURA, NAE, Carnegie Mellon University NANCY REID, University of Toronto CYNTHIA RUDIN, Duke University AARTI SINGH, Carnegie Mellon University Staff BEN WENDER, Director LINDA CASOLA, Associate Program Officer and Editor BETH DOLAN, Financial Manager RODNEY N. HOWARD, Administrative Assistant PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION viii

BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION ADAM GAMORAN, William T. Grant Foundation, Chair SUNITA V. COOKE, MiraCosta College MELANIE COOPER, Michigan State University RODOLFO DIRZO, NAS, Stanford University RUSH D. HOLT, American Association for the Advancement of Science MATTHEW KREHBIEL, Achieve, Inc. MICHAEL LACH, University of Chicago LYNN LIBEN, The Pennsylvania State University CATHRYN (CATHY) MANDUCA, Carleton College JOHN MATHER, NAS, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center TONYA M. MATTHEWS, Michigan Science Center BRIAN REISER¸ Northwestern University MARSHALL “MIKE” SMITH, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching ROBERTA TANNER, Thompson School District (retired) SUZANNE WILSON, Michigan State University Staff HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Board Director KERRY BRENNER, Senior Program Officer KENNE DIBNER, Program Officer COREETHA ENTZMINGER, Program Assistant LETICIA GARCILAZO GREEN, Senior Program Assistant MARGARET HILTON, Senior Program Officer MARGARET KELLY, Senior Program Assistant MATTHEW LAMMERS, Program Coordinator AMY STEPHENS, Program Officer PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Richard De Veaux, Williams College, W. Eric L. Grimson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, C.K. Gunsalus, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Iain M. Johnstone, NAS,1 Stanford University, Brian Kotz, Montgomery College, Peter Norvig, Google, Inc., and Renata Rawlings-Goss, Georgia Institute of Technology. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Raghu Ramakrishnan, Microsoft Corporation. He responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. The committee would like to thank Andy Burnett, Knowinnovation, for facilitating the committee’s May workshop as well as the following staff members from the National Science Foundation for their input, assistance, and support of this study: Stephanie August, Chaitan Baru, Eva Campo, Erwin Gianchandani, Nandini Kannan, Sara Kiesler, Gabriel Perez-Giz, Earnestine Psalmonds-Easter, and Elena Zheleva. The committee would also like to thank the following individuals for providing input to this study: John Abowd, U.S. Census Bureau, Deb Agarwal, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Jon Ahlquist, Florida State University, Barbara Alvin, Eastern Washington University, Barbara Anthony, Southwestern University, David Austin, North Carolina State University, Maria Aysa-Lastra, Winthrop University, Tom Barr, American Mathematical Society, Laura Bartley, University of Oklahoma, Nina Bijedic, University “Džemal Bijedić”of Mostar, 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

Sally Blake, Flagler College, Roselie Bright, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Quincy Brown, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Andy Burnett, Knowinnovation, Dave Campbell, Simon Fraser University, Robert Campbell, Brown University, Robert Carver, Stonehill College, Amy Chang, American Society for Microbiology, Lei Cheng, Olivet Nazarene University, Hongmei Chi, Florida A&M University, Alok Choudhary, Northwestern University, William Coberly, University of Tulsa, Peyton Cook, University of Tulsa, Bill Corey, University of Virginia, Catherine Cramer, New York Hall of Science, James Curry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Nicole Dalzell, Duke University, Juliana DeCastro, Núcleo de Planejamento Estratégico de Transporte e Turismo, Sam Donovan, University of Pittsburgh, Renee Dopplick, Association for Computing Machinery, Maureen Doyle, Northern Kentucky University, Ruth Duerr, Ronin Institute, Arturo Duran, IVA Ventures, Stephen Edwards, ACM Administrative Centre, Sandra Ellis, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, Paula Faulkner, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Raya Feldman, University of California, Santa Barbara, Dilberto Ferraren, Visayas State University, William Finzer, Concord Consortium, Julia Fisher, Coker College, Roger French, Case Western Reserve University, Kimberly Gardner, Kennesaw State University, Sommer Gentry, U. S. Naval Academy, Tara Ghazi, University of California, Berkeley, Richard Gill, Brigham Young University, Shana Gillette, U.S. Agency for International Development, Juan Godoy, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Greg Goins, North Carolina A&T State University, Robert Gould, University of California, Los Angeles, C. K. Gunsalus, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Mirsad Hadzikadic, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, Jim Hammerman, TERC, Michael Harris, Bunker Hill Community College, John Hathaway, Brigham Young University-Idaho, Kristin Hunter-Thomson, Rutgers University, Ambra Hyskaj, National Association of Public Health Albania, Charles Isbell, Georgia Institute of Technology, Mark Jack, Florida A&M University, Bob Jecklin, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse, Xia Jing, Ohio University, PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xii

Jeremiah Johnson, University of New Hampshire, John Johnstone, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Ryan Jones, Middle Tennessee State University, Sungkyu Jung, University of Pittsburgh, Michael Kangas, Doane University, Roxanne Kapikian, GlaxoSmithKline, Danny Kaplan, Macalester College, Casey Kennington, Boise State University, Deepak Khatry, MedImmune, Brian Kotz, Montgomery College, Vldimir Krylov, Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University, Kristin Kuter, Saint Mary’s College, Notre Dame, Indiana, Jay Labov, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Paula Lackie, Carleton College, Sharon Lane-Getaz, St. Olaf College, Duncan Temple Lang, University of California, Davis, Jeff Leek, Johns Hopkins University, Matthew Liberatore, University of Toledo, Haralambos Marmanis, Marmanis Group, Pat Marsteller, Emory University, Abhinav Maurya, Carnegie Mellon University, Victoria McGovern, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Daniel Angel Ferreira Mena, DAF-Engineering, Chris Mentzel, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Antoni Miklewski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Ashlea Milburn, University of Arkansas, Alex Montilla, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Sheri Morgan, Mental Health Association of Franklin and Fulton Counties, Richard Morris, MGI-RamCo, Mary Kehoe Moynihan, Cape Cod Community College, Bhramar Mukherjee, University of Michigan, Sherman Mumford, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, Ivo Neitzel, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia de Birigui, Richard Nelesen, University of California, San Diego, Joseph Nelson, George Washington University, Claudia Neuhauser, University of Minnesota, Deborah Nolan, University of California, Berkeley, Kofi Nyamekye, Integrated Activity-Based Simulation Research, Inc., Monika Oli, University of Florida, Fred Oswald, Rice University, Dennis Pearl, Pennsylvania State University, Joan Peckham, University of Rhode Island, Vikas Pejaver, University of Washington, Gabriel Perez-Giz, National Science Foundation, Patrick Perry, New York University, Steve Pierson, American Statistical Association, Hridesh Rajan, Iowa State University, Louise Raphael, Howard University, Renata Rawlings-Goss, Georgia Institute of Technology, Peggy Rejto, Normandale Community College, Loren Rhodes, Juniata College, PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xiii

Patrick Riley, Google, Inc., Martina Rosenberg, University of New Mexico, Kim Roth, Juniata College, Bill Roweton, Chadron State College, Andee Rubin, TERC, Maya Sapiurka, Society for Neuroscience, Karl Schmitt, Valparaiso University, Kala Seal, Loyola Marymount University, Arun Sharma, Wagner College, Lauren Showalter, National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, Christine Smith, University of New Mexico, S. Srinivasan, Texas Southern University, Anil Srivastava, Open Health Systems Laboratory, Natalya St. Clair, Concord Consortium, Victoria Stodden, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Martin Storksdieck, Oregon State University, George Strawn, National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, Ralph Stuart, Keene State College, Kalum Udagepola, Scientific Research Development Institute of Technology Australia, Mel van Drunen, HAS University of Applied Sciences, William Yslas Velez, University of Arizona, Ron Wasserstein, American Statistical Association, Cheryl Welsch, State University of New York, Sullivan, Mary Whelan, Arizona State University, Nekesha Williams, Louisiana State University, Emerald Wilson, Prince George's Community College, Brian Wingenroth, National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, University of Maryland, William Winter, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Mary Wright, Brown University, and Paul Zachos, Association for the Cooperative Advancement of Science and Education. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xiv

Contents SUMMARY S-1 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 Envisioning Data Science from an Undergraduate Perspective, 1-1 Study Origin and Approach, 1-3 Committee Activities to Date, 1-4 2 ACQUIRING DATA SCIENCE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE 2-1 Foundational Skills, 2-1 Translational Skills, 2-6 Ethical Skills, 2-7 Professional Skills, 2-8 3 DATA SCIENCE EDUCATION IN THE FUTURE 3-1 Innovative Curriculum Development, 3-1 Suggestions for Institutions, 3-5 4 BROAD PARTICIPATION IN DATA SCIENCE 4-1 Recruitment and Retention Strategies, 4-3 Institutional Partnerships, 4-4 K–12 Objectives, 4-4 Public Outreach, 4-4 Evaluation and Assessment, 4-5 5 REFLECTIONS 5-1 Hippocratic Oath, 5-1 Summary of Preliminary Committee Findings and Open Questions, 5-1 Input Needed, 5-5 REFERENCES R-1 APPENDIXES A Biographies of the Committee A-1 B Meetings and Presentations B-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xv

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The need to manage, analyze, and extract knowledge from data is pervasive across industry, government, and academia. Scientists, engineers, and executives routinely encounter enormous volumes of data, and new techniques and tools are emerging to create knowledge out of these data, some of them capable of working with real-time streams of data. The nation’s ability to make use of these data depends on the availability of an educated workforce with necessary expertise. With these new capabilities have come novel ethical challenges regarding the effectiveness and appropriateness of broad applications of data analyses.

The field of data science has emerged to address the proliferation of data and the need to manage and understand it. Data science is a hybrid of multiple disciplines and skill sets, draws on diverse fields (including computer science, statistics, and mathematics), encompasses topics in ethics and privacy, and depends on specifics of the domains to which it is applied. Fueled by the explosion of data, jobs that involve data science have proliferated and an array of data science programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels have been established. Nevertheless, data science is still in its infancy, which suggests the importance of envisioning what the field might look like in the future and what key steps can be taken now to move data science education in that direction.

This study will set forth a vision for the emerging discipline of data science at the undergraduate level. This interim report lays out some of the information and comments that the committee has gathered and heard during the first half of its study, offers perspectives on the current state of data science education, and poses some questions that may shape the way data science education evolves in the future. The study will conclude in early 2018 with a final report that lays out a vision for future data science education.

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