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CONTENTS I. Introduction, 3 II. Advance Mitigation for Wetland and Habitat ImpactsâLegal Framework, 4 A. Compensatory Wetland Mitigation Banking and ILF Compensatory Mitigation, 4 B. Habitat Conservation Plans and Mitigation Activities under the Endangered Species Act, 9 III. Operational Issues for Conservation Planning/Banking, 22 A. Conservation Planning at Landscape Scale, 22 IV. Experience of State Transportation Agencies in Conservation Planning/Banking, 26 A. Federal Legislation Addressing Mitigation by State Transportation Agencies, 26 B. Wetland Mitigation Banks and Umbrella Banks Established by State Transportation Agencies, 30 C. ILFs Established by State Transportation Agencies, 30 D. HCPs/Conservation Banks Established by State Transportation Agencies, 30 E. State Laws Authorizing Transportation Agency Involvement in Conservation Planning, 31 IV. Conclusions, 31 Bibliography, 32 Acronyms, 34