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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing Professional Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24911.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Ex xplorin a Business Cas for High- ng B se -Value e Contin C nuing Profe essiona Dev al velopmment PROC CEEDINGS OF A W S WORKSHO OP Patricia A. Cuf and Erin Hammers Forstag, R ff s Rapporteur rs Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professio Educa n h onal ation Board on Global H n Health Health and Medicine D H Division PREPUBLIC P CATION CO OPY: UNCOR RRECTED P PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and Academic Collaborative for Integrative Health; Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education; Aetna Foundation; American Academy of Nursing; American Association of Colleges of Nursing; American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine; American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy; American Board of Family Medicine; American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology/American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; American College of Nurse-Midwives; American Council of Academic Physical Therapy; American Dental Education Association; American Medical Association; American Nurses Credentialing Center; American Occupational Therapy Association; American Osteopathic Association; American Physical Therapy Association; American Psychological Association; American Society for Nutrition; American Speech- Language-Hearing Association; Association of American Medical Colleges; Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges; Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry; Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health; Association of Schools of the Allied Health Professions; Athletic Training Strategic Alliance; Council on Social Work Education; Ghent University; Health Resources and Services Administration; Jonas Center for Nursing and Veterans Healthcare; Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation; Michigan Center for Interprofessional Education; National Academies of Practice; National Association of Social Workers; National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates; National Board of Medical Examiners; National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc.; National League for Nursing; Office of Academic Affiliations—Veterans Health Administration; Organization for Associate Degree Nursing; Physician Assistant Education Association; Society for Simulation in Healthcare; Training for Health Equity Network–THEnet; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; and University of Toronto. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/24911 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2017 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Exploring a business case for high-value continuing professional development: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24911. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process, and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON EXPLORING A BUSINESS CASE FOR HIGH-VALUE CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT1 RONALD M. CERVERO (Co-Chair), Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences HOLLY H. WISE (Co-Chair), Medical University of South Carolina DARLENE CURLEY, Jonas Center for Nursing and Veterans Healthcare MARILYN DELUCA, New York University STUART GILMAN, Veterans Health Administration ELENA KARAHANNA, University of Georgia SIMON KITTO, University of Ottawa PAUL E. MAZMANIAN, Virginia Commonwealth University SILVIA E. RABIONET, NOVA Southeastern University JULIA ROYALL, National Library of Medicine KIERAN WALSH, The BMJ Consultants THAD CALABRESE, New York University LUCY A. SAVITZ, Intermountain Healthcare ANDREW SPIEGEL, Global Colon Cancer Association 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS v

GLOBAL FORUM ON INNOVATION IN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION1 MALCOLM COX (Co-Chair), University of Pennsylvania, formerly U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs SUSAN SCRIMSHAW (Co-Chair), The Sage Colleges ROBERT (BOB) ADDLETON, Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions FRANK ASCIONE, University of Michigan TIMI AGAR BARWICK, Physician Assistant Education Association DAVID BENTON, National Council of State Boards of Nursing JOANNA CAIN, University of Massachusetts School of Medicine STEVEN CHESBRO, American Physical Therapy Association AMY APARICIO CLARK, Aetna Foundation THOMAS WARREN CLAWSON, National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates DARLA SPENCE COFFEY, Council on Social Work Education DARLENE CURLEY, Jonas Center for Nursing and Veterans Healthcare JAN DE MAESENEER, Ghent University MARIETJIE DE VILLIERS, Stellenbosch University KATHRIN (KATIE) ELIOT, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics ELIZABETH (LIZA) GOLDBLATT, Academic Collaborative for Integrative Health CATHERINE GRUS, American Psychological Association NEIL HARVISON, American Occupational Therapy Association ERIC HOLMBOE, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education ELIZABETH HOPPE, Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry EMILIA IWU, Jonas Center for Nursing and Veterans Healthcare PAMELA JEFFRIES, George Washington University SANDEEP (SUNNY) KISHORE, Young Professionals Chronic Disease Network KATHLEEN KLINK, Veterans Health Administration ANDREW MACCABE, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges LAURA MAGAÑA VALLADARES, National Institute of Public Health LUCINDA MAINE, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy BEVERLY MALONE, National League for Nursing MARY E. (BETH) MANCINI, Society for Simulation in Healthcare ANGELO MCCLAIN, National Association of Social Workers LEMMIETTA G. MCNEILLY, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association MARK MERRICK, Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education DONNA MEYER, Organization of Associate Degree Nursing JOEL NELSON, Health Resources and Services Administration WARREN NEWTON, American Board of Family Medicine BJORG PALSDOTTIR, Training for Health Equity Network (THEnet) MIGUEL PANIAGUA, National Board of Medical Examiners RAJATA RAJATANAVIN, Mahidol University SCOTT REEVES, Kingston University & St. George’s, University of London EDWARD SALTZMAN, American Society for Nutrition NELSON SEWANKAMBO, Makerere University College of Health Sciences STEPHEN SHANNON, American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine SUSAN SKOCHELAK, American Medical Association RICHARD (RICK) TALBOTT, Association of Schools of the Allied Health Professions 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS vii

ZOHRAY TALIB, George Washington University MARIA TASSONE, University of Toronto GEORGE THIBAULT, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation DEBORAH TRAUTMAN, American Association of Colleges of Nursing MICHELLE TROSETH, National Academies of Practice RICHARD (RICK) W. VALACHOVIC, American Dental Education Association PATRICIA HINTON WALKER, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences ALISON J. WHELAN, Association of American Medical Colleges ADRIENNE WHITE-FAINES, American Osteopathic Association HOLLY WISE, American Council of Academic Physical Therapy XUEJUN ZENG, Peking Union Medical College BRENDA ZIERLER, University of Washington Health and Medicine Division Staff PATRICIA A. CUFF, Senior Program Officer MEGAN M. PEREZ, Research Associate (until May 2017) AMBAR SAEED, Research Associate ANNA FAHLSTROM, Senior Program Assistant (from August 2017) FAYE HILLMAN, Financial Officer (until August 2017) PATRICK BURKE, Financial Officer (from August 2017) JULIE PAVLIN, Board Director, Board on Global Health PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS viii

REVIEWERS This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: LAURIE KENDALL-ELLIS, Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions DON MOORE, Vanderbilt University LUCY A. SAVITZ, Kaiser Permanente KIERAN WALSH, The BMJ Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by LAWRENCE J. APPEL, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS ix

CONTENTS ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xiii 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 2 OUTCOMES-BASED, HIGH-VALUE CPD FROM A BUSINESS 2-1 PERSPECTIVE 3 PUTTING THE VALUE IN HIGH-VALUE CPD 3-1 4 REAL-WORLD BUSINESS CASES FOR HIGH-VALUE CPD 4-1 5 THE ROLE OF ACCREDITING AND CREDENTIALING BODIES 5-1 6 EXPLORING A BUSINESS CASE FOR INVESTING ENTITIES: 6-1 REFLECTIONS AND NEXT STEPS 7 REFLECTIONS ON A WORKSHOP 7-1 APPENDIXES A WORKSHOP AGENDA A-1 B BACKGROUND PAPER FOR A WORKSHOP ON EXPLORING B-1 A BUSINESS CASE FOR HIGH-VALUE CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT C ABSTRACTS C-1 D SPEAKER BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES D-1 E FORUM-SPONSORED PRODUCTS E-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xi

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACCME Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ANCC American Nurses Credentialing Center AOTA American Occupational Therapy Association ART antiretroviral treatment CAPABLE Community Aging in Place — Advancing Better Living for Elders CDS clinical decision support CE continuing education CEO chief executive officer CME continuing medical education CPD continuing professional development EHR electronic health record ER emergency room FIP International Pharmaceutical Federation HIV human immunodeficiency virus HMO health maintenance organization HVHC High Value Healthcare Collaborative ICU intensive care unit IOM Institute of Medicine IPE interprofessional education MOH Ministry of Health MRICU medical respiratory intensive care unit MUSC Medical University of South Carolina NGO nongovernmental organization NIMART nurse-initiated antiretroviral treatment model OB obstetrics OT occupational therapy PDSA Plan, Do, Study, Act PI performance improvement QSP Quality Scholars Program RASS Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale ROI return on investment TPA Turkish Pharmacists Association UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS USUHS Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xiii

VCU Virginia Commonwealth University PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xiv

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Continuing education, continuing professional development, and high-value continuing professional development exist along a continuum. Continuing education (CE) often is associated with didactic learning methods, such as lectures and seminars, which take place in auditoriums and classrooms, and is often viewed by health professionals as merely a path to maintaining licensure and certification through the accumulation of credits. Continuing professional development (CPD), in contrast, embraces a wider array of learning formats and methods that are driven by learners.

The Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education hosted a workshop in April 2017 to explore the value proposition for CPD. Forum members and workshop participants gathered to learn about innovative CPD programs around the world, to consider the perspectives of those who invest in CPD, and to discuss the business case for CPD. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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