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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24923.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Committee for a Study of Domestic Transportation of Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Ethanol Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD SPECIAL REPORT 325

Transportation Research Board Special Report 325 Subscriber Categories Freight transportation; safety and human factors; policy; energy Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www. TRB.org or nationalacademies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organi- zational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transporta- tion Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America This report was reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine. This study was sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Admin- istration of the U.S. Department of Transportation and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Transportation Research Board and the Gulf Research Program. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-46690-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-46690-3 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/24923 Library of Congress Control Number: 2017964430

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institu- tion to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary con- tributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engi neering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activi- ties annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engi neering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

vCOMMITTEE FOR A STUDY OF DOMESTIC TRANSPORTATION OF PETROLEUM, NATURAL GAS, AND ETHANOL VADM Paul G. Gaffney II (NAE), Monmouth University, New Jersey, Chair Monica M. H. Blaney, Transport Canada, Ottawa Guy F. Caruso, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C. Edward R. Chapman, Crystal Lake, Illinois Robert J. Chipkevich, Chipkevich Safety Consulting Group, Brentwood, Tennessee Joseph W. Martinelli, PiPRO, Shorewood, Wisconsin Ali Mosleh (NAE), University of California, Los Angeles Tonya Ngotel, Center for Preparedness Education, Omaha, Nebraska Gregory G. Noll, South Central Task Force, Lancaster, Pennsylvania Craig E. Philip (NAE), Vanderbilt Center for Transportation Research, Nashville, Tennessee Ian P. Savage, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois Katherine F. Turnbull, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station Project Staff Micah D. Himmel, Study Director, TRB Thomas R. Menzies, Jr., Acting Director of Studies and Special Programs, TRB K. John Holmes, Acting Director/Scholar, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Amelia Mathis, Senior Program Assistant, TRB

vii Preface This study was initiated and sponsored by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) Executive Committee in response to the rapid development of domestic sources of energy and questions about the safest ways to move these products. The study charge and origins are explained in Chapter 1. The contents and findings of the report represent the consensus effort of a committee of subject matter experts, who served uncompensated in the public interest. Spanning multiple disciplines, the members applied exper- tise from transportation systems analysis; energy market analysis; state and local emergency management; transportation safety oversight; risk analysis; and pipeline, rail, and maritime safety and operations. Committee member biographical information is provided at the end of the report. The study committee met five times over 11 months, including a sub- committee meeting in Texas to visit pipeline, railroad, and waterways facilities. The committee engaged in extensive data gathering during and between meetings. The first two meetings and the Texas site visits included sessions open to the public. At these meetings, the committee heard from government and industry experts on the long-distance transportation of energy liquids (crude oil, ethanol, and natural gas liquids) and natural gas, energy markets, hazardous materials safety research, and emergency response. The appendix includes the agendas of the meetings and the site visits.

viii PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The committee thanks the many individuals who contributed to its work. During data-gathering sessions open to the public, the committee met with the following federal government officials: Karl Alexy, Director of Safety Analysis, Federal Railroad Administration (FRA); Ron Duych, Senior Transportation Specialist, Bureau of Transportation Statistics; Lad Falat, Director of Engineering and Research, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); CAPT Benjamin Hawkins, Chief, Office of Design and Engineering Standards, U.S. Coast Guard (USCG); Arup Malik, Operations Research Analyst, U.S. Energy Information Admin- istration (EIA); Karen McClure, Industry Economist, FRA; Paul Stancil, Hazardous Materials Investigator, National Transportation Safety Board; and Jeffrey Wiese, Associate Administrator (retired), PHMSA. The contri- butions of all were appreciated, especially those of McClure, who provided rail traffic data to the committee. The committee met with and received information from the follow- ing representatives of the long-distance carriers and energy sector experts: Terry Boss, Interstate Natural Gas Association of America; E. Russell Braziel, RBN Energy; Peter Lidiak, International Liquid Terminals Associa- tion; Robert Fronczak, Association of American Railroads; Robin Rorick, American Petroleum Institute (API); Kelly Davis, Renewable Fuels Asso- ciation; and Caitlyn Stewart, American Waterways Operators. Additional industry perspectives came from subcommittee meetings with long-distance operators in Texas: Nancy Barton, Gary Buchler, James Holland, Mark Jensen, Ray Miller, and Elizabeth Oakley of Kinder Morgan; James Farley, Jim Guidry, Christian O’Neil, and Matt Woodruff of Kirby Corporation; Stephen Polk of the Seamen’s Church Institute Center for Maritime Edu- cation; and Pat Brady, Sean Hill, Ryan Miller, Frank Moffitt, and Ryan Ringelman of BNSF Railway. The committee expresses its gratitude for their insight into the transportation of energy liquids and natural gas. The committee also met with the following individuals with technical expertise in flammable liquid and gas properties, packaging, and emergency response: Christopher Barkan, Rail Transportation and Engineering Center, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Rick Edinger, International Association of Fire Chiefs; Anay Luketa, Fire Science and Technology Depart ment, Sandia National Laboratories; Debbie French McCay, Applied Science Associates; Frank Reiner, TRANSCAER; Todd Treichel, RSI-AAR Railroad Tank Car Safety Research and Test Project; and David Willauer, Cambridge Systematics. The committee benefited from their assistance in identifying safety assurance challenges posed by energy liquids and natural gas shipments.

PREFACE ix Finally, the committee thanks the following individuals who provided briefings or were otherwise helpful in identifying issues and providing data and other information: W. R. “Bill” Byrd and Jenn Lee Randolph, RCP, Inc.; Mindi Farber-DeAnda and Warren Wilczewski, EIA; Suzanne M. Lemieux and Stuart E. Saulters, API; Donna Lepik, TRANSCAER; CAPT Joe Loring, CDR Mike Simbulan, and Kristin A. Williams, USCG; Phani Raj, FRA; Kenneth Ned Mitchell, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Serita McKoy, PHMSA; Paul Williams, Norfolk Southern Railway; and Joseph C. Athey, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The committee appreciates the expertise shared by Randolph and Byrd to inform its review of pipeline incident data and the access granted by Williams for project staff to attend the Operation Awareness and Response training session on hazardous materials by railroad. Micah D. Himmel and Thomas R. Menzies were the principal project staff. Himmel managed the study and drafted much of the report under the guidance of the committee and with assistance and supervision from Menzies. Additional technical assistance and oversight were provided by James Zucchetto and K. John Holmes, the Board on Energy and Environ- mental Systems. The committee also acknowledges the work and support of Karen Febey, Senior Report Review Officer, who managed the report review process. Amelia Mathis provided extensive support to the com- mittee in arranging its meetings and managing documents. The committee acknowledges Rachel D’Agostino, who edited the report. This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this indepen- dent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Kevin Book, ClearView Energy Partners, LLC, Washington, D.C.; Julie Carey, NERA Economic Consulting, Washington, D.C.; Stacey Gerard, PHMSA (retired), Berryville, Virginia; Barbara Ivanov, University of Washington, Seattle; Michael Kavanaugh, Geosyntec Consultants, Oakland, California; Jan Schilling, Advanced Products General Electric Aviation (retired), Liberty Township, Ohio; George Tenley, Consultant, Hedgesville, West Virginia; Frits Wybenga, Dangerous Goods Transport Consulting, Inc., Rockville, Maryland; and Mary Lou Zoback, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

x PREFACE Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by the review coordina- tor, John F. Ahearne (National Academy of Engineering), Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (retired), and Susan Hanson (National Acad- emy of Sciences), Clark University (emerita). They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was car- ried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

xi Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 8 Study Origins, Scope, and Charge 10 Organization of the Report 13 2 The Domestic Energy Revolution 14 Historical Perspective 15 Developments in Crude Oil Markets 20 Developments in Ethanol Markets 25 Developments in Natural Gas Markets 29 3 The Role of Freight Transportation in the Domestic Energy Revolution 34 Pipeline Transportation 35 Rail Transportation 47 Water Transportation 58 4 Safety Performance of Long-Distance Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Ethanol Transportation 68 Pipeline Safety Trends 70 Rail Safety Trends 82 Waterways Safety Trends 92 Comparison of Modal Incident Data 96

xii CONTENTS Other Safety-Related Effects 96 Major Rail Safety Initiatives in Response to Incidents 100 Measures to Aid Emergency Preparedness and Response 106 5 Summary Observations and Recommendations 111 Observations 113 Recommendations 117 Concluding Comments 120 Appendix: Agendas 121 Study Committee Biographical Information 125

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TRB's Special Report 325: Safely Transporting Hazardous Liquids and Gases in a Changing U.S. Energy Landscape reviews how the pipeline, rail, and barge industries have fared in safely transporting the increased volumes of domestically produced energy liquids and gases. The report, sponsored by TRB, reviews the safety record of the three transportation modes in moving these hazardous shipments and discusses key aspects of each mode’s safety assurance system.

The report urges the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration to further the development of increasingly robust safety assurance systems that will ensure more timely and effective responses to future safety challenges. The recommendations include advice on traffic and safety data reporting, industry and local community consultation, and the creation of risk metrics. The Federal Railroad Administration is urged to enable and incentivize more frequent and comprehensive inspections of rail routes that are used regularly by trains transporting large volumes of flammable liquids.

Accompanying the report is a two-page document highlighting the report's findings and recommendations. This report is currently in prepublication format and available online only.

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