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Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities (2018)

Chapter: Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
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Appendix B

Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

David Weisburd (Chair) is a professor of criminology, law, and society and executive director of the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy at George Mason University, the Walter E. Meyer professor of law and criminal justice at the Hebrew University Faculty of Law, Jerusalem, and senior science advisor at the Police Foundation, Washington, DC. He is an elected fellow of the American Society of Criminology and the Academy of Experimental Criminology and a member of the Office of Justice Programs Science Advisory Board, the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group, and the Scientific Commission of the International Society of Criminology. He is also a National Associate of the National Research Council. Dr. Weisburd is author or editor of more than 25 books and more than 175 scientific articles covering a wide range of criminal justice research topics, including crime at place, white collar crime, policing, and criminal justice statistics and social deviance. He received the 2010 Stockholm Prize in Criminology; the Sutherland (2014) and Vollmer (2017) Awards from the American Society of Criminology; and the Campbell Collaboration’s Boruch Award for Distinctive Research Contributions to Policy (2014). In 2015, he received the Israel Prize. His Ph.D. is in sociology from Yale University.

Hassan Aden has more than 28 years of law enforcement service and is founder of the Aden Group. He previously was director of research and programs at the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). Prior to that, he was chief of police with the Greenville (NC) Police Department and served 26 years in the Alexandria (VA) Police Department, rising to deputy chief of police. His expertise covers the administrative, investiga-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×

tive, and operational aspects of policing, and he has successfully dealt with issues of crime control policies and strategic planning. While chief of police in Greenville, he and his staff were deeply committed to community partnerships aimed at reducing crime and improving the city’s quality of life. Due to his commitment to the continued professionalization of policing, he serves as commissioner for the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies. He is an active member of the Police Executive Research Forum and a senior executive fellow with the Police Foundation, Washington, D.C. He is a graduate of, and earned an MPA certificate from American University’s Institute for the Study of Public Policy Implementation. He also holds an M.P.A. degree from American University’s School of Public Affairs.

Anthony A. Braga is a distinguished professor and the director of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Northeastern University. In his research, Professor Braga collaborates with criminal justice, social service, and community-based organizations to address illegal access to firearms, reduce gang and group-involved violence, and control crime hot spots. His work with the Boston Police Department on its Safe Street Teams Program received the 2011 Excellence in Law Enforcement Research Award from the International Association of Chiefs of Police. He also received the U.S. Attorney General’s Award for Outstanding Contributions to Community Partnerships for Public Safety in 2009 and the U.S. Department of Justice Project Safe Neighborhoods’ Distinguished Service by a Research Partner Award in 2010. Dr. Braga is an elected fellow of the American Society of Criminology. He is also a past president and fellow of the Academy of Experimental Criminology and the 2014 recipient of its Joan McCord Award recognizing his commitment to advancing randomized controlled experiments. He received his M.P.A. from Harvard University and his Ph.D. in criminal justice from Rutgers University.

Jim Bueermann is president of the Police Foundation, a national, nonpartisan, nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting innovation and improvement in policing. Mr. Bueermann worked for the Redlands, California, Police Department for 33 years, serving in every unit within the department. He was appointed chief of police and director of Housing, Recreation and Senior Services in 1998. He retired in June 2011. As chief, he developed a holistic approach to community policing and problem solving that consolidated housing and recreation services into the police department and was based on risk and protective factor research into adolescent problem prevention. This strategy was recognized as one of the country’s 25 most innovative programs in the 2000 Innovations in American Government program sponsored by Harvard’s Kennedy School. He was the first police

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×

chief to be inducted as an honorary fellow in the Academy of Experimental Criminology and into the halls of fame at George Mason University’s Center for Evidence Based Crime Policy and the School of Behavioral Science at California State University, San Bernardino. He is on policing advisory boards at Cambridge University, George Mason University, John Jay College, and the Council for State Governments and works in evidence-based policing, innovative technologies, and prisoner reentry. He was an executive fellow with the National Institute of Justice and a senior fellow at George Mason University. He is a graduate of California State University, San Bernardino; the University of Redlands; the FBI National Academy; and the California Command College.

Philip J. Cook is Sanford professor emeritus of public policy and professor of economics and sociology at Duke University. He has conducted research on various aspects of public health policy, social policy, and crime and criminal justice, with a sustained focus on gun violence and gun policy. His methodological contributions include the development and first use of the “diff-in-diff” panel regression method of policy evaluation (with George Tauchen, 1982) and the development of the conceptual foundations for valuing lives and other irreplaceable entities (with Daniel Graham, 1976). He serves as co-organizer of the Workshop on the Economics of Crime of the National Bureau of Economic Research. His current work focuses on underground gun markets, economics of crime prevention, truancy prevention, determinants of academic achievement, and alcohol control policy. His 1996 book with Robert H. Frank, The Winner-Take-All Society, was named a New York Times Notable Book of the Year and is available in six languages. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine and an honorary fellow of the American Society of Criminology and the Academy of Experimental Criminology. His Ph.D. is in economics from the University of California, Berkeley.

Phillip Atiba Goff is the Franklin A. Thomas professor in policing equity at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He is cofounder and president of the Center for Policing Equity (CPE) and an expert in contemporary forms of racial bias and discrimination, as well as the intersections of race and gender. His work has explored ways in which racial prejudice is not a necessary precondition for racial discrimination, demonstrating that contextual factors can facilitate racially unequal outcomes. He recently became one of three CPE principal investigators for the U.S. Department of Justice’s National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice. This initiative will contribute information to another major CPE project, the National Justice Database: the first national database on racial disparities in police stops and use of force. His model of evidence-based approaches to fairness

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×

has been supported with grants from federal agencies and multiple major foundations, as well as the Major Cities Chiefs Association and the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. He was a witness for the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing and has presented before members of Congress and congressional panels, Senate press briefings, and White House advisory councils.

Rachel A. Harmon is the F.D.G. Ribble professor of law at the University of Virginia. Her research focuses on the legal regulation of law enforcement. She serves as associate reporter on the American Law Institute’s recently announced project on police investigations. From 1998 to 2006, she was a prosecutor in the U.S. Department of Justice; after working in the U.S. Attorney’s Office in the Eastern District of Virginia, she worked in the Civil Rights Division, Criminal Section, prosecuting hate crimes and official misconduct cases, many of which involved excessive force or sexual abuse by police officers. Prior to that, she clerked for Judge Guido Calabresi of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and Justice Stephen Breyer of the U.S. Supreme Court. She has an M.Sc. in political theory and an M.Sc. in political sociology, both with distinction, from the London School of Economics and a J.D. from Yale Law School.

Amelia Haviland is as an associate professor with the Heinz College. Previously she was a senior statistician at the RAND Corporation. Her awards include the Anna Loomis McCandless Chair, a Thomas Lord Distinguished Scholar Award (Institute for Civil Justice, RAND), a MacArthur Fellowship for Younger Scholars (MacArthur Research Network on Social Interactions and Economic Inequality), and a Wray Jackson Smith Scholarship (Section on Government Statistics, American Statistical Association). Her research focuses on causal analysis with observational data and analysis of longitudinal and complex survey data applied to policy issues in health and criminology. She recently led a research team assessing the effects of high deductible account–based health insurance plans on health care costs, use, and disparities. Other health policy work involves assessing mechanisms for health disparities for Medicare recipients and exploring connections between patient safety and recent reductions in medical malpractice claims. Her work in criminology includes methodological work extending group-based trajectory modeling to address causal questions related to the effect of gang membership on violent delinquency. Her work has been published in peer-reviewed journals of psychology, human resource management, criminology, public health and services, and health economics. She received a Ph.D. in statistics and public policy from Carnegie Mellon University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×

Cynthia Lum is professor in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society at George Mason University and director of its Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy. She researches primarily in the area of policing, evidence-based crime policy, and evaluation research. Her work has included evaluations of policing interventions and police technology, understanding the translation into practice and receptivity of research in policing, and assessing security efforts of federal agencies. With Dr. Christopher Koper, she has developed the Evidence-Based Policing Matrix and its associated demonstration projects, which are translation tools designed to help police practitioners incorporate research into their strategic and tactical portfolio. She is a member of the Standing Committee on Traffic Law Enforcement, Transportation Research Board (National Academies of Sciences), the Research Advisory Committee of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the International Advisory Committee of the Scottish Institute for Police Research, the Board of Trustees for the Pretrial Justice Institute, and a Fulbright specialist. She is the founding editor of Translational Criminology and the Springer Series on Translational Criminology. Dr. Lum holds a Ph.D. in criminology and criminal justice from the University of Maryland at College Park and was formerly a police officer and detective.

Charles F. Manski has been Board of Trustees professor in economics at Northwestern University since 1997. He previously was a faculty member at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Carnegie Mellon University. His research spans econometrics, judgment and decision, and the analysis of public policy. He is author of six monographs on methodological issues in statistical treatment of research questions in the social sciences and econometrics, as well as coauthor or coeditor on other books. He was coeditor of the Econometric Society Monograph Series, member of the editorial board of the Annual Review of Economics, and associate editor of the Annals of Applied Statistics, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Econometrica, the Journal of the American Statistical Association, and Transportation Science. He was director of the Institute for Research on Poverty (1988–1991) and chaired the Board of Overseers of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1994–1998). He is an elected fellow of the Econometric Society, American Economic Association, American Statistical Association, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the British Academy, as well as an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Stephen Mastrofski is University Professor in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society and director of the Center for Justice Leadership and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×

Management at George Mason University. His research interests include police discretion, police organizations and their reform, and systematic field-observation methods in criminology. For several years, he led a team of researchers supporting and evaluating the transformation of the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service. Current research projects include measuring the quality of street-level policing and assessing police organization development and change. He has served on editorial boards of seven criminology and criminal justice journals and currently serves on the boards of two international policing journals. He was a visiting fellow at the National Institute of Justice and the Office of Community Oriented Policing and has consulted for a variety of public and private organizations. In 2000, he received the O.W. Wilson Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences for education, research, and service on policing. In 2008, he and coauthors received the Law and Society Association’s article prize. He is an elected fellow of the American Society of Criminology and received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Division of Policing of the American Society of Criminology. His Ph.D. in political science is from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Tracey L. Meares is the Walton Hale Hamilton professor of law at Yale University. Previously, she was Max Pam professor of law and director of the Center for Studies in Criminal Justice at the University of Chicago Law School. At both law schools, she was the first African American woman to be granted tenure. Before entering academia, she clerked for the Honorable Harlington Wood, Jr., of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit and was an honors program trial attorney in the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. In 2010, she was named by the Attorney General to the Department of Justice’s newly created Science Advisory Board. In 2014, President Obama named her to the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Her teaching and research interests focus on criminal procedure and criminal law policy, with particular emphasis on empirical investigation of these subjects. She has written widely on these topics in both the academic and trade press and has engaged in action-oriented research projects in Chicago, Northern California, and several sites across New York State, focused on violence reduction through legitimacy-enhancing strategies. She codirects the Justice Collaboratory at Yale Law School, which with two other institutions has a central role in a new federal initiative to build trust and confidence in the criminal justice system. She has a B.S. in general engineering from the University of Illinois and a J.D. from the University of Chicago Law School.

Daniel S. Nagin is Teresa and H. John Heinz III university professor of public policy and statistics at the Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×

His research focuses on the evolution of criminal and antisocial behaviors over the life course, the deterrent effect of criminal and noncriminal penalties on illegal behaviors, and the development of statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data. He is an elected fellow of the American Society of Criminology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and American Academy of Political and Social Science and the recipient of the American Society of Criminology’s Edwin H. Sutherland Award in 2006, the Stockholm Prize in Criminology in 2014, Carnegie Mellon University’s Alumni Distinguished Achievement Award in 2016, and the National Academy of Sciences Award for Scientific Reviewing in 2017.

Emily Owens is an associate professor at the University of California, Irvine. Previously, she was at Cornell University in policy and management. She studies a wide range of topics in the economics of crime, including policing, sentencing, and the impact of local public policies on criminal behavior. She focuses primarily on the effect of government regulations on crime, which includes studying how government policies affect the prevalence of criminal activity, as well as the structure and response of the criminal justice system. Her current research includes projects on police training and performance, alcohol regulation, immigration policy, and economic development programs. She has a B.S. in applied math and economics from Brown University and an M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Maryland.

Steven Raphael is a professor of public policy at University of California, Berkeley. His research focuses on the economics of low-wage labor markets, housing, and the economics of crime and corrections. His most recent research focuses on the social consequences of the large increases in U.S. incarceration rates. He also works on immigration policy, research questions pertaining to various aspects of racial inequality, the economics of labor unions, social insurance policies, homelessness, and low-income housing. He is coauthor of Why Are so Many Americans in Prison? and The New Scarlet Letter? Negotiating the U.S. Labor Market with a Criminal Record. He is editor in chief of Industrial Relations and a research fellow at the University of Michigan National Poverty Center, the University of Chicago Crime Lab, IZA (Bonn, Germany), and the Public Policy Institute of California. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley.

Jerry Ratcliffe is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Temple University. He directs the university’s Center for Security and Crime Science and is a member of the Science Advisory Board for the Office of Justice Programs in the U.S. Department of Justice. Previously, he was a

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×

police officer with London’s Metropolitan Police for more than a decade. His research focuses on evidence-based policing, the analysis and reduction of crime and harm, and criminal intelligence. Across these areas, he has published more than 70 research articles and six books. Dr. Ratcliffe’s current projects include a SMART Policing Initiative collaboration with the Philadelphia Police Department and as coprincipal investigator on the Philadelphia Predictive Policing Experiment, the largest randomized field experiment in predictive policing to date. He has twice received the Professional Service Award from the International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts and, in 2010, was awarded the Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit’s Distinguished Service Award for continued dedication and outstanding contributions to the law enforcement community. He sits on the executive advisory board for the FBI’s National Academy. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Nottingham.

Tom Tyler is the Macklin Fleming professor of law and professor of psychology at Yale Law School, as well as a professor in the Yale School of Management. Previously, he was a university professor at New York University, where he taught in both the psychology department and the law school. Before that, he taught at the University of California, Berkeley, and Northwestern University. His research explores the role of justice in shaping people’s relationships with groups, organizations, communities, and societies, in particular examining the role of judgments about the justice or injustice of group procedures in shaping legitimacy, compliance, and cooperation. Dr. Tyler is the author of several monographs on why people cooperate, why they obey the law, and legitimacy in criminal justice. He was awarded the Harry Kalven prize for “paradigm shifting scholarship in the study of law and society” by the Law and Society Association in 2000. In 2012, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award for innovative research on social justice from the International Society for Justice Research. He holds a B.A. in psychology from Columbia University and an M.A. and Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24928.
×
Page 390
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Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term “proactive policing” to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred.

Proactive policing is distinguished from the everyday decisions of police officers to be proactive in specific situations and instead refers to a strategic decision by police agencies to use proactive police responses in a programmatic way to reduce crime. Today, proactive policing strategies are used widely in the United States. They are not isolated programs used by a select group of agencies but rather a set of ideas that have spread across the landscape of policing.

Proactive Policing reviews the evidence and discusses the data and methodological gaps on: (1) the effects of different forms of proactive policing on crime; (2) whether they are applied in a discriminatory manner; (3) whether they are being used in a legal fashion; and (4) community reaction. This report offers a comprehensive evaluation of proactive policing that includes not only its crime prevention impacts but also its broader implications for justice and U.S. communities.

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