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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 177 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviationâ â¢â PassengerâTransportationâ â¢â TerminalsâandâFacilities Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities James R. Harding, Jr. Sheila J. Bosch Wilson P. Rayfield, Jr. John Florie Gresham, smith and Partners Nashville, TN i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Laurel Van Horn Pat Pound Eric Lipp OPen dOOrs OrGanizatiOn Chicago, IL Jason T. Shevrin arOra enGineers Chadds Ford, PA Jon A. Sanford Center fOr assistive teChnOlOGies and envirOnmental aCCess GeOrGia institute Of teChnOlOGy Atlanta, GA Sean J. Barbeau Center fOr urban transPOrtatiOn researCh university Of sOuth flOrida Tampa, FL John K. Duval austin COmmerCial lP Los Angeles, CA Catherine Gantt sOuthwest airlines Dallas, TX
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 177 Project 07-13 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44656-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2017951772 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America Cover photo credits: (from left to right, top to bottom): 1. TSA agent assisting passenger (tsa.gov). 2. Accessible seating with backs (Munich Airport). 3. Accessible common use kiosk (San Francisco International Airport). 4. Availability of call points for persons with disabilities to request assistance (London Heathrow). 5. Digital display indicating accessible security checkpoint lane (Munich Airport). 6. Customer service agent with tablet to communicate information verbally and virtually (Changi Airport). 7. Passenger using mobile device equipped with audio and haptic feedback (ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team). 8. Modeled view of the arrival point journey segment (ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team). 9. Simulation of the vision of persons aged 20, 60, and 75 (Typography and the Aging Eye: Typeface Legibility for Older Viewers with Vision Problems, P. Nini)
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research discussed in this report was performed under ACRP Project 07-13, âEnhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities,â by a research team of recognized aviation experts in wayfinding, persons with disabilities, and technology. Gresham, Smith and Partners (GS&P) was the primary research consultant. Jim Harding, Director of Environmental Graphics at GS&P, served as the Principal Investigator. Additional GS&P contributions include literature review and research assistance by Dr. Sheila Bosch, editorial review of the guidebook by Sue Halford and Jim Alderman, architectural design considerations by Wilson Rayfield, and project coordination by John Florie. Contributing authors also include Laurel Van Horn, Director of Programs, Pat Pound, ODO Con- sultant, and Eric Lipp, Executive Director, for Open Doors Organizationâa nonprofit specializing in accessible travel, transportation, and tourismâand Jason Shevrin, Special Systems Technology Leader for Arora Engineers. Academic researchers specializing in technology development for persons of diverse abilities include Jon Sanford, Center for Assistive Technologies and Environmental Access at Georgia Institute of Technology, and Dr. Sean J. Barbeau, Center for Urban Transportation Research at the University of South Florida. The research team also included industry experts John Duval, Austin Commercial LP, and Catherine Gantt, Customer Advocacy Specialist with Southwest Airlines. The research team would like to thank the many airports and staff who took the time to share their insights, experience, opinions, and responses to the surveys. The team is also indebted to Austin- Bergstrom International Airport for allowing access to its terminal to perform field testing of the mobile application technology that helped serve as the basis for the application guidelines criteria. The team would also like to acknowledge IBMâs Human Ability and Accessibility Center for its contribution to the research associated with the mobile prototype application testing. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 177 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor ACRP PROjECT 07-13 PANEL Field of Design Angela R. Newland, P.E., CCI Engineering Services, Fort Myers, FL (Chair) Lukas Franck, The Seeing Eye, Inc., Morristown, NJ Wayne Lindquist, Airport Solutions International, San Marcos, CA Patrick Murphy, 115 Degrees West, Henderson, NV William J. Sproule, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Steve Wareham, Trillion Aviation, Cannon Falls, MN Renee Hendricks, FAA Liaison Aneil Patel, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Forrest James Pecht, U.S. Access Board Liaison
ACRP Research Report 177: Enhancing Airport Wayfinding for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities is a comprehensive, practical guidebook to help airport operators, airlines, and planners assist aging travelers and persons with disabilities to travel independently within airports using pedestrian wayfinding systems. The guidebook addresses travel by people with cognitive, sensory, and other mobility challenges. It includes a template for a baseline airport wayfinding accessibility audit; instructions to assist airports in creating a signage and services gap analysis as well as a wayfinding plan; the aspects of visual, verbal, and virtual wayfind- ing information to help the passenger with directions; and methods that would allow aging travelers and passengers with disabilities to comfortably utilize technology for wayfinding. The guidebook also has suggestions for web-based information for assistance (e.g., airport, airline, and TSA websites); standardization of wayfinding user interface systems within the airport(s), including technological interfaces; and compliance with federal and international regulations and standards. Independent travel in airports for aging travelers and passengers with disabilities such as low vision/blindness, mobility limitations, or problems with short-term memory pre- sents complex navigational challenges that are not met by standard approaches to wayfinding and signage. While adequate illumination and ADA-compliant signage (as recommended in ACRP Report 52: Wayfinding and Signing Guidelines for Airport Terminals and Landside) may provide some benefit, additional efforts are needed to help these passengers travel indepen- dently in airport environments. Meeting the wayfinding needs of these travelers is currently accomplished by the provision of personal guides for assistance. In the United States, cur- rently implemented accessible wayfinding systems are not optimized to provide information for wayfinding and travel by people with cognitive, sensory, or mobility challenges in complex indoor environments such as airports. Currently, the field is centered on development of indoor position-sensing technologies such as beacons and on delivery of wayfinding informa- tion via accessible applications for smart phones. With the projected growth in the number of aging travelers, it is imperative to develop practices to accommodate their wayfinding needs in addition to those of passengers with disabilities. Under ACRP Project 07-13, research was conducted by Gresham, Smith and Partners in association with Open Doors Organization, Arora Engineers, Georgia Institute of Tech- nology, University of South Florida, John K. Duval, and Southwest Airlines. The objec- tive of this guidebook is to help airports successfully communicate information to aging travelers and persons with disabilities to help them find their way using the principles of universal design. It is worth noting that most of the reportâs recommendations can be used to benefit all travelers. The guidebook covers the different elements of the passenger journey through departures, arrivals, and connections. An essential part of the research, conducted at F O R E W O R D ByâTheresiaâH.âSchatz StaffâOfficer TransportationâResearchâBoard
Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, was field testing of a prototype mobile application serving as the basis of the application guidelines criteria. Appendix A contains a Wayfind- ing Accessibility Audit Checklist developed as part of the research, Appendix B provides a table listing application review criteria, and Appendix C provides virtual airport models of customer journey segments. MS Word files of the Wayfinding Accessibility Audit Checklist (Appendix A) and the table of application review criteria (Appendix B), as well as a PowerPoint presentation that summarizes the project, are available for download. To access these files, go to www.trb.org and search on ACRP Research Report 177.
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Research Objective 3 1.2.1 What Is Communication? 3 1.2.2 What Is Wayfinding? 4 1.2.3 What Is Universal Design? 4 1.3 Purpose of the Guidelines 4 1.4 Organization of the Guidebook 6 1.5 Implementation Considerations 7 Chapter 2 UnderstandingâtheâNeedsâofâAgingâTravelers andâPassengersâwithâDisabilities 7 2.1 Introduction 7 2.2 Universal Design and Its Principles 16 2.3 Vision Loss 17 2.3.1 Steps to Enhance Wayfinding for Customers Who Are Blind 20 2.3.2 Additional Steps to Enhance Wayfinding for Customers with Low Vision 21 2.4 Hearing Loss 22 2.4.1 Steps to Enhance Wayfinding for Customers Who Are Deaf 23 2.4.2 Additional Steps to Enhance Wayfinding for Customers Who Are Hard of Hearing 23 2.5 Reduced Mobility 24 2.5.1 Steps to Enhance Wayfinding for Customers Using Wheelchairs or Scooters 25 2.5.2 Additional Steps to Enhance Wayfinding for Customers with Limited Mobility 26 2.6 Cognitive Disabilities 28 2.7 Aging Adults 31 2.8 Technology Usage 33 2.9 Appropriate Language 34 2.10 Getting Started 36 Chapter 3 WayfindingâStrategiesâviaâVisual,âVerbal,â andâVirtualâCommunication 36 3.1 Introduction 37 3.2 Visual 37 3.2.1 Design 48 3.2.2 Application 54 3.3 Verbal 54 3.3.1 Customer Assistance 55 3.3.2 Hybrid Communication C O N T E N T S
56 3.3.3 Text Maps 62 3.3.4 Illumination 62 3.4 Virtual 62 3.4.1 Dynamic Non-Interactive Wayfinding 73 3.4.2 Dynamic Interactive Wayfinding 76 3.4.3 Auditory Systems 80 3.4.4 Mobile Applications 83 3.5 Tactile 85 3.6 Wayfinding and Services Gap Analysis 86 3.6.1 Reactive Approach 86 3.6.2 Proactive Approach 87 3.6.3 Other Important Considerations 87 3.7 Summary 89 Chapter 4 AirportâPlanningâandâDesignâConsiderations 89 4.1 Planning and Design (PD) 95 4.2 Staff Training (ST) 96 4.3 Database Environment/Management (DB) 96 4.4 Website (WS) 101 4.5 Mobile Application (MA) 102 4.6 Call Center (CC) 104 4.7 Irregular Operations (IROPS) 107 Chapter 5 DepartingâCustomerâJourney 110 5.1 Departures Arrival Points (AP) 110 5.1.1 Curbside 114 5.1.2 Other Arrival Points 118 5.2 Parking (PK) 119 5.2.1 All Parking 120 5.2.2 On-Site Parking 122 5.2.3 Remote Parking 122 5.3 Rental Car (RC) 123 5.4 Lobby Area (LA) 128 5.5 Ticketing (TK) 133 5.6 Security Checkpoint (SC) 139 5.7 Vertical Transition 141 5.8 Gate Area (GA) 141 5.8.1 Concourse 149 5.8.2 People Movers 150 5.8.3 Points of Interest 152 5.8.4 Hold Room Areas 155 5.9 Airline Support (AS) 155 5.10 International Flights (IN)âPassport Control 156 Chapter 6 ArrivingâCustomerâJourney 159 6.1 Airline Support (AS) 160 6.2 Gate Area (GA) 164 6.2.1 Gate AreaâPeople Mover 165 6.2.2 Gate AreaâPoints of Interest 165 6.2.3 Gate AreaâSARAs 165 6.2.4 Gate AreaâSecure Area Exit
165 6.3 Baggage Claim (BC) 165 6.3.1 Visual 166 6.3.2 Verbal 166 6.3.3 Virtual 170 6.4 Lobby Area (LA) 173 6.5 Ground Transportation (GT) 173 6.5.1 Curbside 178 6.5.2 Ground TransportationâOther 180 6.6 Rental Car (RC)âOn-Site and Remote 180 6.7 Parking (PK) 181 6.7.1 All Parking 182 6.7.2 ParkingâRemote 183 6.8 International Flights (IN) 183 6.8.1 Immigration 185 6.8.2 Baggage Claim 187 Chapter 7 ConnectingâCustomerâJourney 193 7.1 Airline Support (AS) 195 7.2 Gate Area (GA) 198 7.2.1 Gate AreaâPeople Movers 198 7.2.2 Gate AreaâPoints of Interest 199 7.2.3 Gate AreaâSARAs 199 7.2.4 Gate AreaâHold Room 200 7.3 Terminal Transportation (TT) 200 7.4 Airline Support (AS)âSame Terminal, Different Airline 203 Chapter 8 WayfindingâTechnologiesâforâAgingâTravelersâ andâPersonsâwithâDisabilities 203 8.1 Overview 204 8.2 Accessible Websites 204 8.2.1 Overview 205 8.2.2 Application 205 8.2.3 Implementation 208 8.3 Mobile Wayfinding Applications 208 8.3.1 Overview 209 8.3.2 Positioning Technologies 210 8.3.3 Airport Application Testing 210 8.3.4 Application Guidelines and Implementation 228 8.4 Accessible Help/Call Points 228 8.4.1 Overview 228 8.4.2 Application 229 8.4.3 Components 229 8.4.4 Implementation 230 8.5 Interactive Kiosks 230 8.5.1 Overview 233 8.5.2 Application 233 8.5.3 Components 234 8.5.4 Implementation 239 8.6 Digital Wayfinding Directories 239 8.6.1 Overview 240 8.6.2 Application
241 8.6.3 Components 241 8.6.4 Implementation 245 8.7 FIDS 245 8.7.1 Overview 246 8.7.2 Application 246 8.7.3 Components 247 8.7.4 Implementation 249 8.8 Hearing Loops 249 8.8.1 Overview 249 8.8.2 Application 249 8.8.3 Components 250 8.8.4 Implementation 250 8.9 Visual Paging 250 8.9.1 Overview 251 8.9.2 Application 252 8.9.3 Components 253 8.10 MNSs 253 8.10.1 Overview 253 8.10.2 Application 255 8.10.3 Components 257â Bibliography 261â Acronyms A-1 Appendix Aâ WayfindingâAccessibilityâAuditâChecklist B-1 Appendix Bâ ApplicationâReviewâCriteria C-1 Appendix Câ VirtualâAirportâModels