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203 8.1 Overview Opportunities for air travel have grown significantly in recent years, with cheaper flights serving a wider range of destinations. For many people, this has made flying a more common experience. However, for people with a disability or mobility limitation, the prospect of attempting a trip by air can seem fraught with potential difficulties. In addition, an ever-growing aging population adds its own unique set of challenges for equitably accommodating all users in a manner that has come to be expected. People with physical or cognitive limitations and/or disabilities continue to face challenges in accessing the full range of opportunities available to people who are nondisabled. Designing products and services that can be used by people with a wide range of abilities and disabilities is called universal design (described in detail in Chapter 2). Congress has responded to the need to increase access to products and services for people with disabilities by passing legislation in a range of areas, including education, employment, trans- portation, assistive technology, and electronic and information technology. Some guarantee the civil rights of individuals with disabilities, others establish procurement requirements for specific agencies, while others impose accessibility requirements on producers of products and providers of services. Some legislation is at the federal level, and some is at the state level. Below are several relevant federal laws in the United States from the â2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Designâ (https://www.ada.gov/regs2010/2010ADAStandards/2010ADAstandards.htm): Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requires that programs and services that receive federal funding make those options available to individuals with disabilities and provide reasonable accommo- dations. In 1986, Section 508 was added as an amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Section 508 requires that electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained or used by the fed- eral government be designed to be accessible to people with disabilities. A final rule updating Section 508 ICT Standards was issued in January 2017. The Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA) of 1986, amended numerous times since 14 CFR Part 382 regula- tions were first promulgated in 1990, sets standards for accessible services and facilities in air travel. While it applies for the most part to airlines, its requirements also impact airports in a number of important areas including agreements for level boarding, communication access (e.g., captioning on TV monitors), service animal relief areas (SARAs), and most recently CUSS kiosks, as will be discussed shortly. Regula- tions affecting airports appear subsequently, or at the same time as in the case of self-service automated kiosks, as amendments to Section 504. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 and its 2008 amendments is civil rights legislation that builds on and extends the reach of Section 504. Note that standards for airports are issued by the Department of Transportation and differ in some instances from the Department of Justice ADA Stan- dards. The ADA requires that public programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities and that they provide accessible, âeffective communication,â regardless of what medium is typically used for that communication. In addition, access to digital technology is emerging as a new frontier in the enforce- ment of civil rights for persons with disabilities. C h a p t e r 8 Wayfinding Technologies for Aging Travelers and Persons with Disabilities
204 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Although laws like the ADA predate the digital revolution, they are applied to the products and services that have come out of the digital revolution, bounded variously by considerations of undue burden, infeasibility and fundamental alteration. Some laws, like Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C. Â§ 794d) and the Twenty- First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (47 U.S.C. Â§ 613), are specifically directed at the issue of making technology accessible to people with disabilities. This body of law makes up what can be commonly described as âdigital disability rights.â The gist of the law is this: the flexibility of digital information should end the separate and unequal treatment of persons with disabilities and give them the same opportunities as their nondisabled peers (Goldstein and Care n.d.). In recent years, there has been an explosion of digital devices, software, and content in govern- ment, business, education, transportation, and social life. Because mainstream access was feasible for all of these technologies when developed, the digital revolution should have been a powerful engine for integration of people with disabilities through equal access to these enhancements of modern life. Unfortunately, only recently have developers of these technologies begun to recognize the benefits of and need for universal design of these technologies to permit access by people with disabilities. The 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design set minimum requirementsâboth scoping and technicalâfor newly designed and constructed or altered state and local government facili- ties, public accommodations, and commercial facilities to be readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. The result of incorporating accessibility into technology is that 1. The user with a disability gets access to all of the same information or services with substan- tially equivalent ease of use, 2. The user with no disability has an enhanced ease of use without noticing it, and 3. The information or service provider gets a greater audience and a product that is easier to maintain (Goldstein and Care n.d.). The following information will describe, by journey segment, some of the technologies encountered in the airport wayfinding travel experience, best practices for implementation, and how the principles of universal design can be incorporated to expand or enhance the capabili- ties of the technology to be inclusive of as many people as possible regardless of limitations or disabilities. Virtual wayfinding systems encompass a diverse and rapidly changing set of wired and wireless communications-based information and electronics technologies. Supporting technologies include the information systems that are needed, which essentially provide the interface and interaction between the data and the users of the data. Supporting technologies may include communications infrastructure, ITS field equipment, and airport net- work equipment and management. 8.2 Accessible Websites 8.2.1 Overview The ability for passengers to plan in advance via digital media is becoming more and more common and effective. For older adults and passengers with disabilities, advance knowledge can greatly enhance the wayfinding experience that is part of their overall customer experience. Understanding accessibility requires an awareness of the special needs of multiple user groups, including people with disabilities and mature users with age-related disabilities. A person with
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 205 a disability may encounter one or more barriers that can be eliminated or minimized by the software or web developer, the assistive technology, or the underlying operating system software and hardware platform. The four main categories of disabilities are visual, hearing, mobility, and cognitive, as dis- cussed in detail in Chapter 2. Airport websites touch on the visual and virtual methods of com- munication and are critical tools in offering the first opportunities for consistency. Consistency in terminology, graphics and color all need to be carried through from the airport terminal to the website and vice versa. Landmarks can be identified on websites and used by people with disabilities for pre-trip planning and once again in an airport. 8.2.2 Application Most airports, regardless of their size, have a website. The internet is a useful tool for airports to deliver key information to the traveling public. The primary information disseminated by airport websites includes: â¢ Directions to the airport â¢ Airport road information â¢ Access route conditions and delays â¢ Regional traffic information â¢ Information on ground transportation providers and services â¢ Parking information, including location, availability, rates by type, and shuttle access information â¢ Flight/gate information â¢ Cellphone lot information â¢ Security wait time â¢ Passenger pick-up information â¢ Location/wait time for baggage pick-up The principles of universal design are not only for those professionals who design and build physical environments, but also for web developers, information architects, content managers, graphic designers, and writers constructing websites. Web accessibility refers to the degree a site is accessible to and functional for the largest pos- sible range of people. WCAG, as set out by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative, are guidelines established for digital professionals in order to promote an inclusive digital society. These guidelines cover a set of checkpoints outlined in four principles: 1. Perceivability: information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways that arenât invisible to all their senses. 2. Operability: the interface cannot require an interaction that a user is unable to perform. 3. Understandability: the content, operation, or interface cannot be beyond their understanding. 4. Robustness: content must be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents as they evolve, including assistive technologies. 8.2.3 Implementation Airport website home pages should include a link for disability-related information and resources. Airline websites can also be a good source of information for pre-trip planning for those with accessibility needs, whether physical, sensory, or cognitive. As of December 12, 2015, ACAA regulations required all airline websites marketing to customers in the United States to
206 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities provide similar accommodation request forms and to the meet accessibility requirements of the WCAG (WCAG 2.0 Level AA) on webpages providing core travel information and services. Full website accessibility was required by 1 year later, December 12, 2016. Utilizing airport websites as part of pre-trip planning, travelers with special needs or disabili- ties can find accessibility information to assist them in planning their journey. Information on topics such as ground transportation, accessible parking, wheelchair assistance, service animal accommodation, accessible restrooms, and so forth, can normally be found via the link. Users can also view and download terminal maps and directories that can assist in familiarizing them with the airport layout before their arrival. The following is a list of functional requirements for an airport website: â¢ User interface that intuitively guides users to the information they seek. â¢ Hierarchical menu. â¢ Map-based user interface for the provision of real-time (or near real-time) information on access route conditions (including construction, incidents, congestion, travel speeds, delays, and roadway weather conditions) and/or provision of a link to the local transportation agencyâs traveler information website. â¢ Real-time information on transit modes and/or provision of a link to the transit providerâs website. â¢ Real-time information on parking facility status and availability. â¢ Real-time information on security wait times. â¢ Real-time information on flight and gate status. â¢ Static information on parking facility location and rates. â¢ Static information on cellphone lot locations and amenities. â¢ Static information on the location of passenger pick-up and drop-off. â¢ Personalized services that push information to the user based on a pre-determined user pro- file. Information shall be pushed to the user via email, text, and voice alerts. â¢ Capability to translate the information into multiple languages based on the user-selected preference. â¢ Compliance with the ADA and accessible by users with visual and hearing disabilities. â¢ Scalability to allow for expansion/changes to meet future traveler information needs (Elizer et al. 2012). The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has published an accessibility checklist to offer guidance to web developers (1194.22 Web-Based Intranet and Internet Information and Applications [Goldstein and Care n.d.]): â¢ Every image, video file, audio file, plug-in, etc., has an alt tag. â¢ Complex graphics are accompanied by detailed text descriptions. â¢ The alt descriptions describe the purpose of the objects. â¢ If an image is also used as a link, make sure the alt tag describes the graphic and the link destination. â¢ Decorative graphics with no other function have empty alt descriptions (alt= ââ). â¢ Add captions to videos. â¢ Add audio descriptions. â¢ Create text transcript. â¢ Create a link to the video rather than embedding it into webpages. â¢ Add a link to the media player download. â¢ Add an additional link to the text transcript. â¢ The page should provide alternative links to the image map. â¢ The <area> tags must contain an alt attribute.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 207 â¢ Data tables have the column and row headers appropriately identified (using the <th> tag). â¢ Tables used strictly for layout purposes do NOT have header rows or columns. â¢ Table cells are associated with the appropriate headers (e.g., with the ID, headers, scope, and/or axis HTML attributes). â¢ Make sure the page does not contain repeatedly flashing images. â¢ Check to make sure the page does not contain a strobe effect. â¢ A link is provided to a disability-accessible page where the plug-in can be downloaded. â¢ All Java applets, scripts, and plug-ins (including Acrobat PDF files and PowerPoint files, etc.) and the content within them are accessible to assistive technologies, or else an alternative means of accessing equivalent content is provided. â¢ When form controls are text input fields use the LABEL element. â¢ When text is not available use the title attribute. â¢ Include any special instructions within field labels. â¢ Make sure that form fields are in a logical tab order. â¢ Include a âSkip Navigationâ button to help those using text readers. If a site meets all these criteria, it is likely to be accessible to people with disabilities. The best test is to obtain feedback on the siteâs ease of use from people who are blind, deaf, and have physical disabilities, and then address their feedback with site improvements. When collecting feedback, ask users what type of adaptive technologies they use. This will allow you to configure the airportâs website to meet the needs of a particular clientele and will help you direct resources toward the best compliance options. Heathrow Airport is a fine example of an organization committed to meeting legislated acces- sibility standards requirements and making every effort to ensure that its communicationsâ including its websiteâare accessible to people with special needs, including those with visual, hearing, cognitive, and motor limitations. Heathrow has endeavored to make its website adhere to the Priority 1 and 2 guidelines of the WCAG. (See Figure 8-1.) The site was built in consultation with AbilityNet, a body of web- site experts brought together by the Foundation for Communication for the Disabled and the Computability Centreâboth leading charities working in the field of assistive technology for persons with disabilities. Heathrowâs website includes these navigation aids: â¢ The full site navigation is located on every page. â¢ A link to the home page is available on each page through the Heathrow logo. â¢ Navigation menus are marked up as HTML lists and styled with CSS. â¢ Many links have title attributes, which describe the link in greater detail. â¢ Links are written so as to make sense out of context. â¢ Link text is never duplicated. Two links on the same page with the same text always point to the same address. â¢ Some links, mostly to downloadable files such as PDFs, open a new browser window. There will always be a warning in either the text or the âtitleâ attribute of the link. â¢ When the site is viewed in a text-only browser, the âskip to contentâ link becomes visible at the top of each page. â¢ Forms have their labels explicitly associated with their controls, aiding users of certain screen readers and speech browsers. To provide additional help with finding content, every page of the site features a help link in the footer. The help section helps locate key information and includes a site map and search facilities.
208 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 8.3 Mobile Wayfinding Applications 8.3.1 Overview Smartphones and tablet personal computers have revolutionized mobile technology and the way we communicate today. They have also transformed the assistive technology market for people with disabilities. The introduction of third-party applications (software applications that run on mobile devices and tablets) has made a number of services available to users that device manufacturers never envisioned or could not have implemented alone. Applications are now available that have been designed to meet the needs of people with disabilities, making it cheaper, easier, and more efficient for people with disabilities to perform a wide range of tasks. Recently, the potential of wayfinding and location-based technology has been recognized by the air transport industry, with the vast majority of airports exploring different ways of offer- ing wayfinding in their terminals utilizing mobile applications. A number of indoor and out- door mobile wayfinding applications have been developed for specific user groups, including the Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-1. Heathrow Airport website accessibility page.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 209 general public, people with mobility disabilities, and people with vision disabilities. However, to date, no application has been developed that provides essential route information in a way that is accessible to all users. Instead, users with disabilities are restricted to using specialized applica- tions for people with disabilities. Research shows that while several airport mobile applications provide a wealth of information and usability for general users, few have been designed with the purpose of also supporting users with disabilities. Clearly, an application that is useful to and usable by all users, versus many specialized applications to meet the needs of each specific user group, is not only practical and cost-effective, but it also has implications for participation by many more individuals. Section 8.3 provides an overview of research intended to aid the industry in better designing and implementing mobile applications that take the needs of all user groups into consideration. Section 8.3.2 discusses recent developments in technology that are enabling a new generation of indoor navigation applications. Section 8.3.3 presents an industry scan of current airport naviga- tion applications by the ACRP Project 07-13 research team that illustrates the shortcomings in current mobile applications for users with disabilities. Section 8.3.4 presents a set of research- based guidelines using universal design principles that will aid airports, airlines, and any other application developer in creating mobile application features that are usable for individuals with disabilities. The result of applying these best practices will be mobile applications with better usability and functionality for all users. 8.3.2 Positioning Technologies Over the last decade, a number of technologies and approaches have been used to determine the location of mobile devices, including Bluetooth, Wi-Fi fingerprinting and triangulation, and a high-sensitivity global positioning system (GPS). Each has its own strengths, although precise and accurate indoor positioning is the largest weakness in these technologies. For an environ- ment such as an airport, being able to reliably determine where a user is located and which direc- tion they are facing is a key requirement for accurate navigation and wayfinding. Recently, indoor beacon-based positioning has emerged as a potential technology to help fill this gap. Put simply, beacons are indoor proximity devices that come in various shapes and sizes. They can be as small as a Universal Serial Bus (USB) stick or larger and more visible. They transmit a signal using Bluetooth low energy (BLE), and the signal contains a unique identifier for that beacon. When a BLE-enabled device, such as a smartphone, moves within range of the beaconâs signal, it can trigger an action, such as displaying a contextually relevant message on the phone. Beacons have enabled a new range of user interactions based on indoor proximity. Other promising indoor positioning systems such as visible light spectrum, which uses special light fixtures to determine device position, are also emerging. The downside of indoor position- ing systems such as beacons and visible light is that they require infrastructure be installed at the location where the technology is to be used. However, at facilities such as airports, the benefits of such technology may outweigh the installation and maintenance costs. Indoor positioning technologies can trigger an application on passengersâ smartphones to send notifications to direct them to areas of interest and to provide additional information about their flights, such as boarding alerts and directions to the gate or baggage collection area. The application can also send promotional coupons as passengers enter a specific zone, such as a shop, cafÃ©, or airport lounge. These features can help reduce congestion and bottlenecks, improving the passenger flow in airports by giving travelers accurate and timely information. Provision of accurate and timely information to passengers can, in turn, lead to smoother board- ing and more on-time departures. Providing wayfinding information also means that passengers know how long it will take to get to the gate, increasing the time they spend in the retail area,
210 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities which is good news for the airportâs tenants. Ultimately, these technologies promise to enhance the wayfinding experience within an airport for all travelers. Features based on these technolo- gies are starting to make their way into commercially deployed mobile applications for airports and airlines, which are discussed in the following section. 8.3.3 Airport Application Testing As discussed earlier, current mobile applications for airport wayfinding do not meet the needs of users with disabilities. The ACRP Project 07-13 research team asked participants to download and test award-winning and industry-leading applications from airports around the world, such as the airport application at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol that is now on its fifth generation (see Figure 8-2). The testing methodology has three users each download and test each airportâs application and then rate its functionality or capability as it pertained to the universal design principles as good (4), fair (3), poor (2), and absent (1). The scores were averaged and applied to each category. A copy of the testing and comment form can be found in Appendix B, and a summary of results is shown in Table 8-1. In general, the applications tested demonstrated great usability for users without disabilities, but scored poorly for users with disabilities. (Usability scores shown in Table 8-1 are indicative of a user with a disability. Scores were not provided for a user without a disability.) These results illustrate that most airport wayfinding applications are not currently designed to accommodate users with disabilities. However, with some modifications, these applications could be improved to not only better meet the needs of users with disabilities, but to increase the wayfinding utility for all users. Section 8.3.4 discusses a set of research-based guidelines that can help application developers who are creating or updating wayfinding applications avoid com- mon pitfalls and achieve universal design principles in their applications. 8.3.4 Application Guidelines and Implementation A number of indoor and outdoor mobile wayfinding and navigation applications have been developed for specific user groups, including the general public, people with mobility disabili- ties, and people with vision disabilities. However, to date, no single application has been devel- oped that provides essential route information tailored to all users. Similarly, where applications have used alternative inputs (e.g., speech recognition) and outputs (e.g., voice output, high con- trast) to provide accessible information for users with vision loss, no single application has been Source: Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Figure 8-2. Five generations of the Amsterdam Airport Schiphol airport application.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 211 developed that is usable by people with a wide range of physical, sensory, and cognitive abili- ties. Developing one application that is useful to and usable by all users rather than developing many specialized applications to meet the needs each specific user group is not only practical and cost-effective, it also has implications for participation of all individuals in society. The goal of the guidelines in this section is to provide mobile application developers (e.g., air- lines, airports, and third-party developers) with a set of principles and an accompanying check- list that they can reference when creating or improving wayfinding mobile applications in order to maximize the utility and usability for all travelers, especially travelers with disabilities. These guidelines are relevant regardless of the underlying positioning technology used to determine the userâs location and orientation (e.g., beacon, Wi-Fi trilateration, visible light, or camera). The guidelines reinforce the extension of the seven principles of universal design (Connell et al. 1997) beyond the design of physical objects and spaces to the development of airport and other wayfinding applications. Each guideline discusses a general principle to be followed and is accompanied by a checklist of âDoâs and Donâtsâ to help make it easier for developers to orga- nize and implement each concept. âDoâsâ are actions that developers should take to improve their application for travelers, while âDonâtsâ are common pitfalls that developers should avoid. In order to ensure that the guidelines are grounded in real-world conditions and environ- ments as well as empirical evidence, the ACRP Project 07-13 research team tested a prototype wayfinding application that was based on the principles of universal design. Utility testing of this prototype application was conducted by the Georgia Tech Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access on-site in the Austin-Bergstrom International Airport in Austin, Texas. The utility testing included participants who were blind or had low vision, were deaf or hard of hearing, had mobility limitations, and/or were over 65âsome with and some without reported limitations. Thus, the research team could observe the most common problems that these user groups encountered when navigating within an airport. Separate usability testing of the prototype application was conducted at the Georgia Tech Center for Assistive Technology and Environmental Access and included participants who were blind or had low vision, participants who were deaf, and participants who had lower body mobil- ity limitations or had cognitive limitations. The following guidelines reflect the lessons learned by the research team that can help inform future wayfinding application development. *Tolerance for error features were tested - however, yielded very few results when not physically on-site at the airport. Table 8-1. Test results from airport application evaluation.
212 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 18.104.22.168 Design the Application for a Wide Range of Devices Applications should be compatible with as many desktop and mobile devices as possible to accommodate needs for different size screens and interfaces. DO DON'T Test orientation and movement-based features (e.g., instructions/pictures based on the direction the user is facing, augmented reality displays) on a wide range of devices (including devices that are low cost), across multiple platforms (e.g., Android and iOS), and devices running older versions of operating systems (e.g., Android 4.0, iOS 8). Anticipate that these features may not work equally well across all devices, and allow users to turn them off or provide manual input in place of sensors. Assume that orientation and movement-based features will work equally well across all devices, platforms, and operating system versions. Deploy features based heavily on device sensors as part of the main application experience that cannot be turned off or overridden with manual input. Tell users that the application will work on âmostâ mobile devices, without providing specific operating system versions or sample make/models. DO DON'T Design and test the application to run on small screens. Assume that the application will work equally well across all screen sizes. 22.214.171.124 Design the Application to Handle a Wide Range of Device Sensor Quality The quality of device-based sensors (e.g., accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, barom- eter, and light) that recognize environmental context or human movement, such as air gestures or orientation in the environment, can vary significantly among commercially available devices. Device limitations should be considered when planning application options and features. Typi- cally, more expensive devices will contain better quality sensor hardware that is more precise and accurate in reflecting true user movement and orientation. This varying degree of accuracy can result in different degrees of usability when depending on the output of sensors in an application. For example, a âLook Aroundâ feature could allow the traveler who is blind to self-orient and learn locations as they travel by pointing the mobile device in a particular direction to identify points of interest and the distance to each. This type of list could also be generated via a âWhatâs Around Me?â button using the deviceâs real-time position. However, if location and/or orienta- tion data are of poor quality, incorrect information would be delivered to the user. If the applica- tion contains features that demand high-quality position/orientation data to function correctly, it may not be possible to offer the same feature set across all commercially available devices.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 213 126.96.36.199 Provide Accurate, Real-Time Position Data Indoor positioning systems at airports must be able to provide accurate, real-time position data to the application once the device is on-site. Methods of obtaining position accuracy and range of accuracy include, but are not limited to: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth low-energy beacons, radio frequency identification/near field communication (RFID/NFC), visible light positioning, or a combination of technologies. A mobile application must be appropriately designed to utilize the supportive technology infrastructure, and position accuracy and range of accuracy become criti- cal measurements required to initiate wayfinding. Information about the accuracy/uncertainty of the position and orientation of the device should be communicated to the user. The specific accuracy requirements suggested in the following âDoâsâ and âDonâtsâ are based on expert opin- ion of the ACRP Project 07-13 research team. DO DON'T Inform the user of any limitations they might encounter in sensor-based features via in- application informational dialogs (i.e., position accuracy and initiating the wayfinding functionality). Provide a list of sample devices on which the application was tested and works well, as well as a list of sample devices on which the application was tested and does NOT perform well, to allow users to anticipate how it will perform on their personal device. Push advertising and promotional information to devices with certain settings enabled. DO DON'T Expert opinion suggests providing 1 meter or better of position accuracy. Expert opinion suggests providing 10 degrees (out of 360 degrees) or better of orientation accuracy. (See Figure 8-3.) Information about the accuracy/uncertainty of the position should be communicated to users (e.g., show a shaded circle surrounding the position on a map) to indicate how accurate that position might be. (See Figure 8-4.) Assume all indoor positioning systems will give better than 1 meter accuracy and 10 degrees orientation accuracy on all commercially available devices. Assume the application will work equally well at all facilities. Assume users understand why certain versions of technology (e.g., Bluetooth 4.0) are required.
214 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities DO DON'T Ensure that any features based on indoor positioning system infrastructure are tested on-site with a wide variety of devices (e.g., high cost and low cost devices, different operating system versions) before offering these features to users. Provide a list of facilities/indoor positioning systems at which the application was tested to users so they have appropriate expectations for where the application will work well and are able to plan ahead. If the feature relies on a certain version of a wireless technology (e.g., Bluetooth 4.0), provide that information to users. Show/use location and orientation information without showing an indication of the accuracy of those values. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-3. Images explaining position and orientation accuracy.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 215 188.8.131.52 Maximize the Active Areas of the Screen Include an option to limit and/or block unwanted information on a screen, thus enabling active areas of the screen to be as large as possible, providing users with reasonable operating focus, and reducing the display complexity for users with intellectual disabilities. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-4. Images showing how to represent position and orientation accuracy to users. DO DON'T Dedicate the largest portion of the screen to the activity the user is currently focused on. Allow the user to hide portions of the screen that arenât relevant to their current activity. Use a large portion of screen space for a feature the user isnât using. Provide a fixed display without the ability to hide lower priority information. 184.108.40.206 Provide Multimodal Input and Output (I/O) Methods Provide multimodal input methods such as touch screen (tap, lifting finger off screen); speech recognition and gestures, including 3-D touch gestures with use of fingers, such as pinching and scrolling for magnification and navigation, or hard-pressing to reveal more information about an item; and 3-D air gestures, such as swipe, circle, or zoom, that involve free movement in space.
216 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Provide options for simultaneous visual (e.g., icons, text, and color), audio, and tactile outputs for redundant cueing. Provide information that accommodates a wide range of abilities, such as highly detailed descriptions for users who are blind, a visual/map-based system for people who have hearing loss, and information on where to locate a wheelchair for people with ambulatory limitations. DO DON'T Use as many different I/O modes as possible. Provide as many modes as possible that will ensure privacy (e.g., non-verbal I/Os such as keyboard, touch screen, or physical button directional arrows [e.g., D-pad]), when desired. Allow users to provide input via a user profile. Support and test standardized key input from Bluetooth-enabled devices to maximize the number of accessories that can be used as input devices. Allow users to block/opt-out of advertising and promotional information that interferes with wayfinding functionality. Force the user to use a single mode of input (e.g., touch screen and keyboard). Provide only visual output. Provide only speech-based input or auditory output. Push unsolicited advertising and promotional material that can interfere with the communication of wayfinding instructions. 220.127.116.11 Provide Flexible Application Settings to Support the Appropriate Range of User Needs and Functionality Preferences Application settings/preferences should be based on a wide range of types of abilities (e.g., vision, hearing, motor, and cognition) and levels of ability (e.g., how much one can see or hear), rather than general categories of impairment (e.g., blind or deaf). Maximize the legibility of essential information by making digital buttons and text as large as possible. Information should be obvious when possible, and, taking the deviceâs zoom feature into consideration, all relevant information should fit on each screen to avoid having to scroll down. When it is not possible to fit all the information on one screen, it should be clear both visually and through text-to-speech that there is more information. Provide alternate text color and size options to meet individual preferences and abilities. Use different vocal tones for differ- ent types of information, such as directions and landmarks. Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations, such as ASL, voice recognition, or speech output. The W3C recommends the following contrast ratios for body text and image text: â¢ Small text should have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 against its background. â¢ Large text (at 14 point bold/18 point regular and up) should have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 against its background. (https://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/visual-audio-contrast-contrast.html)
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 217 Provide choice in moving forward and back between screens, including scrolling as well as touch buttons such as âforward/nextâ or arrows. Allow users to âhyper-personalizeâ the application via a user profile that accounts not just for their specific abilities but also preferences (e.g., family restrooms versus wheelchair stall). This also requires a level of facility detail built into the application data that includes specifics, such as family restroom versus restroom. The default for âusabilityâ options such as text-to-speech, audio, and high contrast should be basic preferences that are always turned on rather than turned off. These options should be located in application settings, rather than hidden accessibility features. DO DON'T Provide a range of functionality in application settings. Ensure ranges can be easily adjusted by users with a range of capabilities (e.g., users with visual or fine motor control disabilities). Provide yes/no options for specific disabilities: Visual Disability - Do you have a visual disability? Auditory Disability - Do you have an auditory disability? Intellectual Disability - Do you have an intellectual disability? DO DON'T VISUAL Provide simultaneous visual (e.g., icons, text, color), audio, and tactile outputs for redundant cueing. Label visual controls with text as indicated on each platform (Android, iOS) so platform- specific text-to-speech interactions can be used whenever possible. Maximize contrast between foreground essential information (icons, text, etc.) and background (e.g., white or yellow on black, dark gray or blue). VISUAL Put light text on a light background. Put dark text on a dark background. Make text unnecessarily small. Make important text small. Make unimportant text large.
218 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities DO DON'T Provide range of font sizes, contrast options, size of objects, and amount of information on screen. Very small font---X---Very large font Normal contrast---X---High contrast Normal text---X---Very large text Put dark text on a light background or light text on a dark background. Make text as large as possible. Comfortably fit text and buttons into a single screen view. Size text according to importance. DO DON'T AUDITORY Provide a range of volume, frequency, voice output type, speed of voice output, and repetition controls. Quiet---X---Very loud Only important directions---X---Announce all information Very slow---X---Very fast Announce once---X---Repeat announcements until user signals to stop How well can you hear? Canât identify sounds---X---Can easily identify sounds Use different vocal tones for different types of information, such as directions and landmarks. AUDITORY Use a monotonous voice for all instructions and information. Use a single volume level without letting the user adjust it.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 219 DO DON'T TACTILE Types and intensity of vibration No vibration---X---Vibrate for all prompts TACTILE Provide range controls using sliders that require fine motor control and cannot be changed via buttons or external controllers. Support only devices with small screens. Prevent swiping in between screens. DO DON'T COGNITIVE Detail of information shown on screen? Simple---X---Very detailed COGNITIVE Display a large amount of unnecessary detail on the screen. DO DON'T DISPLAY How well can you see up close? Canât identify objects---X---Very clear How well can you see far away? Canât identify objects---X---Very clear DISPLAY Force users to scroll down through a lot of information. Cram too much text or too many buttons into a screen view so they canât easily be distinguished or tapped. DO DON'T ON-SCREEN CONTENT How much information do you prefer to see on a screen? Show me one thing at a time---X---Show as much information on each screen as possible ON-SCREEN CONTENT
220 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 18.104.22.168 Provide Simple Navigation Instructions Instructions should be simple and to the point. Include directional information necessary to get from one point to the next. Omit unnecessary information. Provide contextual informa- tion only as needed to clarify directions. Use pictures when possible to help describe an area or location. While this makes it easier for many users, especially those with intellectual disabilities, to quickly understand the information, pictures will also need to be accompanied by textual description for people who cannot see them. DO DON'T POINTS OF INTEREST Preferred Restroom Family Restroom POINTS OF INTEREST Assume all users will want to use ADA-specific bathrooms and other infrastructure. DO DON'T INTERFACE DESIGN Dropdown menu or selectable icon/symbol. Allow backward/forward movement via screen swipes. Support desktop and mobile devices of varying screen types, including large displays that are easier to see and interact with/touch. INTERFACE DESIGN DO DON'T Provide a picture and a text description of that picture to aid in wayfinding. Provide clear, precise textual descriptions when appropriate, such as: âTurn left at the concourse walkway and walk for 100 feet.â Show only a picture, which canât be seen by users with low or no vision. Provide only text, which is difficult for many users, especially those with intellectual disabilities, to understand. Provide incomplete, variable text descriptions, such as: âThere will be a concourse up ahead. You should turn left at this concourse. After turning left, you should walk for approximately 100 feet.â
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 221 22.214.171.124 Provide Information in Order Consistent with Order of Use and Importance Show information to the user in the order in which they will need it. Put important informa- tion first, followed by less important information. DO DON'T Information on screen should read top to bottom for ease of scrolling. Next/Continue button should be at bottom. Locate ânextâ button at top of screen forcing someone to scroll up from the bottom. 126.96.36.199 Provide Choice in Wayfinding Directions Provide a choice in wayfinding directions by including multiple frames of reference for ori- enting travelers, such as compass heading (e.g., âWalk north 100 feetâ) or orientation (âWalk straight 100 feetâ) by using device internal positioning method(s). For directions based on orientation, technology must be sufficiently sensitive and reliable to ensure that the user is facing in the correct direction or that the directions are given in such a way as to orient the user. DO DON'T Provide a compass image that utilizes multimodal outputs to indicate direction. In application settings: Preferred direction âcompass heading (âWalk north 100 ftâ). Assume the user will always want to use compass heading directions. Assume that the user is oriented in the right direction. 188.8.131.52 Provide Alternative Ways to Receive Airport Information Provide alternative outputs (e.g., text, vibration, and flashing light) for receiving visual (e.g., signs, interactive displays) and auditory (e.g., announcements, beeping for scanned boarding pass) airport information from signage. DO DON'T In application settings: Notifications Preferred method: - Audio - Flashing light - Text in notification window - Vibration Provide one method of notification and rely on system defaults to provide audio or vibrations.
222 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 184.108.40.206 Advance Planning The ability to plan in advance is very important to both persons with disabilities and older travelers. Wayfinding apps should allow users to map their routes before arriving at the airport and know both distances and approximate times needed to/from the gate. This reduces anxiety and allows users to make an informed decision on whether, for example, wheelchair assistance is necessary. Maps of facilities should accurately match the airport itself, and the map should be updated as the facilities change. DO DON'T Allow users to plan trips before they arrive and provide distance and time required to travel from one point to another. Provide sample origin and destination inputs so users can plan a test trip and become accustomed to the application without needing to know a specific origin and destination at an actual airport. Allow users to test the âreal-timeâ navigation feature of the system before they arrive at the airport so they can become familiar with the information and controls. Make sure the map in your application matches the actual condition on-site and continue to update the map as the facilities change. Provide multimodal inputs and outputs. Require that trips be planned to or from âMy Location.â Require the user to know a specific origin and destination at an actual airport before they can plan a sample trip. Require that the user be at an airport before any of the âreal-timeâ navigation features are shown. Allow the airport map within the application to become outdated. Rely on only visual information. 220.127.116.11 Always-On Mode The default for âusabilityâ options such as text-to-speech, audio, and high contrast should be basic preferences that are always turned on rather than turned off. These options should be located in application settings instead of hidden in accessibility features. DO DON'T In application settings: Audio - Announce directions out loud (default on) - Text in notification window - Vibration Provide one method of notification and rely on system defaults to provide audio or vibrations. Accessibility - Enable text-to-speech for users who are blind or print-disabled (default off)
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 223 18.104.22.168 Simple Directions and Instructions Directions and destinations should avoid unfamiliar terminology that is not commonly used. DO DON'T Water Fountain Restroom/Bathroom Boarding Area Hydration Station Lavatory Terminal Convey wayfinding information using as many multisensory cues as possible including tac- tile (floor or wall) information, colors, sounds, temperature, volume, and smell. This should be balanced with the need to keep directions as brief as possible. One possible design is to provide an initial brief instruction to the user, with the ability to access more detailed information if the user desires it. DO DON'T Provide a summary of instructions first and follow up with long details if the user asks for it: âTurn left at the red concourse walkway and walk for 100 feet.â âTurn where the flooring changes from tile to carpet.â âYou may smell a cinnamon roll shop near your upcoming turn.â âYou may hear a smoothie blender near your upcoming turn.â When introducing the application features to the user, explain how detailed instructions can be accessed during navigation (e.g., double-tapping on screen). The above details given to the user can be prioritized and/or shown/hidden based on the userâs preference for receiving information via in-application settings: Navigation Instructions I would like to receive details about landmarks when prompted, including: - Tactile transitions (e.g., carpet to tile) - Smells (cinnamon roll shops) - Sounds (smoothie blender) - Temperature (cold hallway) Provide extremely detailed directions without giving the user an initial short summary first: âTurn left at the red concourse walkway, where there is a transition of flooring to carpet near a cinnamon roll shop and smoothie shop and walk for 100 feet.â Provide extremely detailed directions without giving the user an option in settings for what they would like to hear details about.
224 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 22.214.171.124 Seamless Integration of Outdoor and Indoor Navigation Allow users to move seamlessly from outdoor GPS navigation to the indoor navigation sys- tem provided by the airport. The fact that separate positioning technologies are implemented for indoors versus outdoor navigation should be completely transparent to the user if possible. DO DON'T Continue to give navigation instructions as the user moves from outdoors to indoors and vice versa. Focus on user-facing instructions based on the capabilities of the positioning systems that may have differing accuracies and not positioning system technology implementation differences (âIn this airport we can provide you information about nearby points of interest, but cannot provide step-by-step navigation instructionsâ). Extend your positioning system into exterior areas with poor GPS signal access (e.g., outdoor parking garages). Force the user to download and use a separate application for indoor and outdoor navigation. Expose the user to detailed nuances of the positioning system implementation (âThe Wi-Fi trilateration-based positioning system in this airport is accurate to 15â30 metersâ). Assume that outdoor positioning technologies (e.g., GPS) will work well in covered areas (e.g., garages). Allow the airport map within the application to become outdated. Rely on only visual information. 126.96.36.199 Adaptable to Userâs Pace Each screen should clearly specify its purpose and indicate what is on the next screen and what was on the previous screen, providing full context for where the user is within the application. The application should be adaptable to the userâs pace, such as letting the user control progress within the application so they have adequate time to read the text for popups that appear. In other words, popups should not automatically disappear based on a timer or userâs physical progressâthe dismissal of the popup should be controlled by the user, or the user should have an easy way of retrieving the information after it disappears. The same requirement applies to voice output. DO DON'T Provide manual controls so users can control ânextâ or âbackâ movement through the application and review information about where theyâve been or where they are headed. If information prompts disappear on their own, provide an easy and intuitive way that users can retrieve the information they just missed. Force the user to download and use a separate application for indoor and outdoor navigation. Expose the user to detailed nuances of the positioning system implementation (âThe Wi-Fi trilateration-based positioning system in this airport is accurate to 15â30 metersâ).
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 225 188.8.131.52 Alternative Destinations Do not assume that the departure gate is always the primary or immediate destination. Appli- cations should provide information about alternative destinations (e.g., whatâs nearby). This could be done on a map with text and audio description of points of interest. Maps are a good way to communicate information visually, but for a portion of the population (including users with low or no vision), maps are not useful navigation aids. Note that use of a mobile device may not be permitted in certain areas (e.g., security). Allow for random access to destination direc- tions to enable users to locate destinations in any order (e.g., restroom). DO DON'T Show a âNearbyâ list AND map with point-of- interest names. Allow users to easily pick a new destination during navigation. Allow users to easily pause and resume the navigation within the application if they are interrupted. Show only a map with no text representation of information. Show only text with no map representation. Make the user search through an alphabetized directory to find points of interest. Force the user to complete their current navigation session to their destination before starting a new one. Assume the user can always respond to prompts, especially near security areas. Reset the application state to the beginning if the user hasnât recently interacted with the device. 184.108.40.206 Platform Consistency Navigation within the application should be consistent with the latest design guidelines for the particular mobile phone platform: â¢ iOS https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/UserExperience/Conceptual/ MobileHIG/index. html â¢ Android http://developer.android.com/design/index.html Accessibility guidelines for each platform should also be followed except where they are super- seded by these guidelines: â¢ iOS https://developer.apple.com/accessibility/ios/ â¢ Android https://material.google.com/usability/accessibility.html https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/accessibility/index.html
226 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities iPhone users are accustomed to iPhone applications typically providing similar options for navigation within the application, and Android users are accustomed to Android applications typically providing similar options for navigation within those applications. However, adopt- ing Android in-application navigation design in an iPhone application would be confusing to iPhone users, as would adopting iPhone in-application navigation design in an Android applica- tion. Where possible, use familiar and existing conventions for the location of buttons for the specific platform, such as âpreviousâ and ânextâ buttons in corners, â< and >â for next screen, and the use of color-coded drop pins and dots to indicate beginning, current, and destination locations on the map. Icons should be familiar and consistent with user expectations and consis- tent with the design guidelines for the particular mobile phone platform. As with in-application navigation, using Android icons in an iPhone application would be confusing to iPhone users, as would using iPhone icons in an Android application. DO DON'T Use iOS standard icons in iOS applications. Use Android standard icons in Android applications. Use Android application design conventions. Include in-application navigation for Android applications. Use iOS application design conventions (including in-application navigation) for iOS applications. Use the same icons and in-application design and navigation design across Android and iOS. Use non-Android icons (iOS, generic) on Android. Use non-iOS icons (Android, generic) on iOS. Use non-Android in-application design and navigation on Android. Use non-iOS in-application design and navigation on iOS. Reset the application state to the beginning if the user hasnât recently interacted with the device. 220.127.116.11 Warning of Errors Provide multimodal (e.g., visual, tactile, and/or audio) warnings (outputs) to identify errors during wayfinding. Geofencing is a technique through which users, when they enter a particular space or pass by a particular landmark, can be given a notification to validate the wayfinding route as they navigate the airport. DO DON'T Provide sensing capability to identify a travelerâs current location and orientation on an interactive plan of the airport. Assume the user can find their location on a map without assistance. Assume the user is familiar with security procedures.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 227 DO DON'T Incorporate user tips to facilitate getting around the airport, such as before going through security (have your ID out, wheelchair may cause delay, etc.), finding where to park, and accessing assistance, etc. Include map/interactive directional map to see progress and correct mistakes. Add an auto timer for the userâs flight departure to avoid missing a flight. Identify each gate that is passed along the route to confirm users are on the correct path and to discourage unconscious actions. Incorporate real-time data (when available) about the status (open/closed) of security checkpoints and vertical transitions (e.g., escalators, elevators). Provide photos and descriptions of places that line up with the angle the user is facing. Provide visual, tactile, and/or audio verification outputs to affirm or confirm a selection (e.g., text/audio saying âFinding a restroomâ). Provide concise and redundant route details, including the provision of landmarks, distance, and orientation (e.g., âwalk straight for 20 feet until you reach the drinking fountainâ). Automatically select the units for distance based on the locale that the user has selected on the mobile device (e.g., use âimperialâ for U.S. English locale), but also offer a manual option to choose metric or imperial. Assume the user knows how to access assistance. Assume the user can âfigure it outâ if something goes wrong with directions, or there is an error in real-time positioning. Go long periods of time without any visual, audio, or tactile feedback indicating that the user is on the right or wrong path. Assume the user remembers when their flight departs. Assume that facilities such as security checkpoints or elevators are always open. Provide photos or descriptions of places that donât line up with the angle the user is facing. Provide vague descriptions of places. Assume the user always picks the correct option, and proceed without confirming their selection. Provide vague directions without referencing distance or landmarks (e.g., âwalk forwardâ). Always use the same unit type (imperial, metric) without a user option to change it.
228 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities DO DON'T Locate buttons along the top, bottom, and sides of the interface where they can be easily found and pressed. Define the order for screen reading elements to match the logical order in which the information should be presented to the user. When re-opening the application after an accidental shutdown, bring the user back to where they left off. Minimize scrolling and other repetitive actions such as double tap and hitting ânextâ after every direction. Maximize accuracy by making buttons as large as possible and with sufficient space between them. Locate buttons in the middle of the interface where interaction isnât obvious. Read elements on the screen out of logical order. When re-opening the application after an accidental shutdown, restart the application at the first screen. Require interactions with the screen when they arenât needed. 8.4 Accessible Help/Call Points 8.4.1 Overview Accessible help/call points are easy-to-use communication devices that provide arriving travelers needing accessibility information or assistance with a connection to a remotely located service provider. Help/call points offer verbal and virtual communication with the airport. These devices can provide convenient points at which people with disabilities can initiate their wayfinding experience upon their arrival to the terminal. 8.4.2 Application Accessible help/call points are usually in the form of totems or kiosks and are normally posi- tioned near main airport terminal entrances or sometimes even in accessible car parking facili- ties. Help/call points can be used by those with disabilities to announce their arrival at the airport and to request a wheelchair, electric cart, escort, or other assistance to further their journey into the terminal and eventually to their departure gate. Help/call points should be identified with international accessibility symbols to clearly indi- cate their purpose and should be placed so that they are easily accessed by travelers with mobility issues (wheelchairs, walkers, canes, etc.) yet do not present an obstruction to normal pedestrian traffic flow when in use. 18.104.22.168 Low Physical Effort Design user interactions with the user interface to be efficient and comfortable and involve a minimum of fatigue.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 229 8.4.3 Components Components of a help/call point include the following: â¢ Analog, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), or wireless telephone in a vandal- and weather- resistant enclosure â¢ Installation that is highly visible and well-marked â¢ Single or dual autodial buttons â¢ Raised text button legend with Braille â¢ Enabled for hearing loop â¢ Hands-free operation â¢ Audio-visual ring indicator â¢ Connection to a central monitoring station 8.4.4 Implementation Help/call points can be connected via a range of technologiesâVoIP, global system for mobile communications (GSM), integrated services digital network (ISDN), and public switched tele- phone network (PSTN)âutilizing dedicated or shared infrastructure. In their simplest form, help/call points present a single, clearly labeled button that, when pressed, rings down to a central location associated with the department or staff that is respon- sible for offering information or accessibility services. Other configurations may present an interactive screen that allows more choices for requesting the desired information or service. These devices can be fitted with Braille overlays or hearing loops to increase their accessibility and usability for those with vision or hearing disabilities (see Figure 8-5). Signage and instructions for use should be clear and easy to understand. Screens, handsets, buttons, or other methods of input or interaction should be within easy reach, involve low physi- cal effort, and work intuitively for the user. Identify help points using symbols that indicate the disabilities that the help point serves (see Figure 8-6). Source: London Gatwick Airport (LGW), Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG), and Madrid Barajas Airport (MAD) Figure 8-5. Examples of accessible curbside help/call points at London Gatwick, Charles de Gaulle, and Madrid Airports.
230 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 8.5 Interactive Kiosks 8.5.1 Overview Interactive kiosks are computer terminals utilizing specialized hardware and software that provide self-service access to information and applications (see Figure 8-7). A longtime com- mon amenity in airports, interactive kiosks can reduce interaction times, enhance security, and provide greater convenience for many users. However, as the reliance on kiosks to provide ser- vices to the public increases, the importance of providing kiosks that are accessible to people with disabilities increases as well. Both physical design and the user interface of these machines Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-6. Symbols used to help identify call points for help. Source: Dallas Fort Worth (DFW), Dubai (DXB), Pittsburgh (PIT) Figure 8-7. Interactive kiosks at Dallas Fort Worth International Airport, Dubai International Airport, and Pittsburgh International Airport.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 231 can pose a wide variety of problems for users with various types of disabilities if accessibility features are not implemented correctly. In general, it appears that most of the accessibility concerns relating to automated public kiosks fall into two broad categories: â¢ Kiosk environment and structure. This includes the location of the kiosk and providing ease of access for all people, including individuals who use wheelchairs, aging travelers, and people with vision loss. It also covers the physical structure of the kiosk, such as the height and angle of the screen and keyboard, as well as the provision of headphone outputs and in some cases assistive keyboards. â¢ Screen interface. This includes the size and color of the text and buttons on the screen, clear identification of form inputs, the use of language that is easy to understand, and the provi- sion of audio alternatives for all information or functionality conveyed by images or text. In addition, users should be able to increase the amount of time needed to complete a task and be able to review, verify, or revise any transactions. As part of the U.S. DOT effort to ensure equal access to air transportation for all travelers, it is requiring automated airport kiosks to be accessible to passengers with disabilities. Under the new rule (issued jointly as 14 CFR Part 382/399 and 49 CFR Part 27), automated kiosks installed at U.S. airports for services such as printing boarding passes and baggage tags must be accessible to passengers with disabilities until at least 25 percent of all kiosks at each airport location are accessible. In addition, 25 percent of kiosks at each airport location must be accessible within 10 years. The U.S. DOT will continue to require carriers to ensure equivalent service (e.g., per- mitting the passenger to go to the front of the line at the ticket counter or providing airline personnel to assist with the kiosk). Carriers and airports must enter an agreement allocating responsibility for meeting the accessibility criteria for joint-use kiosks that carriers own, lease, or control with the airport operator. With this in mind, airport decision-makers should carefully choose their kiosk vendors and equipment to ensure that the devices utilize principles of universal design to meet the accessibil- ity mandates while providing the access necessary to allow individuals with disabilities to interact independently and use the full range of services without having to ask for assistance. The ADA states there must be clear accessibility to the kiosk, i.e., enough room so a person in a wheelchair can maneuver to the screen and gain access. ADA Standards require a clear floor or ground space directly in front of the kiosk for persons in wheelchairs that is a minimum of 30 inches by 48 inches. With regard to access to the touch screen and components, the law provides ranges of maximum and minimum height for components with unobstructed and obstructed forward reach and unobstructed and obstructed side reach. âUnobstructed reachâ can be defined as a kiosk system that has no large, protruding extension that would prevent or hinder a person interacting with the component. âObstructed reachâ is defined as a kiosk system that would contain a large shelf/counter, and/or have a recessed monitor that would limit access to the component by the user. Front-reach and side-reach access standards as defined in ADA 2010 Standards are the following (see Figures 8-8 and 8-9): â¢ Front-reach unobstructed accessâMinimum of 15 inches from the floor and maximum of 48 inches high from the floor. â¢ Front-reach obstructed accessâSetback of zero to 20 inches with a maximum of 48 inches high from the floor for the component. The law will allow a setback of 25 inches, but the maximum height drops to 44 inches high from the floor. â¢ Side-reach unobstructed accessâMaximum of 48 inches from the floor. â¢ Side-reach obstructed accessâSetback of zero to 10 inches with a maximum of 48 inches from the floor for the component. If the setback is within the range of 10 inches to 24 inches, then the maximum height drops to 44 inches from the floor.
232 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Placement of components also determines maximum height. A shelf should range from 28 inches to a maximum of 34 inches from the floor (ADA Standards Â§902.3). This should serve as a good benchmark for input components such as a keyboard, credit-card reader, PIN pad, etc. Additionally, guidance may be necessary for the placement of individual components or functions outside of simple access to the kiosk and its components. For example, if the kiosk has a telephone handset, then ADA specifies the type of handset and functional requirements needed. Likewise, if the application has audio, then ADA defines how to address individuals who are hard of hearing. Lastly, signage elements for components and directions placed on the kiosk will require raised characters and other provisions listed in ADA Chapter 7. These new ADA Standards were adopted by the Department of Justice in September 2010 and went into effect March 15, 2012, replacing the original ADA Standards. New Section 504 design standards for automated airport kiosks (49 CFR Part 27), while ref- erencing the ADA 2010 Standards mentioned above, include additional detailed requirements with regard to operable parts, privacy, output (speech, captioning, tickets and boarding passes), input (controls, alphabetic keys, numeric keys, function keys, contrast, and tactile symbols), and display screen (visibility, characters, Braille instructions, and biometrics). For example, with regard to visibility, âThe display screen must be visible from a point located 40 inches (1015 mm) above the center of the clear floor space in front of the automated kioskâ [Â§27.71(i)]. Designers of any self-contained automated kiosk may also want to refer to the new Sec- tion 508 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Standards and Guidelines pub- lished on January 18, 2017 (36 CFR Part 1194) on which the Section 504 requirements are based. Source: https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and- standards/buildings-and-sites/about-the-ada-standards/ ada-standards/chapter-3-building-blocks Figure 8-8. Obstructed High Forward Reach. Source: https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/buildings- and-sites/about-the-ada-standards/ada-standards/chapter-3-building-blocks Figure 8-9. Obstructed High Side Reach.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 233 These technical standards touch on additional issues such as control of animation and seizure flash threshold for visual outputs, which the U.S. DOT did not initially include in its require- ments for airport automated kiosks. In summary, as ADA and U.S. DOT standards and rules apply to any kiosk project in the United States, airport operators should work with these governing agencies when designing and implementing interactive, non-transactional wayfinding kiosks. Federal regulatory require- ments can be complicated and understanding them and determining how to meet them can be challenging, so it is important that airports conduct proper research to determine whether kiosks meet ADA and Section 504 standards. Airports are encouraged to use the âif thenâ pro- cess for every component and function and to build a matrix to ensure compliance, such as the following: â¢ If the kiosk uses a touch screen, then the maximum height of the monitor should not exceed 48 inches. â¢ If using a touch screen, then these (specify) type(s) of touch technologies comply with ADA and Section 504. â¢ If the kiosk uses a shelf, then the maximum height of the shelf should not exceed 34 inches. â¢ If the kiosk uses a telephone handset, then the height shall conform to ADA guidelines (ADA, Chapter 3, 308 Reach Ranges) and audio controls must meet guidelines (Chapter 7, 704 Telephones). The process of understanding ADA and Section 504 requirements can be overwhelming, but with proper research and planning, compliance with federal standards can be accomplished. 8.5.2 Application While there are a multitude of interactive kiosk airport applications, this discussion will focus on informational/wayfinding kiosks. Interactive wayfinding takes traditional wayfinding to an entirely new level, integrating tech- nologies such as touch screens, radio frequency identification (RFID), and barcode scanners. Touch screens have enabled a whole new level of self service, allowing travelers to independently select a destination from a map or list and have the system create a map to the endpoint, factor- ing in things such as multiple floors, multiple regions, and multiple buildings. Additionally, some software solutions that power interactive wayfinding kiosks use conditional formatting and are able to react to things such as elevator operation times or conditions, making the system choose an appropriate route based on current conditions. 8.5.3 Components Common kiosk components include the following: â¢ Touch monitor. A touch monitor consists of a touch-sensitive transparent screen placed over a cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor or flat panel display monitor. Pictures or text on the screen instruct users to select or âtouchâ an option. Touch monitors are used in approximately 75 percent of all kiosk installations because of their ease of use, durability, and reliability. â¢ Enclosure. Whether itâs a compact wall unit or a stand-alone installation, every kiosk must have an enclosure, and it must be made of sturdy, durable materials designed to withstand abuse. Typically, kiosk enclosures are made of metal, but wood, plastic, or fiberglass may also be used. The kiosk location (indoor versus outdoor, for example) and type of installation (stand-alone, wall-mounted, or tabletop) help to determine the type of enclosure that is needed. â¢ Application software. The kioskâs software application must attract users to the kiosk, accomplish the kioskâs stated objectives, be easy to use, and incorporate built-in reporting
234 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities mechanisms that provide feedback about which parts of the application are used, how long users stay at the kiosk, and other data. Many kiosk developers are using their website as the basis for their kiosk application. â¢ Computer. The kiosk applicationâs requirements determine the computer hardware require- ments. At a minimum, a kiosk computer should support full-motion video, digital audio, and network connectivity. â¢ Printer. The kind of printer a kiosk needs depends on the kioskâs function. Kiosks most often use printers to print receipts, tickets, boarding passes, luggage tags, maps, and product information. â¢ Infrastructure. In addition to the components listed above, a kiosk hardware deployment will also require the related facilities infrastructure to provide power and communications to the device. This would normally include a dedicated electrical outlet with the associated conduit and wiring back to a distribution panel in a nearby electrical room. Data connectivity for the kiosk is normally a cabled connection back to a nearby telecommunications room or data closet. In some cases, depending on the use and owner of the kiosk system, this can be an airline-owned and -maintained network or, as is becoming more common, an airport-owned and -maintained network infrastructure. â¢ Database. A database is defined as an organized collection of data that supports processes requiring information. In a digital signage database, this can consist of links to text, images, connections to other databases, etc. Common links required for a successful interactive pro- gram are to the airportâs Airport Operational Database (AODB) and to a flight information aggregator. 8.5.4 Implementation There are two types of implementation when deploying a digital interactive program: physi- cal and logical deployment. The kiosks must be physically located where they get good passen- ger traffic yet donât cause backups. Secondly, building and implementing the signage content requires a background in database knowledge and how an airport database operates in order to produce the data flow required for an interactive display. 22.214.171.124 Physical Location and convenience are key factors when determining placement of kiosks in any planned deployment. The primary purpose of self-service kiosks is convenience, but if the kiosk isnât placed in a convenient location, the kiosk inherently is no longer convenient. If a kiosk is placed in an out-of-the-way location or consistently has long lines, then consumers will natu- rally look for a more convenient option. The main aspects to be considered in the placement of kiosks are visibility, accessibility and movement of passenger traffic, and comfort and privacy of the passenger. Kiosks should be designed with functionality that eliminates or minimizes barriers to use for people with disabilities and mature users with age-related limitations. Ideally, interactive kiosks will â¢ Provide accessibility features for people with disabilities. â¢ Support interfaces commonly used by screen readers. â¢ Allow operation using only the keyboard. â¢ Allow the user to request more time to complete timed responses. â¢ Support customization of display attributes such as color, contrast, and font size. â¢ Communicate all information independently of color. â¢ Support interfaces commonly used by screen magnifiers.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 235 â¢ Provide documentation in an accessible format. â¢ Support alternatives to audio information. â¢ Support adjustable volume control. 126.96.36.199 Logical In order to build and deploy dynamic content for an interactive directory, a network of data repositories must exist to store the information and make the kiosks operate according to their design. Because of the level of personalized information delivered to the passenger, many forms of data acquisition must occur. In this acquisition process, it is better to replicate infor- mation than to duplicate it. Utilizing airport resources, such as the AODB, and storing assets specific to the interactive directory at a separate location create a clean and highly responsive inter active kiosk. An AODB is a relational database that serves as a central repository and translator for all essential airport information systems in a real-time environment. The AODB streamlines and minimizes data entry, increases operational effectiveness, and ensures accuracy by cross- referencing information between various systems. The system increases overall efficiency and performance of operations by providing historical and real-time airport information and com- piling the information into a single database. While each airportâs use is unique, the AODB processes tasks and data for the support of various users in three main categories: aircraft, pas- sengers, and resource management. In the category of aircraft, the AODB processes tasks and data for â¢ Air traffic control systems â¢ Slot assignment systems â¢ Resource allocation systems â¢ Aeronautical fixed telecommunications network â¢ Seasonal flight scheduling â¢ Daily flight schedule processing In the category of passengers, the AODB processes tasks and data for â¢ FIDSs â¢ GIDSs â¢ BIDSs In the category of resource management, the AODB processes tasks and data for â¢ Property management â¢ Baggage handling systems â¢ Check-in and gate resource allocation â¢ Billing â¢ Reporting A relational database is used to organize data into tables of columns and rows in order to com- pare and make logical connections between the data in the form of queries to complete a task, whether it be for billing an airline for time spent at a jet bridge or charging a concession rent for occupying a space. All the âindividualâ tables relate to one another and are used for scheduling, reporting, and/or billing. A typical AODB for a mid- or large-sized airport can be complex and cumbersome, which leads to maintenance difficulties. The AODB drives production of information for airport operations and therefore is an important asset to preserve and to maintain. Maintaining an acceptable operating size is important for the health of the database and operation of the facility.
236 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Because of the critical nature of an AODB and the impact it has on the airportâs operation, it is not an ideal location in which to store the assets and information required for a digital passenger wayfinding and information system. Depending on the size of the facility and program, a digital signage database (DSDB) can become complex enough on its own. Once established, the CMS can query the AODB as a data source and extract data from specific tables, at specific times, with- out the need to store that data long term. One example is boarding/flight information data. If a passenger has the ability to input information about their upcoming flight, the CMS will process this information and, through a data source connection to the AODB, be able to obtain and dis- play the information requested, omitting the need to store that information locally in the DSDB. A DSDB structure will vary among applications, but on the most basic level it will consist of data with some type of meaning stored within a table. Whether these data are a universal nam- ing convention path linking to a multimedia asset or plain text, they are simply data. Metadata are what gives these data meaning. Metadata loosely means âdata about dataâ and is defined as structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource. An example of metadata can be drawn from a streaming music service. A listener can enter an artistâs name or a music genre and a song that fits that description plays. When that song completes, another song fitting the provided description will play after that and so on. The song is the data and the information the listener enters is metadata (and the service matches the metadata of one song to another using an algorithm to create a playlist) that populates an array of songsâ or dataâthat the listener will enjoy. Traditionally, the primary usage of metadata in a digital signage environment is for playlist or channel assignment, typically in an enterprise deployment. Organizations with multiple sign deployments clustered across the United States or worldwide can take advantage of doing con- tent updates based on region or organization type. Parameters are assigned linking content to a region and updated automatically, saving the content developer from having to assign specific content to each individual location. Figure 8-10 shows an example of relational tables in a fictional DSDB. Each table stores a piece of data, whether image, text, or link to another database with a metadata tag. This tag defines the location of the display where that particular content is destined to go. The tag filter represents how the CMS scheduling tool correctly routes each piece of content to the proper display. On a more granular level, the use of metadata in a database can help turn a static wayfinding display into an intelligent wayfinding tool, much like streaming music providers use metadata to create playlists. Instead of metadata being used to separate displays by region, it can be used within a database as an associative trigger. Through the use of metadata, an asset like an escalator can become a tool to direct passen- gers. As illustrated in Figure 8-11, the passenger is being directed to use the closest escalator as a means to transition to the level below via breadcrumb-trail-style navigation. By correlating the last âbreadcrumbâ at a decision-making point with the status of the escalator/elevator, the filter will direct the passenger to use whichever vertical transportation option is in an âonâ state. During a maintenance event when an escalator may be shut down, the status converts to an âoff â state, and will direct a passenger to a different vertical transportation option (see Figure 8-12). This same principle can be applied to a passenger requiring special accommodations. By indicat- ing in the CMS that the passenger requires a wheelchair-accessible route, the system will analyze the metadata associated with each vertical transportation option and select the proper route. This type of system would need some type of human-machine interface (HMI) device at the display so that the passenger is able to interact and the CMS can offer a solution. Typically, an interactive or touch screen is the most common HMI for this application.
Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-10. Database interconnectivity diagram using metadata. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-11. Depiction of route programming in a CMS with operational escalators.
238 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities A data flow diagram is a visual representation of the method by which data are delivered to a passenger through a graphical interface. Typically, a similarly designed system requires an input device through which a passenger offers the system information in order for it to provide a cus- tomized response. That information can be a gate number, flight number, or a particular location they are seeking. The system can then offer the best way to get to a gate or other location, as well as walk times and operating hours (if applicable). If the passenger enters accessibility requirement information into the system, such as the need for an elevator to transverse levels, the system can account for this and automatically redirect. This capability was illustrated previously with the breadcrumb trails. Alternately, other accommodations can be dispatched to the passengerâs loca- tion, such as airport wheelchair services, airport police, or general assistance. Integrating a voice communication system allows a passenger to speak to airport staff if the visual communication system is not helpful. Figure 8-13 shows a database integration and data flow diagram. This data flow diagram takes into consideration that the display is touch-integrated, and there is a device that allows the pas- senger to scan their boarding pass. If the DSDB is programmed to communicate with a flight information aggregator such as OAG, once the userâs flight number/destination is inserted or scanned, the DSDB can query the OAG database and instantly provide that passenger with per- sonalized information about their trip. Once the flight information is found, the passenger is able to see where their gate is on a map and watch the system draw a line to the gate, indicating the best way to get there and how long it will take to walk or if they need to request assistance. Indicating shopping and dining options along the way provides yet another valuable service to passengers. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-12. Depiction of route programming in a CMS with escalators out of order or an alternate route request. Passenger is rerouted to the elevators.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 239 8.6 Digital Wayfinding Directories 8.6.1 Overview Digital signage is the management and delivery of digital video, audio, and information through a network to display devices to attract or reach a captive audience. The term âdigital wayfinding directoryâ refers to any network of displays, usually LCD or LED screens, which display static, dynamic, or interactive content utilized to assist a traveler in the process of navigating their way through a built environment (see Figure 8-14). Digital wayfinding signage is quickly emerging as an efficient way of enhancing the travel expe- rience from the customerâs point of view, providing them with helpful maps, directions, and information to assist them as they navigate through the airport. This use of digital technology can greatly reduce the travelerâs stress and frustration, as well as save them time, while making the process of assisting travelers easier for airport and airline employees. Airports have discovered Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-13. Example of a data flow diagram for an interactive display with a boarding pass scanner.
240 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities that the travel experience can be greatly improved through the use of digital wayfinding signage (Slawsky December 30, 2010). Fortunately, wayfinding systems have grown and improved significantly over the past few years. Design professionals and assistive technology specialists have found an increasing number of ways to combine different types of environmental âcuesâ to enhance wayfinding for people with disabilities. The result of these improvements is not only better wayfinding for people who are blind or have mobility limitations, but better wayfinding for a wide range of populations including aging travelers, people with learning or cognitive disabilities, and non-English speakers. The principles behind wayfinding systems for the general population and for people with disabilities are becoming integrated into a universal design model, one in which the focus of design is how to use combined systems to support and enhance wayfinding for everyone (Brinkhoff 2016). 8.6.2 Application There are three types of digital wayfinding signage: 1. Static. Static digital wayfinding signs include maps or simple directions with words and arrows. Thereâs no way for a person to necessarily ârequestâ routes or other specific informa- tion, but components like color, graphics, feeds, and animation can make these maps much more engaging and informative than a print sign. 2. Dynamic. Dynamic digital wayfinding signage is a little more in-depth. It can provide real- istic views of locations with multiple stories or levels and can also change based on database updates. These signs can highlight specific locations that correspond with a directory list- ing displayed on screen to allow travelers to easily identify where they are and where they need to go. 3. Interactive. Interactive digital wayfinding signage actually allows the traveler to request spe- cific information. Using a touch-screen display, travelers can enter their current location and where they want to go, and the sign will give step-by-step directions and even graphically show the path on a digital map. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-14. Digital wayfinding signage at Boston Logan International Airport.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 241 Recent technological developments allow for mobile integration. Any device that can be con- nected to the internet (i.e., smartphones and tablets) can be synced to the signage system, and the viewers can send a request to the signage via text. Specific step-by-step directions can then be sent to the mobile device by text or email. This can be also done with QR (quick response) codes, where the viewer scans the code with their mobile device to get access to maps and directories (mediaPanel July 28 2015). 8.6.3 Components The digital wayfinding signage network is made up of six major components: 1. Content. Content represents the maps, directories, messaging, and information to be deliv- ered. It may include pre-recorded information, news feeds, or even advertising. 2. Servers. Servers are the computers where content is stored, managed, and distributed to players via a network. 3. Content management software. This is specialized software used to schedule the delivery and play of the content at multiple devices, as well as to monitor performance and track and report on the execution of the scheduled events. Most content management software also includes authoring features, and most include screen formatting and production capability for screen crawlers and other information feeds. 4. Distribution network. The distribution network provides the delivery and feedback infra- structure to pass information to and from the display locations. The network can take mul- tiple forms; for example, it could be internet, LAN, WAN, or wireless. 5. Media players. Players are typically personal computers or special purpose media personal computers used to store and deliver content to the display devices on the defined timetable. 6. Display devices. These may be LCD, LED, or plasma displays, kiosks or CRT devices. The displays may be touch screen or have touch overlays to provide touch-interactive wayfinding. There is no âone size fits allâ with digital signage. Effectively assembling the components into a working digital signage network requires an audio/video and systems integrator who understands the available products and how to design and integrate them to meet customersâ particular needs. 8.6.4 Implementation Implementing airport information technology systems should involve four major integrated processesâplanning, design, construction, and commissioning (Airport Consultants Council January 2012). The main steps involved in creating and deploying digital wayfinding signage are â¢ Identify goals, including what other information wayfinding should provide or link to. â¢ Decide whether interactive or non-interactive signage is wanted. â¢ Do the maps. â¢ Determine what other informational or promotional content will be used. â¢ Decide where to position wayfinding displays. Likely locations include high-traffic areas, such as entrances and exits; doors and reception areas; and major branch points like lobbies and elevator/stair/escalator areas. â¢ Determine structural requirements for installation of the displays and the chosen mount- ing method. Ensure that final installation will meet ADA compliance or other accessibility requirements. â¢ Determine power and data requirements for the chosen display configuration and how to provide the needed infrastructure (conduits, cabling, etc.) at the designated locations.
242 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities â¢ Implement the physical hardware and perform thorough testing to confirm operation. â¢ Maintain the databases (Dern November 4, 2013). Implementing a digital signage network can be a complex undertaking. A major difficulty is that it requires multiple, diverse skills and capabilities. Content providers, who are typically marketing or advertising agencies, donât normally understand information technology (IT), networking, and professional audio/video (A/V) technologies. IT professionals donât usually understand content or professional A/V technologies. And professional A/V system integrators donât typically under- stand content creation. These diverse areas of expertise need to be assembled into a working team to achieve success. Partner integration and project management skills are needed to establish the structure and communications necessary for creative, effective, and efficient execution of the proj- ect. Itâs a production, and the producer is critical to the success of the project. Once a decision has been made to install digital signage, a multidisciplinary team must be assembled. One entity must assume the role of project integrator. This company or individual will be responsible for bringing together the necessary partners and resources at the right time to make the project successful. The project integrator will coordinate initial activities, such as defin- ing goals, budgets, needs analysis, bids and contracts, and project milestone schedules. Once the project is underway, the project integrator will manage the project and coordinate messaging, content development, IT requirements, software selection and training, selection and procure- ment of hardware and display devices, and system integration and installation. Digital wayfinding signage projects go through a phased development process. The major phases are described briefly below. Large implementations will normally be broken down into a pilot test project and then refined prior to a larger scale rollout. The pilot process is used to obtain customer feedback and confirmation of design and functional intent before rolling out on a large scale. 188.8.131.52 Phase 1âNeeds Analysis and Consultation The work done in this phase pays for itself several times over in later phases by preventing mistakes and miscommunication of desired results. The needs analysis is an evaluation and planning phase. Client needs are identified and documented through an extensive, formal needs analysis. Goals and objectives are defined at this time and preliminary budgets are developed to ensure that all involved clearly understand the scope and financial investment required to be successful. The important point is to be sure to set goals to accomplish before beginning. Here are some possible objectives for a digital wayfinding signage project: â¢ Improve user experience â¢ Provide interactive user experience â¢ Provide user self service â¢ Communicate with users â¢ Improve efficiency by central updating and distribution of information. Itâs important to define the project success metrics so that provisions can be made to capture the necessary performance data during the implementation phase. Site surveys can be conducted to determine traffic patterns, utility connections, internet accessibility, sight lines, site lighting, ambient light and noise conditions, as well as display locations and types. 184.108.40.206 Phase 2âDesign The design phase consists of two parts: 1. Technical design, which includes the architecture and specification of servers, content man- agement software, distribution network, and display components of the system. Technical
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 243 design will also include how to accommodate merchandising or real-time features associated with the network. 2. Content development, which includes developing the video and audio messages as well as branding and entertainment or information features. Content is the single most important factor in the success of a digital signage program. Conduct an inventory of current digital assets from advertising, website, and product videos to see what is usable and what can be repurposed. Factors such as viewer attention span, directed audio, interactive information, and location-specific factors all need to be considered. In addition, data from inventory and POS systems may also be used to provide near real-time merchandising and promotion. As mentioned in Section 8.2.2, WCAG 2.0 define how to make digital content more accessible to people with disabilities. Accessibility involves a wide range of disabilities, including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, language, learning, and neurological disabilities. Although these guidelines are geared specifically toward web content, any information displayed digitally should be designed with consideration of these guidelines that focus on contrast and text sizes for individuals with disabilities. People with low vision may not see digital images in the same way as other people. Some see only small portions of a display at one time. Others cannot see text or images that are too small. Additionally, others can only see digital content if it appears in specific colors. For these reasons, many people with low vision require high contrast between background and text and specific colors and fonts. For example, many people with low vision need to use high-contrast settings, such as bold white or yellow letters on a black background. Others need just the oppositeâbold, black text on a white or yellow background, while some must use softer, more subtle color com- binations. WCAG 2.0 require that foreground and background colors have a minimum 4.5:1 contrast ratio, which ensures that text color is significantly different from the background color for clarity. The Detroit Metropolitan Airport launched a digital signage program in 2015 in which forty- six 84-inch displays, two 98-inch displays with boarding pass scanners, and four 55-inch inter- active kiosks with boarding pass scanners were installed to replace the legacy printed maps that had been scattered throughout the airport. There was a focused effort to create new maps uti- lizing the existing color scheme but in such a way as to maximize contrast while presenting an aesthetically pleasing product. Following the basic standards described in WCAG, the creative team decided to use a dark blue background, a flat, white-color map, and bright colors to indi- cate the âYou Are Hereâ marker and separate shopping, dining, and ground transportation services. The large size of the displays allows a passenger in the back of a group of people to adequately see the display, and, if they cannot, there is another one only a few yards away. Prior to launch- ing the program, all the content was developed and vetted through a passenger survey program where feedback, including color scheme, visual acuity, and content were analyzed by passengers from all demographics. Figure 8-15 shows an example of digital static display content developed with visually appealing color for contrast and categorization. All the content is stored in the CMSâs digital signage database with an API for the signage administrator to easily make quick content changes and updates. 220.127.116.11 Phase 3âIntegration and Implementation The integration phase is really when all the work comes together in the commissioning and operation of the digital wayfinding signage network. System components are integrated and tested and then installed in the field. Determine whether or not to contract the content sched- uling, content deployment and system operation with a network operating center or host it in-house. If it is in-house, staff should be trained in content scheduling and system operations.
244 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities In a large-scale system deployment, the initial implementation will be a pilot project in one or more representative locations. The pilot is tightly managed and controlled so that maximum learning can occur and be incorporated as the system is refined and rolled out on a larger scale later. Both the system and the messaging will be tested. As the system is implemented, informa- tion from sources such as sales data by time period and customer surveys regarding impressions and buying habits should be actively collected. 18.104.22.168 Phase 4âMeasurement, Evaluation, and Rollout Each day of operations yields data and new insights that are refined into the rollout strategy and plan. The measurements made during the implementation of the pilot project are used to project the expected impact of the rollout on the organization as a whole. Measurements in areas such as sales increase by time period, cross sells, operations improvement, customer satisfaction, brand awareness and customer experience can all be measured to evaluate the previously estab- lished return on investment (ROI) and justify continued deployment. While the initial imple- mentation is underway, the planning for the longer term rollout can be initiated. Operations, service, and training plans are developed for the rollout. Finally, as all are prepared, the actual rollout plan is implemented. The same process of needs analysis, design, content development, and implementation is continued as the system is continually refined and refreshed. 22.214.171.124 Conclusion The potential benefits from a full-scale digital wayfinding signage implementation are mea- surable and significant (see Figures 8-16 and 8-17). The design and implementation of a digital wayfinding signage network is complex and requires the participation of a team of partners with Source: Detroit Metropolitan Airport Figure 8-15. Digital static directory display.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 245 multiple and diverse skill sets. The required commitment is also significant. Having a solid, well-thought-out plan, with quantifiable objectives and an understanding of how ROI can be obtained and measured is a good starting place (CDS Office Technologies 2011). 8.7 FIDS 8.7.1 Overview The display of flight information is extremely important for an airport. Without the right flight information, passengers donât know where to go and when their flight will depart. Visitors are uncertain about the arrival time of their relatives, and airport personnel are not informed about internal flight details. Source: San Francisco International Airport Figure 8-16. Digital wayfinding signage at San Francisco International Airport. Source: St. Louis International Airport Figure 8-17. Digital wayfinding signage.
246 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities For an airport, itâs crucial that people are informed with flight information that is both accu- rate and up-to-date. To achieve this, nearly every airport nowadays has a FIDS. Some airports have special variants of a FIDS like a BIDS or a GIDS. Other airports use a generic term like passenger information display system to indicate their system. There are also airports where major airlines have their own FIDSs. FIDSs are ideal for all aspects of information presentation at the airport by providing travelers with relevant information thatâs timely, accurate, and easy to understand. A FIDS can be customized to serve a number of specific functions, including: â¢ Displaying the most up-to-date flight status information available including delays/ cancellations. â¢ Directing travelers to the correct gate and hold room area. â¢ Providing security information and instructions. â¢ Displaying weather/traffic so travelers can plan ahead. â¢ Directing travelers to parking facilities, ground transportation centers, and car rentals. â¢ Promoting other airport or hotel services on the same screen with the flight information. â¢ Displaying visual pages. â¢ Displaying emergency notifications and instructions. Last-minute gate changes can be confusing for all travelers, especially the aging travelers and persons with disabilities. These customers need to be promptly addressed with a triggered visual page displayed on the FIDS and GIDS and an associated auto-triggered audio page to alert them of the flight information changes. 8.7.2 Application The FIDS screens are usually professional, intelligent monitors in portrait or landscape orien- tation with a built-in or attached appliance. FIDSs could be improved at many airports. Location, position, height, and angle can make accessing information difficult. Glare caused by nearby light sources, poor contrast, and small font sizes can make them unreadable. Providing access to users with disabilities is not just a good idea, itâs fast becoming the law. Making a few adjustments and adhering to most of these guidelines will help all users: â¢ Ensure that text is easily visible at a reasonable distance from the sign. â¢ Always ensure that text colors have high contrast with the background color. â¢ Avoid dark backgrounds with neon colors and white characters. 8.7.3 Components The FIDS is a key component of the airportâs integrated operational systems and is directly connected to the AODB and resource management. The closely coupled system allows for the automated display of critical information to those who need it, when they need it, with little or no manual intervention. The FIDS design is composed of a control center, distribution servers, input terminals, and dis- play technology. The FIDS control center is responsible for storing, processing, and transferring all data (flight and general information). The processed information is sent by the FIDS via a LAN to the connected distribution servers. This is performed in real time in order to ensure that the users of display media are supplied with high-quality, consistent information. This information is then processed and transferred to the corresponding display devices by the distribution server.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 247 The most visible part of a FIDS is the digital screens found all around an airport terminalâ overview screens in the arrival and departure hall, screens above the check-in counters, and screens at the gates and baggage belts. Ideally, every place where a passenger is expected to make a decision or to look for information should have one or more screens. The FIDS communicates and supports most any type of display device, such as CRT monitors, LCD flat panels, plasma displays, split flap boards, and LED signage. 8.7.4 Implementation For text displayed on a FIDS, keep font sizes large, especially for main messages. To test size, create a test screen with lines of different font sizes and have people view the screen at the far- thest practical distance. Remember, too, that people may view the screen as they pass by. The exception to this would be screens meant for interaction, where the user is standing directly in front of the sign. Even in this case, however, keep in mind viewers with older eyes or low vision. As a general rule of thumb, text height should be 1 inch in size for every 10 feet of distance from the screen. Serif fonts work well for long text passages, but digital signs are the wrong medium for para- graphs of text. Itâs best usually to stick with sans-serif fonts. The ADA specifies requirements for signage, but it does not specifically address digital signage. It not only specifies requirements for the visual aspects of signage, but also the implementation of Braille and audio to address the needs of individuals who are deaf or blind or have other dis- abilities. The language of the requirements is detailed and complicated. It continues to be updated and is likely to address the specifics of digital signage in the near future. There is a table within the ADA Standards that dictates visual character height for accessible communication elements. These guidelines can also be used as a baseline for digital signage (see Table 8-2). distance above 21 feet (6400 per foot (305 mm) of viewing viewing distance above 180 (3.2 mm) per foot (305 mm) of (3.2 mm) per foot (305 mm) of viewing distance above 72 Height to Finish Floor or Ground from Baseline of Character Horizontal Viewing Distance Minimum Character Height 40 inches (1015 mm) to less than or equal to 70 inches (1780 mm) less than 72 inches (1830 mm) 5/8 inch (16 mm) 72 inches (1830 mm) and greater greater than 70 inches (1780 mm) to less than or equal to 120 inches (3050 mm) less than 180 inches (4570 mm) 180 inches (4570 mm) and greater greater than 120 inches (3050 mm) less than 21 feet (6400 mm) and greater) 21 feet (6400 mm) and greater 5/8 inch (16 mm), plus 1/8 inch inches (1830 mm) 2 inches (51 mm) 2 inches (51 mm), plus 1/8 inch inches (4570 mm) 3 inches (75 mm) 3 inches, plus 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) mm) Source: United States Access Board 2010, Table 703.5.5. Visual Character Height. Table 8-2. Visual character height.
248 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities Digital signage placement is just as important as the relevance of content on the screen because a screen that is placed where it cannot be viewed is ineffective. Signage placement decisions involve a number of factors like size and positioning of the screen, layout of the establishment, and the height of potential viewers. The intent in establishing best practices for screen placement is to place screens where targeted audiences will be able to view them. To determine the best practice for screen placement, one must understand the geometry of angular relationships and how things are viewed. Where a screen is placed and the angle at which it addresses its viewing audience, can be almost as important as the content playing on screen, and the optimal angle and placement is different for virtually everyone. This makes it difficult for store planners and venue owners preparing for a digital signage deployment. 126.96.36.199 The Screen Studies point to three aspects of viewing angles that apply to digital screens: â¢ Angle of the screenâthe angle at which the screen is positioned. â¢ Angle of incidenceâthe angle that a viewerâs head has to turn to see the sign. â¢ Correction angleâthe angle at which a screen is positioned to compensate for other objects that may prevent a viewer from seeing the screen. 188.8.131.52 The Viewer The following are characteristics of vision for an individual: â¢ Field of viewâthe typical angle of view of a person with normal vision (see Figure 8-18). â¢ Line of sightâfor a person of normal vision, direct line of sight is the straight line that extends from a point at the nose as centered between the eyes. â¢ Vertical viewâthe viewing area that extends about 60 degrees above and 75 degrees below the line of sight. â¢ Horizontal viewâthe viewing area that extends about 90 degrees to the left and 90 degrees to the right of the line of sight. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-18. Field of view.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 249 â¢ Attention zoneâthe viewing area that extends 20 degrees vertically and 30 degrees horizon- tally about the line of sight. The geometry of angular distances dictates that in order for a screen that is placed 20 feet away from a viewer to fall within the viewerâs attention zone, the screen has to be placed at a height that is within 7.28 feet of eye level of the viewer. The height is calculated as follows: height (h) = tan (angle of attention zone) * distance away = tan (20 degrees) * 20 feet = 0.364 * 20 = 7.28 Optimal heights for screens placed 5, 10, and 20 feet away from a viewer are shown in Table 8-3. If the average viewer is presumed to be 5 feet, 8 inches tall, then signage would ideally have to be less than (5.8 + 7.28) 13 feet off the floor in order to fall within the average viewerâs attention zone. Efforts to situate signage displays in the best position relative to viewers and traffic patterns have to take into consideration the realities of facility layouts. Layouts include fixtures, spacing, lighting, and other distractions that capture a viewerâs attention or distort a viewerâs view. 8.8 Hearing Loops 8.8.1 Overview A hearing loop is a wire (induction loop) that circles a room and is connected to a sound system. The loop transmits sound electromagnetically. The electromagnetic signal can then be picked up by a tele-coil in a hearing aid or cochlear implant. In many countries, induction loops are already the standard solution for helping people who are hard of hearing to gain fair access, and these devices can be found installed in most public environments. 8.8.2 Application To use a hearing loop, the t-switch on the hearing aid or cochlear implant must be flipped on to activate the tele-coil. Usually, no additional receiver or equipment is needed. Using a tele-coil and hearing loop together is seamless, cost-effective, and unobtrusive and no additional equipment is needed. Hearing loops are also called audio-induction loops, audio loops, or loops. If a hearing aid doesnât have a tele-coil, a headset plugged into a loop receiver will be needed to achieve the same effect. 8.8.3 Components An audio-induction loop system consists of four parts (see Figure 8-19): 1. One or more sound sourcesâthe sounds that a person would want to listen to directly, for example, your television, hi-fi system, computer, telephone, a microphone, or alerts such as a doorbell or fire alarm. Source: Media Sign Pro Distance Away (feet) Optimal Height (feet) 5 1.82 10 3.64 20 7.28 Table 8-3. Optimal screen heights.
250 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 2. An induction loop amplifierâa special amplifier that is connected to the various sound sources and amplifies the sound as an electrical signal into a loop. 3. A wire loopâa loop connected to the induction loop amplifier, which goes around the area in which the system will be usedâfor example, around the outside edge of a room, or around a small area such as a chair or sofa. The loop transmits the sound as a completely safe and invisible magnetic field in the area above the loop. 4. Receivers, usually hearing aidsâa small coil picks up the sounds broadcast through the loop. Coilsâsometimes known as âT-coilsâ or âtele-coilsââare often found within hearing aids, either with a small switch marked âTâ or automatically switching when a signal is sensed by the device. Once an induction loop system has been installed and set up, it should require no attention, adjustment, or maintenance. At any time, a user can switch their hearing aids or use their receiv- ers to hear the sounds being broadcast into the loop system. 8.8.4 Implementation Implementation of a hearing loop involves installing the amplifier and the loop: â¢ Installing the amplifier. Find a suitable location for the amplifier at which there is access to power, to cables from the sound sources, and for the loop cable. â¢ Installing the loop. A room loop is a loop of wire usually placed around the wall or skirting board around the edge of the room. A wire can also be used around a smaller area underneath carpet or a rug or under the floor in larger spaces such as airports. Because the wire can be installed under a floor, an airport may plan to make the installation when it installs new ter- razzo floors. The loop must cover the whole area in which the user needs to hear the sound from the induction loop. Signage should also be installed to notify users that hearing loops are available at the airport (see Figure 8-20). 8.9 Visual Paging 8.9.1 Overview Where event schedules, announcements, pages, and emergency conditions are broadcast through PA systems, the same information in visual form should be provided to individuals Source: www.c-tek.uk Figure 8-19. Typical hearing loop system.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 251 who are deaf or hard of hearing through monitors, electronic message boards, or other forms of dynamic displays in order to provide equal access. Passenger paging systems are those systems used to communicate information to the pas- senger. Traditionally, this system was the âwhite paging phoneâ and the audio system required to broadcast messages throughout the airport. These systems are installed inside buildings in almost all passenger areas and used by the airport staff, airlines, and public authorities. Today, these systems are expanding to include a visual paging component for those who are deaf or hard of hearing. 8.9.2 Application Visual paging displays can be located anywhere in the airport. The visual paging displays pro- vide visual message text, consistent with ADA regulations, for all announcement and message types. In addition, these displays can show advertising and revenue-generating digital media. The displays can show these and other types of visual pages: â¢ Security checkpoint instructions â¢ Terminal-wide informational messages â¢ Courtesy announcements â¢ Final call messages â¢ Emergency messages â¢ Advertisement media â¢ Public service messages GIDSs are located behind the gate ticket counter and anywhere in the gate/hold room areas. A GIDS provides not only visual paging but also gate, airline, and flight status information. Source: Gerald R. Ford International Airport (GRR) and Domodedovo-Moscow International Airport (DME) Figure 8-20. Hearing loops at Gerald R. Ford International Airport and Domodedovo-Moscow International Airport.
252 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities The displays can show â¢ Gate status graphical display â¢ Flight status graphical display â¢ Airline information â¢ Boarding process status â¢ Boarding by row number â¢ Destination city weather maps 8.9.3 Components Normally, a visual paging component is integrated with the audio-based overhead PA system and the visual-based digital signage network (see Figures 8-21 and 8-22). This setup allows the Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-21. Visual paging screens at Philadelphia International Airport. Source: ACRP Project 07-13 Research Team Figure 8-22. Visual paging screens at San Francisco International Airport and Detroit Metropolitan Airport.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 253 same information broadcast in an audio announcement to be delivered in a visual format so that travelers who are deaf or hard of hearing can also receive the message. The main components of a visual paging system consist of â¢ Digital visual paging displays â¢ Centralized system controller â¢ Networked software â¢ Ethernet switch 8.10 MNSs 8.10.1 Overview An MNS is an integrated platform to deliver messages to a small or large group of people. MNSs utilize visual (virtual) and verbal (audible) announcements to manage peopleâs actions during irregular operations, specifically, emergency operations. An MNS provides incident- specific guidance to those in danger and delivers messages offering the best course of action for incidents such as â¢ Fire â¢ Natural disaster â¢ Shooters â¢ Terrorist events â¢ Weapons of mass destruction â¢ Security breach An MNS utilizes multiple integrated systems to offer guidance, including the fire alarm sys- tem, the PA system, and the dynamic signage system. The fire alarm system will be deployed using two color strobes as opposed to traditional single color strobes (see Figure 8-23). These will indicate a fire (normal clear strobe) and non-fire event (amber strobe). The dynamic signage system in this case can include the FIDS, BIDS, GIDS, dynamic directories, and visual paging displays. The PA system can also include hearing loop systems. MNSs use the three Vs of com- munication to deploy area-specific messages to all people. MNSs are particularly important to passengers with disabilities. Because the emergency notifications utilize more than one medium, they are accessible to passengers with vision, hearing, and cognitive disabilities. 8.10.2 Application MNSs can be implemented throughout the airport (see Figure 8-24). The major systems that will act as both input and outlet for information to passengers will include the fire alarm system, Source: BICSI Figure 8-23. Multicolored fire alarm system strobes deployed at Dane County Regional Airport.
254 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities security system, visual paging system, data network, and dynamic messaging system. The MNS will deliver messaging via â¢ Intelligible voice communications â¢ Visible signals (fire alarm system strobes) â¢ Text (LED boards) â¢ Graphics (digital signage) â¢ Radio â¢ Cellphone â¢ Text message to mobile device The fire protection system, or sprinkler systems, will also come into play when designing or implementing an MNS. Similar to a paging system, MNSs need to be zoned in order to be able to provide different instructions to passengers depending on where an event takes place. For example, an event in the terminal or ticketing area of an airport causing an evacuation of that area would require different instructions to those in concourse areas, particularly if the egress path is toward the event. Those passengers would be given instruction to shelter in place or look forward to more instruction. Often times, these mass notification zones are based on fire protec- tion zones, with a fire emergency dictating which way to evacuate a facility versus shelter in place. Several factors should be considered when designing or planning to deploy an MNS. Some of these include acoustics, speaker selection, coverage area, cabling infrastructure and power reliability, and backup. Research shows that intelligibility has the biggest effect on the success of an MNS, for multiple reasons. Because mass notifications take over a facilityâs or an areaâs entire announcement system, the clarity of that message is critical. A non-intelligible message will also be unclear over hearing loop systems. The NFPA defines intelligible as âcapable of being understood, comprehensible, and clear.â Messages should be intelligible from multiple sources, including pre-recorded, synthesized, and live messaging. Intelligibility testing for MNSs Source: Innovative Electronic Designs Figure 8-24. Examples of airports that have implemented MNS.
Wayfinding technologies for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities 255 is currently defined in NFPA 72 Appendix D. Testing includes and assumes messages are in the listenerâs native language and assumes normal hearing: â¢ Signal-to-Noise Ratio â Voice announcement should average 15 dB over ambient â¢ Frequency Range â 400â4,000 Hz â¢ Speech Transmission Index â¢ Distortion â >15 percent distortion considered non-intelligible The visual messaging portion of an MNS also needs to be intelligible. This is achieved with full-screen, high-contrast messaging, visible and readable for users with low vision. Visual dis- plays should follow the same contract guidelines as visual messaging displays. However, MNS messages should not be combined with other messages and should occupy the entire display or group of displays. 8.10.3 Components The diagram presented in Figure 8-25 illustrates the number of components in an MNS. An MNS is an integration of base building systems such as fire alarm, security, and public address Source: Case Study, Pennsylvania Convention Center Figure 8-25. MNS diagram.
256 enhancing airport Wayfinding for aging travelers and persons with Disabilities that is enhanced with the integration of visual messaging systems, mobile applications, and hear- ing loops. All of these systems should follow relevant best practices. The main components of the system include â¢ Data networks â¢ Network cabling systems â¢ Fire alarm system notification devices â¢ Public address system, speakers, mic stations, text-to-speech stations â¢ Digital displays â¢ LED boards â¢ Mobile applications â¢ Digital directories â¢ Emergency and UPS power