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2018 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 870 Field Performance of Corrugated Pipe Manufactured with Recycled Polyethylene Content Michael Pluimer Crossroads EnginEEring sErviCEs Breezy Point, MN Joel Sprague Richard Thomas Tri/EnvironmEnTal, inC. Austin, TX Leslie McCarthy Andrea Welker villanova UnivErsiTy Villanova, PA Shad Sargand Ehab Shaheen ohio UnivErsiTy Athens, OH Kevin White E.l. robinson EnginEEring Columbus, OH Subscriber Categories Construction â¢ Hydraulics and Hydrology â¢ Materials Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide inter- est to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 870 Project 04-39 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44677-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2017964454 Â© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 870 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Edward T. Harrigan, Senior Program Officer Anthony P. Avery, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 04-39 PANEL Field of Materials and ConstructionâArea of General Materials Cecil L. Jones, Diversified Engineering Services, Inc., Raleigh, NC (Chair) Daniel Currence, Plastic Pipe Institute, Kansas City, MO Carl R. Douglass, DI Labs, Inc., Spicer, MN Michael S. Fleming, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA James B. Goddard, JimGoddard3, LLC, Powell, OH Jon D. Griffith, Georgia DOT, Atlanta, GA Daniel I. Miller, Ohio DOT, Columbus, OH Victoria Woods-Bade, InVia Pavement Technologies, Vienna, MO Terry Arnold, FHWA Liaison
AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was the collaborative effort of TRI/Environmental, Crossroads Engineering Services, Villanova University, Ohio University, and E.L. Robinson Engineering. While co-principal investigator Michael Pluimer, PhD, of Crossroads Engineering Services, served as the lead researcher and primary author of the report, the project would not have been successful without the substantial contributions from several companies and individuals. The following are deserving of special recognition: Joel Sprague, PE, of TRI/Environmental served as co-principal investigator and was the primary editor of the report. He was involved in the design and development of the precast concrete burial chambers used in the simulated field tests and also served as project manager. Jay Sprague of TRI/Environmental constructed the precast concrete burial chambers used for the simulated field tests and managed the testing of pipes in the chambers. This was an extremely critical component in validating the service life model established in the research. Jay Sprague was also responsible for the instrumentation of the pipes in the simulated field tests. The majority of the laboratory testing was conducted by David Cuttino and managed by Rick Thomas and Mario Paredes, all of TRI/Environmental. Rick Thomas was also a contributing author of this report and was the primary researcher and author of NCHRP Report 696: Performance of Corrugated Pipe Manufactured with Recycled Polyethylene Content, which provided the foundation for much of the research conducted in this project. His immense knowledge and experience were essential to the success of this project. Sam Allen of TRI/Environmental assisted in managing the resources of the project and was involved in editorial reviews of the quarterly progress, interim, and final reports. Leslie McCarthy, PhD, PE, and Andrea Welker, PhD, PE, of Villanova University were key editors of all technical reports and were instrumental in obtaining the test site with the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transit Authority (SEPTA) for the field evaluation of the pipes relative to heavy, cyclical live loads. They also served as advisors to Michael Pluimer, whose PhD dissertation was based in part on some of the research in this project. Eric Musselman, PhD, of Villanova University served as a key technical resource for the fatigue testing of the research. Jeffrey Cook, manager of Villanovaâs Structural Engineering Teaching and Research Laboratory, was instrumental in conducting the fatigue tests and assisting with the data analysis. Shad Sargand, PhD, and Ehab Shaheen, PhD Candidate, of Ohio University, conducted the parallel plate tests that were used as an additional validation of the service life model. They also conducted finite element modeling for the project and wrote the entirety of Appendix E. Their attention to detail and experience with instrumentation were key factors contributing to the success of the project. Kevin White, PE, of E.L. Robinson Engineering served as a key technical contributor to the overall project and was instrumental in developing the design standards for corrugated high-density polyethylene pipes manufactured with recycled materials. His technical knowledge and experience were immensely helpful in both the development of the full-scale pipe tests as well as in the analysis of the results. Pipe for the project was donated by Advanced Drainage Systems, Crumpler Plastic Pipe and Lane Enterprises. Additionally, special recognition goes out to Shawn Coombs, PE, of Advanced Drainage Systems for his assistance in the field installation at the SEPTA test site and for providing data on pipe performance from the Hurricane Floyd relief efforts in North Carolina. The following states and organizations also deserve special recognition: SEPTA for providing a test installation for the live load study; the North Carolina Department of Transportation (DOT) for providing information on pipes installed during their hurricane relief efforts; and the Washington and Minnesota DOTs for offering sites for test installations.
F O R E W O R D This report presents proposed specifications and a recommended practice to assure the satisfactory performance of corrugated drainage pipe incorporating substantial recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) content. The report will be of immediate interest to engineers in state highway agencies and industry with responsibility for specification, production, and use of corrugated HDPE drainage pipe. The corrugated drainage pipe market in the United States consumes more than 1 billion pounds of virgin HDPE annually. At the same time, millions of pounds of recyclable HDPE are generated each year. As a petroleum-based product, the cost and supply of HDPE are subject to the same worldwide market forces that affect crude oil. To the extent that recycled HDPE can be substituted for virgin HDPE, some costs and environmental impacts associated with petroleum refining are reduced. While the appropriate use of recycled material in HDPE pipe production is in the countryâs best interest, this use must not degrade the performance and service life of cor- rugated plastic pipe in its important highway applications. Extensive laboratory testing in NCHRP Project 4-32, âPerformance and Quality Control of Corrugated Pipe Manufac- tured with Recycled Polyethylene Content,â which was completed in 2011, established criteria and specification limits for the use of recycled HDPE in the production of cor- rugated drainage pipe. To establish realistic performance limits for plastic pipe with recycled HDPE content and provide a sound basis for a potential AASHTO specification of recycled HDPE in corrugated drainage pipe production, it was critical to verify the results of NCHRP Project 4-32 through full-scale, in-soil testing of pipe manufactured from the resin formulations evaluated in the project. The objective of NCHRP Project 04-39, âField Performance of Corrugated Pipe Manu- factured with Recycled Polyethylene Content,â was to correlate the performance limits and laboratory test results of corrugated drainage pipe produced with recycled HDPE content from NCHRP Project 4-32 with measured field performance. The research was conducted by TRI/Environmental, Inc., with support from the following organizations: Crossroads Engineering Services; E.L. Robinson Engineering; Ohio University; and Villanova University. The project included both laboratory and field testing. In the laboratory, methodology developed in NCHRP Project 4-32 was refined and standardized as the unnotched constant ligament stress (UCLS) test. The UCLS test is used to predict the service life of corrugated drainage pipe manufactured with recycled materials based on the pipeâs critical stress crack initiation and propagation behavior under load. The service life predictions based on the UCLS test were verified and validated through full-scale, in-soil field testing of large-diameter pipe containing from 0% to 98% recycled HDPE content. The service life prediction model By Edward T. Harrigan Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
was also validated on full-scale pipes held at constant deflections in a controlled laboratory environment. The research demonstrates that corrugated drainage pipes can be successfully manufactured with post-consumer and post-industrial recycled HDPE materials to meet the service life requirements for highway and railroad applications. Key deliverables included a performance-based specification based on the UCLS test method that can be used to assure the desired service life of corrugated HDPE pipes manufactured with recycled materials. Additionally, revisions were proposed to AASHTO M 294 to incorporate manufacturing and performance criteria for pipes con- taining recycled materials. The proposed revisions include minimum UCLS test require- ments for pipes manufactured with recycled materials. Finally, a recommended standard practice was developed for predicting the service life of corrugated HDPE pipes manufac- tured with recycled materials, and design guidelines were established for incorporation into the AASHTO design specifications for thermoplastic pipe.
C O N T E N T S xi Acronyms and Abbreviations 1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Background Information 4 1.1 Overview of Recycled Materials for Corrugated HDPE Pipes 5 1.2 Failure Modes for Corrugated HDPE Pipes Manufactured with PCR Materials 6 1.3 Stage II Stress Cracking Analysis and Mechanism 8 1.4 History of Unnotched Tensile Tests 9 Chapter 2 Research Objectives, Approach, and Findings 9 2.1 Research Objectives 9 2.2 Research Approach and Findings 10 2.2.1 The UCLS Test 10 2.2.2 Large-Diameter Test Pipes for Research 14 2.2.3 Development of a Service Life Prediction Model Based on the UCLS Test 25 2.2.4 Validation of Service Life Prediction Models 47 2.2.5 Fatigue Failure Assessment from Cyclical Live Loads 70 2.2.6 AASHTO Material Specification and Design Methodology Proposals 71 Chapter 3 Material Specification and Design Methodology Proposals 71 3.1 AASHTO Material Specification Proposal for Pipes Manufactured with Recycled Materials 72 3.1.1 Minimum UCLS Requirement for Pipes Manufactured with Recycled Materials 75 3.1.2 Other Requirements for Pipes Manufactured with Recycled Materials 76 3.1.3 Draft Specification 76 3.2 AASHTO Design Methodology Proposal for Pipes Manufactured with Recycled Materials 77 3.3 AASHTO Standard Recommended Practice for Service Life Determination 78 Chapter 4 Summary and Conclusions 80 Chapter 5 Suggestions for Future Research 81 References
A-1 Appendix A Draft Standard Test Method and ASTM Work Item for UCLS Test B-1 Appendix B Select Test Reports for Pipes C-1 Appendix C Log-Based UCLS Data D-1 Appendix D Studentâs t Table E-1 Appendix E Finite Element Analysis from Ohio University F-1 Appendix F Calculations for Peak Bending Strain in Pipe Wall for Simulated Field Test G-1 Appendix G Soil Pressure and Strain Gage Measurements for Simulated Field Test H-1 Appendix H Additional Data from SEPTA Railroad Field Test I-1 Appendix I Heat Generation in Cyclical Fatigue Test J-1 Appendix J Proposed Revisions to AASHTO M 294 for Recycled Materials Incorporation K-1 Appendix K Proposed Revisions to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Specifications for Recycled Materials Incorporation L-1 Appendix L Proposed Standard Recommended Practice for Service Life Determination of Corrugated HDPE Pipes Manufactured with Recycled Materials
A c r o n y m s A n d A b b r e v i A t i o n s AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials BAM German Federal Institute of Materials Researching and Testing BFF BAMâFlorida Department of TransportationâFathead CCG creep crack growth CI crack initiation COD crack opening displacement COV coefficient of variation (i.e., standard deviation as percentage of mean) CP crack propagation CRB cracked round bar DOT department of transportation FCG fatigue crack growth FCR fatigue crack resistance FDOT Florida Department of Transportation FEA finite element analysis HDPE high-density polyethylene ID inside diameter LCL lower confidence limit NCLS notched constant ligament stress NTPEP National Transportation Product Evaluation Program OD outside diameter OIT oxidation induction time PCR post-consumer recycled PE polyethylene PennDOT Pennsylvania Department of Transportation PIR post-industrial recycled PPI Plastics Pipe Institute PSM Popelar shift method RPM rate process method SCG slow crack growth SCR stress crack resistance SEPTA Southeastern Pennsylvania Transit Authority SPD standard Proctor density UCL upper confidence limit UCLS unnotched constant ligament stress UV ultraviolet