National Academies Press: OpenBook

Emergency Alert and Warning Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions (2017)

Chapter: Appendix C Briefers of Alerts and Warnings

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Briefers of Alerts and Warnings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Emergency Alert and Warning Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24935.
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Page 91
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Briefers of Alerts and Warnings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Emergency Alert and Warning Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24935.
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Page 92

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C Briefers of Alerts and Warnings AUGUST 9-10, 2016 Greg Cooke, Federal Communications Commission Harry Evans, Austin, TX Fire Department (retired) Karen Fregberg, University of Louisville Benjamin Krakauer, NYC Office of Emergency Management Mark Lucero, Federal Emergency Management Agency Paul Lupe, Fairfax County, VA Office of Emergency Management Francisco Sanchez, Harris County, TX Tim Schott, National Weather Service Matthew Seegar, Wayne State University Tim Sellnow, University of Central Florida R.C. Smith, El Paso County, CO Office of Emergency Management John Sorenson, Oak Ridge National Lab (retired) Jeannette Sutton, University of Kentucky Ben Zhao, University of California, Santa Barbara SEPTEMBER 1, 2016 Court Corley, Pacific NW National Laboratory Deborah Glik, University of California, LA Dan Gonzales, RAND Corporation Emre Gundunzhan, Johns Hopkins University of Applied Physics Lab Bob Iannucci, Carnegie Melon University Bandana Kar, University of Southern Mississippi Brooke Liu, National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism Helena Mitchell, Georgia Tech Applied Research Corporation Andrew Parker, RAND Corporation Rich Rarey, Rareworks, LLC Dara Ung, TeleCommunication Systems, Inc Carol Woody, Carnegie Melon University Software Engineering Institute NOVEMBER 1-2, 2016 Art Botterell, California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services Peter Cottle, Facebook PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 91

Nelson Daza, Everbridge Julie Demuth, National Center for Atmospheric Research Pete Giencke, Google Alex Kalicki, Facebook Jim Moffitt, Twitter Micah Schaffer, Snapchat Deanna Sellnow, University of Central Florida Michele Wood, California State University, Fullerton JANUARY 26-27, 2017 Dave Bujak, Weather STEM Brian Daly, AT&T Farrokh Khatibi, Qualcomm Karl Kotalik, NC4 John Lawson, AWARN Christopher McIntosh, ESRI Brenda Phillips, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MARCH 23, 2017 (CALL-IN TELECONFERENCE) Maiyan Bino, Waze Rebecca Resnick, Waze PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 92

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Following a series of natural disasters, including Hurricane Katrina, that revealed shortcomings in the nation’s ability to effectively alert populations at risk, Congress passed the Warning, Alert, and Response Network (WARN) Act in 2006. Today, new technologies such as smart phones and social media platforms offer new ways to communicate with the public, and the information ecosystem is much broader, including additional official channels, such as government social media accounts, opt-in short message service (SMS)-based alerting systems, and reverse 911 systems; less official channels, such as main stream media outlets and weather applications on connected devices; and unofficial channels, such as first person reports via social media. Traditional media have also taken advantage of these new tools, including their own mobile applications to extend their reach of beyond broadcast radio, television, and cable. Furthermore, private companies have begun to take advantage of the large amounts of data about users they possess to detect events and provide alerts and warnings and other hazard-related information to their users.

More than 60 years of research on the public response to alerts and warnings has yielded many insights about how people respond to information that they are at risk and the circumstances under which they are most likely to take appropriate protective action. Some, but not all, of these results have been used to inform the design and operation of alert and warning systems, and new insights continue to emerge. Emergency Alert and Warning Systems reviews the results of past research, considers new possibilities for realizing more effective alert and warning4 systems, explores how a more effective national alert and warning system might be created and some of the gaps in our present knowledge, and sets forth a research agenda to advance the nation’s alert and warning capabilities.

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