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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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AIRPORT PASSENGER
SCREENING USING
MILLIMETER WAVE
MACHINES

Compliance with Guidelines

Committee on Airport Passenger Screening: Millimeter Wave Machines

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This study was supported by Contract No. NCX HSHQDC-11-D-00009/HSHQDC-13-J-00080 with the Department of Homeland Security. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-46744-5
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-46744-6
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/24936

Cover Image: A common scene at a fictional airport employing passenger screening using a millimeter wave machine. Artist: Erik Svedberg. Image created by ray tracing, where computational rays of light backscatter, reflect, or are transmitted throughout the geometry of the scene to paint the full picture.

This report is available in limited quantities from

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Copyright 2017 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:https://doi.org/10.17226/24936.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×

COMMITTEE ON AIRPORT PASSENGER SCREENING USING MILLIMETER WAVE MACHINES: COMPLIANCE WITH GUIDELINES

KATHRYN V. LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology (principal research engineer emerita), Chair

DAVID J. BRADY, Duke University

EDWARD A. DAUER, University of Miami (Florida)

LEON F. McGINNIS, Georgia Institute of Technology

QING HU, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JENNIFER A. JACOBS, Analytic Services, Inc.

LEEKA I. KHEIFETS, University of California, Los Angeles, Fielding School of Public Health

DANIEL M. MITTLEMAN, Brown University

DOUGLAS T. PETKIE, Wright State University

MAURO SARDELA, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

MICHAEL S. SHUR, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

TIMOTHY J. WALDRON, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics

MARK K. WILSON, Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC

XI-CHENG ZHANG, University of Rochester

Staff

JAMES LANCASTER, Acting Director, National Materials Manufacturing Board

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer, Study Director

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant

HENRY KO, Research Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD

CELIA I. MERZBACHER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chair

RODNEY C. ADKINS, NAE,1 IBM Corporate Strategy

JIM C.I. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University, North Carolina State University

LEO CHRISTODOULOU, Boeing, Inc.

TOM DONNELLAN, Pennsylvania State University

STEPHEN FORREST, NAS2/NAE, University of Michigan

ERICA FUCHS, Carnegie Mellon University

JACK HU, NAE, University of Michigan

THERESA KOTANCHECK, Evolved Analytics LLC

DAVID LARBALESTIER, NAE, Florida State University

ROBERT MILLER, IBM Almaden Research Center

EDWARD MORRIS, National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining, America Makes: The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute

NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS, NAE/NAM,3 University of Texas, Austin

TRESA POLLOCK, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara

F. STAN SETTLES, NAE, University of Southern California

HAYDN G. WADLEY, University of Virginia

BEN WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology

STEVE ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Staff

JAMES LANCASTER, Acting Director

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer

JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant

HENRY KO, Research Assistant

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

3 Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×

Preface

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) originally requested that the National Research Council1 provide an independent study of the radiation exposures resulting from X-ray backscatter advanced imaging technology (AIT) systems used in screening travelers in U.S. airports. In 2015, a report was delivered to DHS describing the issues related with X-ray backscatter AITs, and DHS subsequently requested a second independent study on the radiation exposures resulting from millimeter wave AITs. According to the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), a component of DHS responsible for the security of the transportation systems in the United States, AIT systems provide enhanced security benefits by detecting both metallic and non-metallic threat items, including weapons, explosives, and other concealed objects on passengers, some of which would not be detected by walk-through metal detectors.2

This report represents the consensus of the Committee on Airport Passenger Screening: Millimeter Wave Machines, which met five times between February

___________________

1 Effective July 1, 2015, the institution is called the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. References in this report to the National Research Council (NRC) are used in a historical context to refer to activities before July 1.

2 General Accountability Office, “Transportation Security Administration: Progress and Challenges Faced in Strengthening Three Key Security Programs,” Statement of Stephen M. Lord, Director, Homeland Security and Justice Issues, Testimony Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform and Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, U.S. House of Representatives, GAO-12-541T, March 26, 2012, http://oversight.house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/326-12-Joint-TI-Lord-Testimony.pdf.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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2015 and February 2016. The committee benefited enormously from meeting with representatives from government, industry, and academia. In particular, the committee thanks the following individuals for contributing their time and expertise:

Howard Bassen, Food and Drug Administration,

Bill Garrett, Department of Homeland Security,

Ed Mantiply, Federal Communications Commission,

Harry Martz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,

Doug McMaking, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,

Ron McNeil, Department of Homeland Security,

George Rosar, Medtronic, and

Marvin Ziskin, Temple University Medical School.

Information from and discussions with these individuals were essential to the committee’s work.

On behalf of the committee, I want to express my deep appreciation to National Academies staff, in particular Erik Svedberg, the study director of this committee, who provided insight, guidance, and support throughout the study and preparation of the report. I also want to thank program assistant Joe Palmer and associate program officer Neeraj Gorkhaly, who managed the logistics of the meetings.

Finally, as chair of the committee, I want to thank the other committee members who worked diligently and gave generously of their time.

Kathryn Logan, Chair
Committee on Airport Passenger Screening:
Millimeter Wave Machines

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

David Auston, University of California, Santa Barbara,

Taly Gilat-Schmidt, Marquette University,

Sandra Hyland, Northrop Grumman Mission Systems,

Mona Jarrahi, University of California, Los Angeles,

Steven Larson, Sloan Kettering Cancer Center,

Joseph Paresi, IDSS Holdings, Inc.,

Etta Pisano, Harvard Medical School, and

Edward White, Edward White Consulting, LLC.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Maryellen L. Giger, University of Chicago, and

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Arogyaswami J. Paulraj, Stanford University (retired). They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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The Transportation Security Administration requested a study by the National Research Council (NRC) to establish the Committee on Airport Passenger Screening: Millimeter Wave Machines to evaluate two models of active millimeter wave scanners: the L3 ProVision 1 and L3 ProVision 2.

Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines provides findings and recommendations on compliance with applicable health and safety guidelines and appropriateness of system design and procedures for preventing over exposure. This study addresses the issue of whether millimeter wave machines used at airports comply with existing guidelines and whether it would be possible for anything to go wrong with the machines so that, by mistake, it exposes a person to more than 10 W/m2.

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