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Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines (2017)

Chapter: Appendix E: L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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E

L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document

The L3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis document is reprinted in this appendix.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
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TABLE E.1

Component Device Detail Failure Mode System Effects
Assembled transmitter source, switching matrix and antenna elements. Each antenna mast includes a single transceiver. Mast RF path block diagram is the same for the all ProVision systems Failures on the antenna mast will be at the component level as detailed in the list below
Transceiver Output power amplfier, This is the last amplification stage in the TX path. Amplifer integrated circuit failure Reduced TX output power on all antenna elements detectable degradation in system self test.
Transceiver Output amplifier input source Overdrive of RF input into transceiver output amplifier TX output power would not increase above the normal operating level for the system.
Transceiver Output amplifier input source Pulse modulator control circuit malfunctions. Peak TX output power level would be the same as in normal operation.
Transceiver to manifold cable Semi-rigid coaxial cable. Mechanical damage to cable Reduced TX output on all antenna elements, detectable degradation in system self test.
Manifold Switch Connectorized switch module. MMIC switch components are the only active devices in the signal path. Switch integrated circuit failure Reduced TX output on one or more antenna modules, detectable degradation in system self test.
Manifold Switch Input coaxial cable Compromised connection on coax input cable from the transceiver. Reduced output power on all manifold ports and corresponding down stream antenna ports, detectable degradation in system self test.
Manifold Switch Power and control cable to manifold switch Compromised connection of power and control signal ribbon cable. Significantly reduced TX output, detectable degradation in system self test.
Manifold Switch Manifold switch control circuitry Damaged control circuit Reduced TX output on many antenna ports, detectable degradation in system self test.
Manifold Switch Output port coaxial connector Compromised connection on the output port coax connector. Reduced TX output to one of the antenna modules, detectable degradation in system self test.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×
Component Device Detail Failure Mode System Effects
Flexible cable manifold to antenna Flexible coaxial cable. Mechanical damage to cable Reduced TX output on a single antenna module, detectable degradation in system self test.
Antenna module Custom module with coax input and integrated antenna element outputs. GaAs MMIC switch components are the only active devices in the signal path. Switch integrated circuit failure Reduced TX output on one or more antenna elements, detectable degradation in system self test.
Antenna module Input port coaxial connector Compromised connection on input signal coax connector. Reduced TX output to all antenna elements on the module, detectable degradation in system self test.
Antenna module Power and control cable to manifold switch Compromised connection of power and control signal ribbon cable. Greatly reduced TX output, detectable degradation in system self test.
Antenna module Antenna switch control circuitry Damaged control circuit No TX output on many antenna ports, detectable degradation in system self test.
Antenna module Antenna element Compromised antenna feed structure RF output degradation on a single element, detectable degradation in system self test.

NOTE: GaAs, gallium arsenide; MMIC, monolithic microwave integrated circuit; RF, radio frequency; TX, transmitter.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×
Image
FIGURE E.1 ProVision transmit path. SOURCE: Courtesy Erik Svedberg.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: L-3 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Document." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines: Compliance with Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24936.
×
Page 165
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The Transportation Security Administration requested a study by the National Research Council (NRC) to establish the Committee on Airport Passenger Screening: Millimeter Wave Machines to evaluate two models of active millimeter wave scanners: the L3 ProVision 1 and L3 ProVision 2.

Airport Passenger Screening Using Millimeter Wave Machines provides findings and recommendations on compliance with applicable health and safety guidelines and appropriateness of system design and procedures for preventing over exposure. This study addresses the issue of whether millimeter wave machines used at airports comply with existing guidelines and whether it would be possible for anything to go wrong with the machines so that, by mistake, it exposes a person to more than 10 W/m2.

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