National Academies Press: OpenBook

Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space (2018)

Chapter: Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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C

Targeted Observables Table

Table C.1 provides a summary of all Targeted Observables considered by the committee. This list of observables resulted from a review of the Program of Record (POR; Appendix A) to determine which observations needed to support priority science and applications objectives (Appendix B) could not be met by the existing/planned observational system. These entries are thus candidates for new flight opportunities during the ESAS 2017 decade. A summary version of this table, with priority Targeted Observables allocated to flight program elements, is provided in Table 3.3.

As with the Science and Applications Traceability Matrix (SATM; Appendix B), columns related to science and applications questions or objectives are shaded in blue, and columns related to observations are shaded in green.

Columns in the Targeted Observables table consist of the following:

  • Targeted Observable. A number designation and name for the Targeted Observable.
  • Science and Applications Summary. High-level description of the science and applications to be addressed by the Targeted Observable.
  • Science and Applications Priorities. Cross-referenced matrices of the science and applications objectives linked to the Targeted Observable. Color-coding indicates whether objectives are ranked as Most Important (MI), Very Important (VI), or Important (I). Note that objectives here may or may not be fully addressed by the Targeted Observable, depending on implementation details and the availability of additional supporting measurements required by any given objective. Each panel is represented by a letter: Hydrology, Weather and Air Quality, Eosytems, Climate, and Solid Earth.
  • Related ESAS 2007 and POR. References to related missions recommended in the ESAS 2007 report and missions or instruments in the Program of Record.
  • Identified Need/Gap. A short description of the identified need or gap in the Program of Record that was considered as a candidate priority for new flight opportunities in the ESAS 2017 decade.
  • Candidate Measurement Approach. One or more potential measurement approaches to address the identified need or gap in the Program of Record.
  • ESAS 2017 Disposition. Summary of any actions or recommendations related to the Targeted Observable. As described in Chapter 3, due to resource constraints, not all Targeted Observables were allocated to identified flight opportunities. Observing system priorities are summarized in Table 3.3.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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TABLE C.1 Targeted Observables

Targeted Observable Science and Applications Summary Science/Applications Priorities by Panela
MI VI I
TO-1

Aerosol and Cloud Radiative Properties
  • Aerosol/particulate matter optical depth, particle size, speciation
  • Cloud optical depth and cloud hydrometeor size for top 1-2 optical depths
H 1c
W 1a, 2a, 5a 6a, 9a, 10a
E
C 2h 2g, 5a, 5c, 7a 3d, 4d, 5b, 5d, 7b, 9a
S 1a
TO-2

Aerosol Vertical Profiles
  • Aerosol extinction profiles
  • Column integrated cloud properties
H 2b
W 1a, 2a, 5a 6a, 9a
E
C 2a, 2h 2g, 5a, 5c 5b, 5d, 7b, 8g, 9a
S 1a
TO-3
Aquatic-Coastal Biogeochemistry
  • Distribution, composition, and functioning of aquatic ecosystems and their biogeochemical impacts
  • Chlorophyll, particulate organic carbon and primary production
  • Phytoplankton biomass and composition
H 3a, 3b
W
E 1c, 3a 1a 2b, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b
C 2d 3c, 4d, 5b, 7b
S
TO-4

Atmospheric Winds
  • 3D wind, in troposphere/PBL
  • Cloud dynamics
  • Convection
H 2a, 4a 4b
W 1a, 2a, 4a 9a, 10a
E
C 4a, 5a, 7a, 7c 3f, 4b, 5b, 7b, 7d, 7e, 8i
S
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Related ESAS 2007 and POR Identified Need/Gap Candidate Measurement Approach ESAS 2017 Disposition
ESAS 2007: ACE

POR: MISR/Terra, MODIS/Terra, MODIS/Aqua, MAIA, VIIRS, MSI/EarthCARE, 3MI/MetOp-SG
POR has no multi-angle polarimeter post-MAIA, and reduced spatial coverage post-MISR

Similar to: MISR, MODIS, MAIA

  • Multichannel/multiangle/polarization imaging radiometer
  • Moderate spatial resolution
DESIGNATED
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Joint implementation with TO-2, maximum development cost $800 million
ESAS 2007: ACE

POR: ATLID/EarthCARE, CALIOP/CALIPSO
POR has no backscatter lidar post-EarthCARE

Similar to: CALIOP/CALIPSO, ATLID/EarthCARE

  • Lidar extinction profiles from backscatter or high spectral resolution lidar
  • Horizontal resolution ~100 m-1 km; vertical resolution similar or better than CALIPSO
DESIGNATED
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Joint implementation with TO-1, maximum development cost $800 million
ESAS 2007: ACE, GEO-CAPE

POR: MODIS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, PACE, VIIRS
POR does not provide high temporal resolution

Similar to: GEO-CAPE

  • Imaging radiometer
  • Hyperspectral with spatial resolution 1 km and 1-2 day revisit for open ocean
  • Multispectral regional imaging with <200 m spatial resolution and <1 day revisit for coastal and inland waters
UNALLOCATED

Consider any related submissions to Venture solicitations, R&A efforts
ESAS 2007: 3D-Winds

POR: Aladin/Aeolus, QuikSCAT, CYGNSS, AMVs from GOES, METEOSAT, MTSAT, MetOp, VIIRS, MODIS
POR lacks 3D horizontal vector winds in the PBL/lower troposphere

Similar to: Aladin/Aeolus

  • Lidar, radar, scatterometer, or passive radiometry-based feature tracking methods for the PBL and troposphere
  • Sampling with 3-20 km horizontal, 0.2-1 km vertical, 1-3 h temporal resolution and 1 m/s horizontal, 0.5-1 m/s vertical accuracy
INCUBATION
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Also eligible for competition in Earth System Explorer program element
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Targeted Observable Science and Applications Summary Science/Applications Priorities by Panela
MI VI I
TO-5

Clouds, Convection, and Precipitation
  • Cloud coverage and optical properties
  • Solid and liquid precipitation rate
  • Liquid and ice water path
  • Convection and cloud dynamics
  • Diurnal cycle of clouds and precipitation
H 1a, 1b, 1c 3b, 4b
W 1a, 2a, 4a 3a 9a, 10a
E 3a
C 2a, 2h 2g 3f, 5d, 7e, 8h
S 1c 4b
TO-6

Greenhouse Gases
  • Global/regional CO2 land fluxes and their trends
  • Global/regional methane emissions and their trends
  • Quantification of point sources
H
W 8a
E 2a, 3a 4a, 5a, 5b, 5c
C 2d 3a, 4a 3b, 3c, 3e, 3g, 4d, 7b
S
TO-7

Ice Elevation
  • Land ice: surface elevation change (for determining ice sheet and glacier mass balance)
  • Sea ice: freeboard height (for determining sea-ice thickness and its changes over time)
H 4b
W 3a
E
C 1c 8a, 8b, 8c 8h
S 3a
TO-8
Magnetic Field
  • Magnetic field changes
H
W
E
C
S 5a 5b
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Related ESAS 2007 and POR Identified Need/Gap Candidate Measurement Approach ESAS 2017 Disposition
ESAS 2007: ACE

POR: CPR/EarthCARE, GPM, CloudSat, MODIS, VIIRS, SSMI, TROPICS
POR does not address diurnal cycle and does not cover precipitation after EarthCARE, GPM and SSMI, or snowfall, convection, and cloud dynamics after EarthCARE

Similar to: CloudSat, CPR/EarthCARE

  • Dual-frequency radar and multifrequency microwave radiometer
  • Sampling with ~1-4 km horizontal and ~250 m vertical resolution and ~0.2 mm/hr precipitation (rain) accuracy Doppler for dynamics/convection (~1 m/s)
  • Spatial resolution ~4-10 km for global precipitation and snowfall; ~1mm/hr snowfall accuracy
DESIGNATED
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Maximum development cost $800 million; considerable synergistic value in TO-5 being coordinated in time with TO-1 and TO-2
ESAS 2007: GEO-CAPE, ASCENDS

POR: OCO-2, OCO-3, GeoCARB, TEMPO, FLEX
POR does not include global coverage after OCO-2 and lacks information on vertical distribution

Similar to: OCO-2, OCO-3, GeoCARB, TEMPO

  • SWIR and TIR sounders to measure CO2, CH4, and CO
  • Precision of 0.5-1 ppm CO2, 10-20 ppb CH4, and 10-30 ppb CO with spatial resolution to support point source detection
EARTH SYSTEM EXPLORER
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Recommended for competition
ESAS 2007: ICESat-2

POR: ICESat-2, ESA/CryoSat-2 (2010-present)
POR does not include coverage post-ICESat-2 unless CryoSat-3 is approved

Similar to: ICESat-2, ESA/CryoSat-2

  • Laser or radar altimeter
  • Spatial sampling 5 km (0.25 km near ice-sheet margins) with ~0.1 m vertical accuracy
EARTH SYSTEM EXPLORER
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Recommended for competition as part of multifunction lidar; if CryoSat-3 not approved then highest priority function for multi-function lidar
ESAS 2007: none

POR: ESA/Swarm
POR does not include coverage after Swarm

Similar to: SWARM

  • Global magnetic field measurements
  • Precision of 0.1 nT and 1 nT absolute accuracy
UNALLOCATED

Consider any related submissions to Venture solicitations, R&A efforts
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Targeted Observable Science and Applications Summary Science/Applications Priorities by Panela
MI VI I
TO-9

Mass Change
  • Groundwater and water storage mass change
  • Land-ice mass change
  • Ocean mass change
  • Glacial isostatic adjustment
  • Earthquake mass movement
H 1a, 2c 3b, 4c
W
E
C 1a, 1b, 1c 1d 7d, 7e
S 1b, 3a, 4a 5a 6b
TO-10
Ocean Ecosystem Structure
  • Stocks of planktonic biomass
  • Primary productivity estimates
  • Mixed layer depth
  • Changes in particle biomass, particle size, spectral light attenuation differences
H
W 3a
E 1b, 3a 3b, 4b, 5a, 5b
C 2d 8d 3d
S
TO-11
Ocean Surface Winds and Currents
  • Ocean vector wind and wind-stress curl
  • Surface currents
  • Sea-ice drift and sea-ice extent
  • Ocean/atmosphere momentum exchange
H 4b
W 1a, 2a 3a
E
C 4a, 5a, 6a, 7a, 8d 3d, 4b, 7b, 7d, 7e, 8i
S
TO-12
Ozone and Trace Gases
  • Vertical profiles of ozone, water vapor, CO, NO2, methane, and N2O
  • Long-term trends in ozone layer
  • Factors controlling ozone in UT/LS
  • Mechanisms of stratosphere-troposphere exchange
H
W 2a, 4a, 5a 6a, 7a, 8a
E
C 2g 3f, 3g, 6c, 9a
S
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Related ESAS 2007 and POR Identified Need/Gap Candidate Measurement Approach ESAS 2017 Disposition
ESAS 2007: GRACE-II

POR: GRACE, GRACE-FO
POR does not include coverage after GRACE-FO

Similar to: GRACE

  • Measurement of gravity anomaly with spatial resolution of 200 km at the equator (goal of 50 km or less)
DESIGNATED
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Maximum development cost $300 million; ensure continuity after GRACE-FO
ESAS 2007: ACE, DESDynI

POR: CALIOP/CALIPSO, ATLID/EarthCARE
POR does not include coverage after EarthCARE

Similar to: CALIOP/CALIPSO, HSRL-2 airborne instrument

  • Multifrequency imaging lidar
  • Global sampling with 1 km footprint and 2 m vertical resolution to 3 optical depths
  • Priority coverage of sub-polar and polar oceans in spring and fall
UNALLOCATED

Consider opportunistic use of data from recommended Aerosols TO-2 to address TO-10; consider any related submissions to Venture solicitations, R&A efforts
ESAS 2007: XOVWM

POR: Metop/ASCAT, SCATSAT, QuikSCAT, METOP-A, METOP-B, CFOSAT
POR does not support measurement of ocean surface currents in conjunction with wind

Similar to: QuikSCAT, RapidScat with additional capabilities to measure ocean currents

  • Radar scatterometer and Doppler surface currents
  • Ocean surface wind accuracy of ~1 m/s or ~0.02 N/m2 at 100 km spatial resolution and 1-2 day temporal resolution
  • Ocean surface currents with accuracy of ~0.5 m/s at 5 km resolution or ~2 cm/s at 100 km resolution and 1-2 day temporal resolution
EARTH SYSTEM EXPLORER
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Recommended for competition
ESAS 2007: GACM

POR: MLS/Aura, HIRDLS, SAGE-III, ACE-FTS, GOMOS, OMPS/NPP, OMPS/JPSS
POR does not include vertical profiling for species other than ozone and aerosol

Similar to: MLS, HIRDLS, SAGE, ACE-FTS

  • UV/VIS/IR microwave limb sounding and UV/VIS/IR solar/stellar occultation measurements of ozone, water vapor, CO, NO2, methane, N2O
  • Sub-km vertical resolution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere
EARTH SYSTEM EXPLORER
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Recommended for competition
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Targeted Observable Science and Applications Summary Science/Applications Priorities by Panela
MI VI I
TO-13

Planetary Boundary Layer
  • Temperature
  • Water vapor
  • PBL height
H 2a
W 1a, 2a 3a 10a
E
C 2b, 4a, 7a, 7c 7b, 7d, 7e
S
TO-14

Radiance Inter-calibration
  • Climate sensitivity
  • Inter-calibration of in-flight radiometers
H
W
E
C 2a, 2h 2b, 2c, 5c, 7c 2e, 5d, 7b
S
TO-15
Salinity
  • Sea surface salinity
H 3a
W 3a
E 2b
C 6a, 7a 3d, 7d, 7e
S 3a
TO-16
Snow Depth and Snow Water Equivalent
  • Snow depth at high spatial resolution in mountain areas
  • Snow water equivalent (SWE)
H 1a, 1c 4a 2b
W 3a
E
C 8c 8f
S 4a 4b, 4c
TO-17
Soil Moisture
  • Soil, root zone moisture
  • Freeze/thaw, active layer monitoring
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Gross primary production (GPP)
H 1a, 2c 2a 4b, 4c, 4d
W 2a 3a
E 1d, 2c
C 3a, 5a, 6a, 7a 3c, 5b, 7b, 7e, 8f
S 1c 4b, 6b
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Related ESAS 2007 and POR Identified Need/Gap Candidate Measurement Approach ESAS 2017 Disposition
ESAS 2007: PATH

POR: AMSU/Aqua, AIRS/Aqua, CrIS/JPSS, ISAI/MetOp, AMSU/MetOp, COSMIC, MHS/MetOp, CALIPSO, GOES-R, AMSR
POR lacks sufficient horizontal and temporal resolution

Similar to: AIRS, AMSU, COSMIC

  • Microwave and hyperspectral IR sounders; lidar for PBL height
  • Sampling with 3-20 km horizontal, 0.2-1 km vertical, 1-4 hr temporal resolution
INCUBATION
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Consider opportunistic use of data from recommended TO-1/2 investment for PBL height
ESAS 2007: CLARREO

POR: CLARREO-PF
POR does not include an intercalibration reference for thermal IR

Similar to: CLARREO-PF

  • Reflected solar and thermal IR narrow-swath spectrometers
  • High spectral resolution (0.5-cm in IR, 4 nm in solar) and radiometric accuracy (0.03 K, 1 sigma in IR; 0.15%, 1 sigma in solar)
UNALLOCATED

Consider any related submissions to Venture solicitations
ESAS 2007: SMAP

POR: Aquarius, SMAP, SMOS
POR does not include coverage after SMAP and SMOS

Similar to: Aquarius, SMAP, SMOS

  • Multifrequency radar
  • Spatial and temporal resolution similar to microwave sea-surface temperature (i.e., 25 km spatial resolution with 3-day temporal resolution)
  • Accuracy of ~0.15 practical salinity units (psu) on monthly time scales and 1-degree spatial scales, or 0.1 psu on 10-degree spatial scales
UNALLOCATED

Consider any related submissions to Venture solicitations, R&A efforts, technology development initiatives to reduce cost and improve performance
ESAS 2007: SWOT, LIST

POR: GEDI, Jason-2/3, SWOT, Sentinel-6A/B
POR does not provide sufficient spatial resolution and coverage needed to quantify snow processes and storage in mountainous terrain

Similar to: SWOT

  • Radar (Ka/Ku-band) altimeter or lidar
  • Spatial resolution of 50 m with snow depth accuracy of 2-20 cm
EARTH SYSTEM EXPLORER
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Recommended for competition
ESAS 2007: SMAP

POR: SMAP, SMOS
POR does not include coverage after SMAP and SMOS

Similar to: SMAP, SMOS

  • Radar and microwave radiometer
  • Spatial resolution of 100 m to 1 km (radar) and 20-60 km (radiometer) with a combined active passive product at 1-10 km resolution
UNALLOCATED

Consider any related submissions to Venture solicitations, R&A efforts, technology development initiatives to reduce cost and improve performance
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Targeted Observable Science and Applications Summary Science/Applications Priorities by Panela
MI VI I
TO-18
Surface Biology and Geology
  • Surface geology and biology
  • Active geologic processes
  • Ground and water temperature
  • GPP
  • Snow spectral albedo
  • Functional traits of terrestrial vegetation and inland and near-coastal aquatic ecosystems
H 1c 2a, 4a 2b, 3a, 3b, 3c, 4c, 4d
W 3a
E 1c, 2a, 3a 1a 1d, 5a, 5b, 5c
C 3a 3c, 3d, 6b, 7e, 8f
S 1a 1c, 2b 4b, 4c, 7a
TO-19
Surface Deformation and Change
  • Surface change monitoring
  • Ice-sheet dynamics
  • Antarctic grounding line
  • Permafrost thaw subsidence
H 1c, 2c 4a 4b
W
E
C 1c 7b, 8f
S 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 4a 1c, 2b, 2c, 5a, 6a 4b, 6b, 6c, 6d, 7a
TO-20
Surface Topography and Vegetation
  • Bare surface land topography
  • Ice topography
  • Vegetation structure
  • Shallow water bathymetry
H 2c 2b, 3c, 4b, 4d
W 3a
E 1b 1e
C 1c 8f
S 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 4a 1c, 2b, 2c 1d, 4b, 4c, 6b, 7a
TO-21
Surface Water Height
  • Horizontal structure of ocean surface height
  • Two-dimensional geostrophic velocities
  • Bathymetry/gravity
  • Significant wave height
  • Tsunami height
  • Inland waters/ecosystems
  • Tides and dissipation of tidal energy
  • Sea-ice thickness
  • River flow and terrestrial water storage
  • River height variations for transport of material from land to ocean
H 1c
W 3a
E
C 1a, 1b 1d, 4a, 6a, 7a, 8a, 8b, 8c 4b, 8g, 8i
S 3a 1d
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Related ESAS 2007 and POR Identified Need/Gap Candidate Measurement Approach ESAS 2017 Disposition
ESAS 2007: HyspIRI

POR: ASTER/Terra, MODIS, Landsat, AIRS, PACE, Hyperion, ECOSTRESS
POR does not include hyperspectral imagery in the visible or shortwave infrared

Similar to: HyspIRI, combination of ASTER, MODIS, Landsat, AIRS; airborne instrument AVIRIS-NG

  • Hyperspectral imagery in the visible and shortwave infrared and multi- or hyperspectral imagery in the thermal infrared
  • Spatial resolution of 30-60 m (VIS-SWIR) and 60 m (TIR) with 14-19 day (SWIR) and 5 day (TIR) temporal resolution
DESIGNATED
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Maximum development cost $650 million
ESAS 2007: DESDynI

POR: NISAR, TanDEM-X
POR does not include coverage after NISAR

Similar to: NISAR

  • Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) with ionospheric correction
  • Spatial coverage similar to NISAR with higher spatial resolution and shorter repeat cycle (subweekly to daily)
DESIGNATED
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Maximum development cost $500 million; provide continuity after NISAR
ESAS 2007: LIST, DESDynI

POR: GEDI, ICESat-2
POR does not provide global sampling with sufficient density

Similar to: SRTM and airborne topography lidar

  • Radar or lidar
  • Global sampling at 1-5 m resolution and 0.1 m vertical resolution with seasonal repeat
INCUBATION
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Consider investment in suborbital approaches to meet needs on a regional basis
ESAS 2007: SWOT

POR: SWOT
POR does not include swath altimeter after SWOT

Similar to: SWOT

  • Swath SAR altimetry
  • Spatial resolution of ~15 km with ~± 2 cm accuracy and submonthly temporal resolution for oceans
  • Spatial resolution of ~100 m with anomalies in river flow and elevation accurate to ± 20% and weekly temporal resolution for inland waters
UNALLOCATED

Consider any related submissions to Venture solicitations, R&A efforts
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Targeted Observable Science and Applications Summary Science/Applications Priorities by Panela
MI VI I
TO-22
Terrestrial Ecosystem Structure
  • Forest 3D canopy height/structure and aboveground biomass
  • Changes in aboveground carbon stock from processes such as deforestation and forest degradation
H 3c
W
E 1b, 3a 1e, 4a, 5a, 5b, 5c
C 2d 3c, 8f
S 4c

a References to panels are abbreviated as follows: Global Hydrological Cycles and Water Resources = “Hydrology” or “H”; Weather and Air Quality: Minutes to Subseasonal = “Weather” or “W”; Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems and Natural Resource Management = “Ecosystems” or “E”; Climate Variability and Change: Seasonal to Centennial = “Climate” or “C”; and Earth Surface and Interior: Dynamics and Hazards = “Solid Earth” or “S.”

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Related ESAS 2007 and POR Identified Need/Gap Candidate Measurement Approach ESAS 2017 Disposition
ESAS 2007: ACE, DESDynI

POR: GEDI
POR does not include coverage after GEDI

Similar to: GEDI, HSRL-2 airborne instrument

  • Imaging lidar
  • Global sampling with 10-25 m footprint at 0.25 m vertical resolution
EARTH SYSTEM EXPLORER
PROGRAM ELEMENT

Recommended for competition as part of a multifunction lidar
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 619
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 620
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 621
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 622
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 623
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 624
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 625
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 626
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 627
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 628
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
Page 629
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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Page 630
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Targeted Observables Table." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space Get This Book
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We live on a dynamic Earth shaped by both natural processes and the impacts of humans on their environment. It is in our collective interest to observe and understand our planet, and to predict future behavior to the extent possible, in order to effectively manage resources, successfully respond to threats from natural and human-induced environmental change, and capitalize on the opportunities – social, economic, security, and more – that such knowledge can bring.

By continuously monitoring and exploring Earth, developing a deep understanding of its evolving behavior, and characterizing the processes that shape and reshape the environment in which we live, we not only advance knowledge and basic discovery about our planet, but we further develop the foundation upon which benefits to society are built. Thriving on Our Changing Planet presents prioritized science, applications, and observations, along with related strategic and programmatic guidance, to support the U.S. civil space Earth observation program over the coming decade.

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