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Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space (2018)

Chapter: Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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D

Request for Information and Responses from the Community

The request for information from the Earth and environmental science and applications community is reprinted below, and a list of responses is provided in Table D.1.

To: Members of the Earth and Environmental Science and Applications Community
From: Waleed Abdalati and Antonio Busalacchi, co-chairs of the 2017-2027 Decadal Survey for Earth Science and Applications from Space (“ESAS 2017”)
Date: February 18, 2016

Dear Colleagues:

As you likely know, the Space Studies Board, in collaboration with other units1of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has begun ESAS 2017, the 2017-2027 Decadal Survey for Earth Science and Applications from Space. This community-based effort will develop a comprehensive strategy that updates and extends the inaugural decadal survey, which was released in January 2007. Sponsored by NASA (Earth Science Division); NOAA (NESDIS), and USGS (Climate & Land Use Change), the study will generate prioritized recommendations regarding an integrated and sustainable systems approach to the space-based and ancillary observations that are central to the research and operational programs of the study’s sponsors. A website has been created to describe the survey and to provide an opportunity for community input throughout the study process: www.nas.edu/esas2017.

The statement of task, which is posted on the website, directs the survey committee to:

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1 Within the National Academies, the decadal survey is being led by the Space Studies Board (SSB), which is working in close collaboration—including the sharing of staff—with the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC), the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR), the Ocean Studies Board (OSB), the Polar Research Board (PRB), and the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB). Information about SSB is available at: http://sites.nationalacademies.org/SSB; information about the other Boards is available via links at: http://dels.nas.edu/.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
  1. Assess progress in addressing the major scientific and application challenges outlined in the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey.
  2. Develop a prioritized list of top-level science and application objectives to guide space-based Earth observations over a 10-year period commencing approximately at the start of fiscal year 2018 (October 1, 2017).
  3. Identify gaps and opportunities in the programs of record at NASA, NOAA, and USGS in pursuit of the top-level science and application challenges—including space-based opportunities that provide both sustained and experimental observations.
  4. Recommend approaches to facilitate the development of a robust, resilient, and appropriately balanced U.S. program of Earth observations from space. In doing so, consider: Science priorities, implementation costs, new technologies and platforms, interagency partnerships, international partners, and the in situ and other complementary programs carried out at NSF, DoE, DoA, DoD.

The present decadal survey’s task statement also asks the survey committee to, “include reconsideration of the scientific priorities associated with the named missions from the 2007 decadal survey.” Accordingly, the geophysical variables associated with the measurement objectives of missions prescribed in the 2007 survey (Earth Science and Applications from Space) that have not yet been formally confirmed for implementation will be considered as part of the 2017 survey’s prioritization effort.

The scope of the study and the “deliverables” expected by the sponsors are described in the full task statement that is posted on the survey’s website. Working with five study panels (described below), the survey committee will establish science and application priorities and measurement needs. The previous decadal survey wrapped its science and application objectives around detailed mission concepts. In a change from the previous survey, recommendations in the 2017 decadal survey will generally refer to Earth science and applications targets (i.e., an objective or a set of objectives that could be pursued and significantly advanced by means of a space-based observation) and the required measurements to address those targets rather than specific mission implementations. However, for recommendations involving potentially large investments, notional mission concepts may be generated for the purposes of independent analysis of cost and risk.

An initial RFI, issued by the standing Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space in late September 2015, asked for community input on the following questions:

  1. What are the key challenges or questions for Earth System Science across the spectrum of basic research, applied research, applications, and/or operations in the coming decade?
  2. Why are these challenge/questions timely to address now especially with respect to readiness?
  3. Why are space-based observations fundamental to addressing these challenges/questions?

The more than 200 responses to this RFI are available at the survey website. The responses guided the steering committee’s initial discussions on survey organization; in particular, regarding the structure of its supporting study panels. The responses will also continue to inform the work of the committee and will be made available to the soon to be formed 3 study panels. However, by design, the initial RFI did not ask the community for ideas on how to address an identified challenge/question in Earth System Science.

We now invite you to submit ideas for specific science and applications targets (i.e., objectives) that promise to substantially advance understanding in one or more of the following Earth System Science themes:

  1. Global Hydrological Cycles and Water Resources

    The movement, distribution, and availability of water and how these are changing over time

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
  1. Weather and Air Quality: Minutes to Subseasonal

    Atmospheric Dynamics, Thermodynamics, Chemistry, and their interactions at land and ocean interfaces

  2. Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems and Natural Resource Management

    Biogeochemical Cycles, Ecosystem Functioning, Biodiversity, and factors that influence health and ecosystem services

  3. Climate Variability and Change: Seasonal to Centennial

    Forcings and Feedbacks of the Ocean, Atmosphere, Land, and Cryosphere within the Coupled Climate System

  4. Earth Surface and Interior: Dynamics and Hazards

    Core, mantle, lithosphere, and surface processes, system interactions, and the hazards they generate

Submitted ideas will be reviewed by one or more of the survey’s study panels, which are organized to address the above-mentioned themes. Suggested targets that are crosscutting among these themes are particularly encouraged. Submissions should also identify the key geophysical variables/measurements, and the observational requirements, needed to address the science and application targets.

We anticipate that some of the targets, and their associated measurements, recommended by the Panels will be selected by the Steering Committee for detailed technical and cost analysis of potential implementation architectures. To assist those efforts, you are encouraged to provide information on measurement approaches, including technical, performance and maturity/heritage specifications, for relevant current and near-future instrumentation.

All responses will be considered non-proprietary public information for distribution with attribution. Submitted papers should be no longer than five single-spaced pages in length, excluding figures and tables, and should provide the following information, if possible:

  1. A clear description of the Science and Application target, its importance to the Theme as evidenced in previous reports or community roadmaps, and how, by addressing it, understanding in one or more of the above-mentioned Decadal Survey Themes is advanced.
  2. An explanation of the utility of the measured geophysical variable(s) to achieving the science and application target.
  3. The key requirements on the quality (i.e. the performance and coverage specifications) of the measurement(s) needed for achieving the science and application target.
  4. The likelihood of affordably achieving the required measurement(s) in the decadal timeframe given the heritage and maturity of current and near-future instruments and data algorithms, and the potential for leveraging similar or complementary measurements, especially from international partners.

In reviewing ideas for science and applications targets, the survey panels and steering committee may use an evaluation methodology similar to that outlined in the recent NRC report Continuity of NASA Earth Observations from Space: A Value Framework (2015). Accordingly, we encourage you to submit your ideas for science and application targets in the context of a potential contribution to a “Quantified Earth Science Objective” (QESO).2

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2 As discussed in Continuity of NASA Earth Observations from Space, examples of Quantified Earth Science Objectives—provided by the authoring committee solely to illustrate the methodology—include “Narrow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×

For full consideration, please submit the concept paper by April 30, 2016 via the “RFI #2” submission link that will be posted by March 1, 2016 to the survey website (www.nas.edu/esas2017). Questions about the RFI may be directed to the study director, Art Charo (acharo@nas.edu), or to us: Waleed Abdalati (waleed. abdalati@colorado.edu) and Tony Busalacchi tonyb@essic.umd.edu). You can also contact Dr. Charo by telephone at 202 334-3477, or by fax at 202 334-3701.

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Fifth Assessment (IPCC AR5) uncertainty in equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) (1.5 to 6°C at 90% confidence) by a factor of 2” and “Determine the change in ocean heat storage within 0.1 W m-2 per decade (1s).” Additional examples and the motivation for this methodology are presented in the report (National Research Council, Continuity of NASA Earth Observations from Space: A Value Framework, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2015); see especially Box 3.2 on p. 33.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×

TABLE D.1 Community Responses to the ESAS 2017 Request for Information

RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
1 The Moon and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (MERBE) Moon and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (MERBE) data suggest a capability of validating climate predictions immediately upon its free global release after 2015, decades before that possible with planned missions such as CLARREO.
2 MERBE-Sat: Low Cost/Risk Spectral SI Traceability Extension to the Moon and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (MERBE) Moon and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (MERBE) data suggest a capability of validating climate predictions immediately upon its free global release after 2015, decades before that possible with planned missions such as CLARREO. The low cost MERBE-Sat CubeSat will then give further spectral SI traceability to this first climate observing system.
3 New Low Cost & Low Power LIDAR Method of Diurnal and Global Green House Gas monitoring from Space: Application to the ASCENDS Mission A new method is described of sounding greenhouse gas content from space using LIDAR and continuous wave signals, which are generated by cheap/reliable telecommunication lasers etc. Needing only 5% the power of a pulse system, it is shown in tests to yield better accuracy than such a higher power device (which is still in development for ASCENDS).
4 Low-Frequency, Multi-channel Microwave Radiometry for Cryospheric Monitoring This white-paper introduces a new concept of low-frequency, multichannel microwave radiometry that should be one of the tools supporting a variety of geophysical products, including sub-surface temperature and other physical properties of ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost, river and lake ice, and seasonal snow cover.
5 Global Capacity Building Vision for Societal Applications of Earth Observing Systems and Data A community of Earth scientists who develop applications or solutions, and the stakeholders who need them, provided consensus-based input on key questions and recommendations to achieve a vision for global and resilient societal applications of Earth observations.
6 Measurement Needs for Addressing the Water Challenge from Space This is a one page slide on what and how NASA should measure water to provide more meaningful measurements (from underground to atmosphere) to enable greater impact for society and sustainability of earth.
7 Key Earth System Science Water Quality Objectives Good water quality is necessary to support drinking water supplies, aquatic life, as well as recreation. EPA identified the key science challenge as the ability to link anthropogenic stressors to their environmental responses for coastal marine waters and inland water bodies defined as any lake, reservoir, river, and estuary.
8 Key Earth System Science Objectives Related to Climate Change and Air Pollution This is one of three responses formally provided by the USEPA to the National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space 2017 RFI #2. EPA emphasizes the need to consider atmospheric composition observables as part of an integrated, systems-oriented approach cutting across several of the Earth System Science themes.
9 High Time, Tropospheric Temperature, Tropospheric Moisture The need is clear for high time resolution, tropospheric temperature and moisture profile measurements over a large area. This is possible from the geostationary orbit (GEO) using an advanced infrared (IR) sensor. The science and application targets for such a sensor would allow improved monitoring and modeling of the atmospheric process.
10 White Paper for the ESAS 2017 Decadal Survey on Hyperspectral 3D Atmospheric Motion Vector Winds and High Spatial Resolution IR Sounding This white paper summarizes the scientific and application benefits of observations of the 3D wind field together with high spatial resolution observations of the thermodynamic field, describes the requirements framework and the current state of technology for implementation.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
11 DS RFI#2 response for the Ocean Ecosystem and Ocean-Aerosol Interactions components of the Aerosol, Cloud, and ocean Ecosystem (ACE) Mission This white paper represents the Aerosol, Cloud, and ocean Ecosystem (ACE) Mission response to the NRC DS RFI#2 regarding the OCEAN ECOSYSTEM and the OCEAN-AEROSOL INTERACTIONS components of the ACE mission. Recommendations in this white paper reflect outcomes of ACE mission work since its announcement as a Tier 2 mission in the 2007 NRC DS report.
12 Continuity of Earth Radiation Budget Observations We discuss Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) science, community-defined ERB requirements, and the impact and probability of a data gap in the ERB record. We also provide in Appendix A two QESOs for TOA and surface radiation budget.
13 A global ocean science target for the coming decade: Response to the 2017 NRC Decadal Survey Request for Information This white paper describes an observational framework to significantly reduce uncertainties assoicated with a key ocean science QESO. Uncertainties are quantifed, a value assessment is given in IUQSB categories, and measurement requirements are specified. This white paper was coordinated with the Advanced Planning Commitee for NASAs OBB Program.
14 Application of Satellite Earth Observation Data for Global Societal Benefit: Past, Present &Future This paper is intended as a general overview of key societal applications that have been enabled globally with the use of EO data. The paper also argues for capacity building that is crucial to building sustainable solutions when using EO data for science-based decision making.
15 Thunderstorms, Lightning and Atmospheric Electricity Thunderstorms and lightning remain poorly understood, despite being among the most widely recognized and dangerous natural phenomena on Earth. Climate change may cause stronger and more frequent storms, increasing lightning activity. Thunderstorms and lightning are an integral part of the Earth system and fit naturally into Themes 2 and 4.
16 Carbon Architecture This white paper describes a study conducted by the carbon science community, identifying a unifying carbon science question, the requirements for studying it and the observing system architectures that can meet these requirements.
17 Accurate Inter-Calibration of Spaceborne Reflected Solar Sensors The accuracy and consistency of measurements across multiple spaceborne instruments are directly connected to understanding of complex systems such as Earth’s climate. We address one of the key challenges for Earth observations: improving accuracy of multiple on-orbit sensors in reflected solar via reference inter-calibration approach.
18 Satellite Derived Nearshore Sea Surface Salinity Measurements Due to the dynamic nature of salinity in nearshore regions, accurate and well resolved observations of salinity are essential to understand and predict a range of physical, chemical and ecological processes.
19 High Spatial, Temporal, and Spectral Resolution Instrument for Modeling/Monitoring Land Cover, Biophysical, and Societal Changes in Urban Environments There is critical need to adequately model, monitor land cover/land use, biophysical, and societal changes in the urban environment and assess climate change impacts on cities. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is a Decadal Survey tier 2 sensor that is well developed and can be used to satisfy this need.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
20 Detecting and tracking ocean heat content and large-scale circulation and transport changes from space The Earth’s oceans are changing: warming throughout the water column, and variations of large-scale circulation and transport systems. We argue for continued and expanded altimetry and gravimetry observations to target these essential climate variables to detect and track changes on intra-annual to decadal time-scales across basin scales.
21 Global Surface Air Pressure Measurements from Space for Greenhouse Gas Volume Mixing Ratio Observations This is for filling a gap, namely global surface air pressure measurements, in global greenhouse gas mixing ratio observations using O2-band differential absorption barometric radar systems.
22 Characterizing the vertical distribution of aerosols for improving model estimates of aerosol transport, radiative forcing, and air quality Aerosols are hazardous to human health and remain a major uncertainty in modeling the climate system. Better characterization of aerosol vertical distributions from lidar measurements are required to complement passive aerosol retrievals and improve model estimates of aerosol transport, radiative forcing, and air quality.
23 Determining sea surface air pressure and gradient with precise measurements for reliable longer-term storm track and intensification predictions Quantified Objective: Determining sea surface air pressure and gradient with precise measurements of 1 mbar and 1 mbar/10 km, respectively, for reliable longer-term storm track and intensification predictions For Earth system Science theme II. Weather and Air Quality: Minutes to Subseasonal.
24 Terrestrial Reference Frame The terrestrial reference frame (TRF) provides the fundamental framework and metrological basis for Earth observation. But the accuracy and stability of the TRF need to dramatically improve in order to fully realize the measurement potential of current and future Earth observing satellites.
25 A community submission for observing the dynamics of convection for severe weather analysis and forecasting This paper calls for systematic global observations of time-resolved convective processes (convective air mass flux and water fluxes) in order to improve our understanding of convective processes and to improve their representation in weather models.
26 Air Quality in Tropical and Subtropical Megacities Because of the degradation of air quality in and around major population centers of developing countries, we put forward the objective of monitoring air quality from space over the population centers of the tropics and subtropics from either a geostationary constellation or a single satellite at the Earth-Sun Lagrange 1 position.
27 A community submission for observing the dynamics of convection for climate modeling and prediction This paper calls for systematic global observations of time-resolved convective processes (convective air mass flux and water fluxes) in order to improve our understanding of convective processes and to improve their representation in climate models.
28 Glacial Acceleration - Reduction of Uncertainty in Sea-Level-Rise Assessment Paper motivated by the need to understand glacial acceleration which is a main source of uncertainty in sea-level change assessment. Observables: High-res surface height. Possible Measurement Approach: Swath or multi-beam altimetry in several frequencies. Links of thought: ice -ocean-atmosphere, beyond-ICEsat2, observation suite Themes I, IV, V.
29 Measuring the variability and changes of the global water distribution and balance We stress the importance of measuring time variable gravity to answer a diverse range of Earth system science questions related to furthering our understanding of the global water cycle.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
30 Severe Storms We discuss the need for time-continuous observations of severe convective storms - tropical cyclones, mesoscale convective systems, explosive extratropical cyclones - to improve modeling and prediction. Our focus is on storm-scale thermodynamic and kinematic processes and interactions with the environment at 10 km to 1000’s and minutes to weeks.
31 High resolution atmospheric temperature and water vapor observations to improve drought and vector borne disease predictions and weather forecasting How are local near-surface atmospheric temperature and humidity controlled by fine-scale variations in emissivity and topography? High-resolution hyperspectral infrared observations can provide surface and atmospheric quantities. These drive processes relevant to agricultural, human health monitoring, drought, fire and weather forecasting.
32 Air-Sea Exchange Drivers of Climate Variability, Ocean Circulation and Weather: A Case For Coincident Observations of Ocean Surface Winds and Currents Contemporaneous, global, collocated observations of ocean surface currents (including ageostrophic components) and surface winds are achievable and poised to provide the next major step in understanding dynamics of the upper ocean and its coupling to the atmosphere, thereby improving and constraining future models of climate variability and change.
33 Mobilizing Philanthropy and Public-Private Partnerships for Earth & Space Science Missions and Research We encourage ESAS 2017 to include philanthropic funding and public-private partnerships in its programmatic planning and advocacy. A coordinated basic research initiative, similar in scale to the Breakthrough Energy Coalition’s recent multi-billion dollar pledge, could have profound impacts on the Earth system science research enterprise.
34 Observational Requirements for Global Land Use and Land Change Studies Presents the science context, measurement requirements, and instrumentation options for improved monitoring of land use/cover dynamics, and highlights the opportunity for a “30m MODIS” capability to characterize vegetation phenology at the scale of land management.
35 Methane Lidar (MELI): Observing in Challenging, Critical Source Regions Current methane observations are not sufficient to constrain its global and regional sources or explain atmospheric trends over the last few decades. Active remote sensing measurements of atmospheric methane are needed at high latitudes in all seasons, in the presence of clouds and aerosols to complement observations from existing sensors.
36 Long-Term Low Frequency Microwave Observations for Environmental Applications and Climate Assessment Continuity of information about the components of the terrestrial water cycle, particularly soil moisture, is important in addressing the question of future water availability. However, there are no known commitments from any space agency to continue L band passive microwave imaging capability beyond the SMOS and SMAP missions.
37 A look into the physical properties of oceans: Response to the 2017 NRC Decadal Survey Request for Information Temperature and salinity are two of the most important properties defining the state of seawater. An instrument capable of deriving vertical profiles of temperature of the world’s ocean quickly and repeatedly would significantly advance our current knowledge of the ocean dynamics.
39 Thermodynamical Structure Within Precipitation To better understand when and how precipitation evolves from the large scale environmental conditions of evolving weather systems, it is important to track the moist thermodynamic state within precipitating cloud systems over an extended period of time.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
40 Improved Observation and Characterization of Stratospheric Aerosols Uncertainties in characterizing stratospheric aerosols limit the accuracy of direct radiative forcing in climate models. Improved spatial and temporal sampling would benefit these models and short-term forecasts following volcanic injections. A focused small satellite observational system can be developed at low cost to provide this information.
41 Low Clouds: Drivers of Climate Sensitivity and Variability Low clouds determine: (1) Uncertainty in climate sensitivity. (2) Southern Ocean SW biases. (3) The double ITCZ bias. (4) Subseasonal predictability of tropical precipitation. We suggest observations to address these issues: (1) More accurate cloud properties. (2) Links between cloud properties and atmospheric state. (3) Long high quality records.
42 Global 3D Wind Measurements Derived from Hyperspectral Infrared Sounders to Improve Weather Forecasts Our topic addresses the need to improve weather forecasting by providing a more complete representation of the global tropospheric wind field utilizing affordable and space-proven technology and algorithms.
43 High Revisit Meteorological Observation of the Arctic to Improve Weather Forecasts Our topic addresses the need to improve weather forecasting in the Arctic by providing high revisit meteorological observations of the Arctic from space.
44 High Revisit Hyperspectral Infrared Measurements to Improve Weather Forecasts Our topic addresses the need to improve weather forecasting by providing high revisit, high spectral resolution meteorological observations from space.
45 Detecting atmospheric temperature, humidity, and cloud property changes using an average-then-retrieve approach We describe a retrieval method suitable for trend and change detections using spectral radiances observed from satellites. Properties to be retrieved include temperature and water vapor mixing ratio vertical profiles, surface skin temperature, cloud fraction, optical thickness, cloud height, and particle size.
46 Dynamic Coupling of Earthquakes and Tsunamis to Ionosphere The ionosphere-based sensing of natural hazards such as earthquakes and tsunamis is remarkably useful because the combination of ground-based and spaceborne sensing allows scientists to characterize earthquake-tsunami coupling processes and better understand tsunami generation and their earthquake sources.
47 Carbon and Climate: Quantifying CO2 Sources and Sinks from Space With Low Bias and High Space-Time Representation A lidar-based CO2 space mission to quantify the current global distribution of CO2 terrestrial and oceanic sources and sinks with sufficient accuracy and spatiotemporal resolution and coverage to attribute them to specific biogeochemical processes.
48 Continuity of Air-Sea Climate Variables We propose continuing the 3 decades of air-sea climate variables measured by satellite microwave sensors. These variables are through-clouds sea-surface temperature, ocean vector winds and stress, total water vapor and cloud water, and precipitation. The proposed sensor also measures sea-ice extent/concentration/age and snow cover over land.
49 Lidar-Optical Fusion for High-resolution Measurements of Ice and Vegetation Change This proposal outlines measurement requirements for cryosphere and ecosystem science objectives using a combination of lidar and optical measurements from a single space-based observatory.
50 Evapotranspiration: A Critical Variable Linking Ecosystem Functioning, Carbon and Climate Feedbacks, Agricultural Management, and Water Resources This White Paper describes Evapotranspiration (ET) in the context of the Decadal Survey RFI #2—science & application targets, utility of the measured geophysical variable, quality requirements, and affordability.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
52 Quantifying aerosol-cloud interaction processes with high spatiotemporal resolution measurements from space We recommend a strategy for making significant progress in quantifying aerosol-cloud interactions and their environmental effects. It focuses on cloud and aerosol regimes with an integrated observing system, including high spatiotemporal resolution observations from space complemented by arrays of ground-based networks and airborne measurements.
54 Benefits of lower troposphere, low-bias, high-density CO2 measurements for determination of sources and sinks of CO2 Science target is evaluation of CO2 sources and sinks using space-based pulsed 2-micron CO2 lidar measurements to improve understanding of carbon-cycle processes in critical regions. This has a direct benefit within Climate Variability and Change: Seasonal to Centennial and Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems and Natural Resource Management themes.
55 Integrating a Doppler Wind Lidar into a network of wind observing systems: capitalizing on synergisms with a high precision, cloud penetrating lidar NWP has an ongoing unmet need for 3D winds. A logical pathfinder mission would investigate off-nadir cloud effects and requires high accuracy and resolution. Coherent lidar offers synergisms with other wind measurements, maturity for space, and potential international collaborations to reduce NASA’s cost.
56 Monitoring Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity from Space Actionable knowledge to guide the sustainable use of resources from wetlands, coastal and marine aquatic habitats, and ice-edge environments around the world, and to promote resilient coastal communities, requires ocean-color quality spectral data of several hundred select targets around the world every 3 days or less, at 30 m spatial resolution.
57 Monitoring ice sheets and sea ice: The need for satellite altimetry data in the coming decades. Here we describe a set of science goals for understanding changes in ice sheets and sea ice, and describe a set of measurements that will meet these goals. We propose that laser altimetry measurements provide the best chance to meet these goals and conclude that the heritage of NASA technology will make this mission reliable and affordable.
58 Connecting Plate Boundary Processes to Earthquake Faults using Geodetic and Topographic Imaging Large earthquakes cause extensive loss of life and property. Remote sensing provides measurements of transient and long-term crustal deformation, which are needed to improve our understanding of earthquake processes. This white paper recommends topographic imaging in the necessary context of geodetic crustal deformation measurements.
59 Passive spaceborne measurements of height-resolved atmospheric winds Atmospheric winds are critical to weather and climate. To provide height-assigned global wind vectors with the required accuracy and coverage, a constellation of tandem platforms carrying compact multiangle imagers is envisioned. The passive concept uses flight-proven hardware and data processing methods, providing high affordability and heritage.
60 The Boundary Layer Gap over Land and Importance of Improved Retrieval from Space The PBL remains a major gap in our observational suite and is therefore a limiting factor in Earth System Science and weather and climate understanding and prediction. This paper discusses the potential ways forward in terms of PBL thermodynamic profile, PBL height, and entrainment flux retrieval from space.
62 Infrared Radiance Intercalibration for Climate Quality Products and Benchmarking Many infrared satellite radiance and derived products can be greatly improved through intercalibration with observations from a potential mission/sensor aimed at providing radiance products with unprecedented accuracy, verified using on-orbit international standards.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
63 Space-based Measurements to Quantify Anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 Emissions This paper outlines the justification and strategy for measurements to quantify anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions from urban areas or large point sources. Multiple GEO XCO2 and XCH4 missions are needed as the foundation of a constellation, which would include already planned LEO missions from NASA and other agencies.
64 Anthropogenic and lithospheric process interactions Anthropogenic processes from water, petroleum, and geothermal production cause important interaction with the solid Earth and impact human infrastructure. Global observations of mass and fluid volume changes are needed to understand these process interactions. We recommend gravity, surface motion, and subsurface reservoir imaging measurements.
65 Water beneath the land surface: The holy grail of hydrologic science This RFI response addresses “subsurface water storage” in the context of Theme I: Global Hydrological Cycles and Water Resources. A continuing global record of changing subsurface water storage is necessary for better understanding of hydrologic extreme events, monitoring of global water resources, and evaluation of global land-surface models.
66 Science and Application Targets Addressed with the 2007 Decadal Survey HyspIRI Mission Current Baseline New and important science and application targets, in this time of rapid environmental change, that are addressed with the evolved 2007 Decadal Survey HyspIRI mission concept with combined global 16 day revisit imaging spectroscopy and 4 day revisit thermal multispectral measurements.
67 Quantifying Mass Change Components of Land Ice and Sea Ice The cryospheric community advocates for a multi-sensor mission that includes a Lidar capable of precise topographic and bathymetric mapping and a wide-bandwidth dual-frequency radar to reduced uncertainties in future ice mass loss and sea level rise.
68 Inland Waters Measurement needs for inland waters.
69 Coral Reefs: Living on the Edge Coral reefs are a vital resource, but they are threatened by humans at both local and global scales. In-water methods have allowed study of very little reef area. Satellite remote sensing is the only possible method to gather the necessary data on reef condition at regional to global scales. Space-borne imaging spectroscopy is a feasible course.
70 A Thermodynamic Paradigm For Using Satellite Based Geophysical Measurements For Public Health Applications This whitepaper describes the rationale satellite based geophysical measurements for three public health applications; vector borne diseases, impact of urbanization and harmful algal blooms (HABS) and addresses area III.
72 Global Wind Profiles will Advance Cross-Cutting Earth Science Observing system simulation experiments have shown conclusively that the addition of space-based global wind profiles to the current observing network will improve weather forecasting and advance science across multiple Earth System Science themes. A space-based Doppler wind lidar able to provide the needed observations is doable and affordable.
73 Groundwater Recharge and Evapotranspiration: Fluxes at the Interface of Water, Energy, Biogeochemical and Human Systems This white paper presents the case for developing new measurement capabilities for characterizing global recharge and evapotranspiration—two fluxes that are simultaneously key components of the water cycle and poorly monitored.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
74 Establishing a global benchmark of the current climate from space We advocate for establishing a global benchmark of the current climate from space using highly accurate measurements of spectrally resolved Earth emitted brightness temperature (<0.1 K k=3), verified frequently with an SI standard on-orbit. Commitment to an IR Pathfinder closely followed by a full CLARREO mission will have large societal value.
75 Monitoring and measuring disaster resiliency of social and built environments in the coastal zone using remote sensing observations Spaceborne observations provide synoptic and time-critical situational awareness to responders and decision makers during a disaster, and long-term assessment and evaluation of changes and impacts resulting disasters. A key target for hazard assessment is quantifying growth and vulnerability of infrastructure and megacities to multiple hazards.
76 Geophysical and Anthropogenic Drivers of Coastal Subsidence and Land Loss We discuss determination of subsidence rates in wetlands and agricultural lands sufficient to differentiate the heterogeneous mix of geologic and anthropogenic driving mechanisms. We evaluate requirements for accuracy, coverage, and frequency of remote sensing observations necessary to make a significant improvement on the global scale.
77 Global Precipitation Observations to Advance Water/Energy Cycle, Climate, Model, and Disaster Science Provide a 30-year record of high-quality daily and sub-daily precipitation for water/energy cycle closure, global change detection, climate and numerical weather forecast model evaluations, and flood and landslide analysis.
78 Linkages of salinity with ocean circulation, water cycle, and climate variability This white paper addresses the enhancement of capability for space-based measurements of global sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea ice thickness to study the linkages of ocean circulation with the water cycle and climate variability, as well as to facilitate biogeochemistry research.
79 Multidisciplinary Earth System Science: An Approach to Enhance Value from Passive Microwave Earth Observing Satellite Sensors Strategic planning, support, and sharing of limited-resource satellite data both for those currently in orbit and future missions, particularly conically scanning passive microwave sensors, applicable across all relevant scientific disciplines.
80 The critical need for continued measurements of the upper troposphere and stratosphere to improve predictive capability for climate and air quality We review outstanding science questions for Earth’s upper troposphere and stratosphere and discuss critical needs for high vertical resolution measurements to address them. We emphasize the anticipated “gap” in such measurements in the coming decade, highlighted in international assessments, and note new capabilities enabled by NASA investments.
81 Quantifying Truly Global Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects Observational global estimates of the aerosol direct radiative effect are still unknown to within a reasonable degree of certainty. This white paper discusses how a future space-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) would nearly eliminate bias that exist in current estimates.
82 Topography, Vegetation Structure, Water Surface and Snow Depth Mapping for Multi-disciplinary Earth Science and Applications Objectives Knowledge of the vertical structure of the Earth’s surface and its change is of critical importance for a diverse array of science and applications objectives. This white paper focuses on global mapping of ground surface topography, vegetation height and structure, inland water surface height and snow depth with high resolution and accuracy.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
83 The ACE Lidar-Polarimeter Concept to Reduce Uncertainties in Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing With Applications to Air Quality & Atmospheric Dynamics We describe the NASA ACE measurement concepts that: 1) enable the reduction of uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcing, 2) directly address air-quality and human health, and 3) help quantify the impact of absorbing aerosols on atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics and the effects on monsoonal circulations and the global hydrological cycle.
84 Ice Dynamics from Space This paper is about understanding and quantifying glacier and Ice Sheet dynamics for improved sea level projections.
85 Measuring the Earth’s Surface Mineral Dust Source Composition for Radiative Forcing and Related Earth System Impacts Mineral dust impacts direct & indirect forcing, tropospheric chemistry, ecosystem fertilization, human health & safety. Global source composition is poorly constrained by <5000 mineral analyses. Global spectroscopic measurement of surface mineralogy closes this gap to advance understanding & Earth system modelling of current & future impacts.
87 Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity with enhanced capabilities in Coastal Zone and Cold Water We propose a sea surface salinity mission to 1/provide continuity of global SSS monitoring and 2/improve measurements closer to land and ice, and in cold waters. The mission will enhance the capabilities to monitor the processes of the littoral zone and the changes due to the melting of ice sheets and other changes in high latitude climate.
88 The ACE Measurement Concept for Reducing Uncertainties in Climate Sensitivity and Understanding Cloud-Aerosol Interactions Knowledge of the climate sensitivity of the earth has ranged between roughly 1.5 and 6 Kelvins for two decades. The source of this uncertainty has been traced to simulations of marine boundary layer clouds. We discuss a measurement suite concept that aims to significantly reduce the spread in climate sensitivity uncertainty.
89 Reducing Uncertainty in Climate Sensitivity by Constraining SW Cloud Feedback Uncertainty Reducing uncertainty in equilibrium climate sensitivity by a factor of 2 by reducing trend uncertainty in cloud properties can be accomplished with SI-traceable calibration sensors in orbit.
90 Global Measurement of Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation We propose global seasonal measurement of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) cover. NPV measurements are needed to quantify vegetation response to climate variability and a wide range of ecosystem disturbance, crop residue and susceptibility to erosion, and forage conditions. The technology required for global NPV mapping is currently available.
91 Global Terrestrial Ecosystem Functioning and Biogeochemical Processes A global imaging spectroscopy mission will provide unique and urgent quantitative measurements of vegetation functional traits and biochemistry that are not currently available. Narrowband VSWIR measurements will close major gaps in our understanding of biogeochemical cycles and improve representation of vegetation in Earth system process models.
92 Maintaining and Improving Upper Air Temperature Records The white paper demonstrates the importance of a mission to directly measure the diurnal cycle of the upper air temperature, and proposes an inexpensive mission based on precessing microsatellites to make the required measurements in concert with existing operational satellites.
93 Characterizing evapotranspiration, ecosystem productivity and water stress to address global food and water security To achieve further understanding of the impact of stress on ecosystem productivity and water availability, simultaneous measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum are needed. Remotely-sensed evapotranspiration can provide land surface models with observations of evaporative stress to improve simulations on climate, carbon and water cycling.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
94 Redeveloping the Lunar Reflectance as a High-accuracy Absolute Reference for On-orbit Radiometric Calibration This paper describes the refinements needed to enable using the Moon as an SI-traceable absolute radiometric reference for on-orbit calibration of reflected solar band sensors. With advances in measurements of the lunar reflectance from space, lunar calibration can provide the accuracy and consistency needed to detect climate change signatures.
95 Change in Continental Water, Solid Earth’s Elastic Response, and Impact on Sea Level To determine changes in the availability of freshwater resources due to mankind’s activity, we advocate gravimetric measurements of mass change and accurate and high-resolution measurements of displacements of solid Earth’s surface in elastic and porous response to water change.
96 Systematic Aircraft Measurements to Characterizing Aerosol Air Masses Systematic aircraft in situ measurements in a modest operational program can add value to the existing and future satellite aerosol data record, by resolving key limitations in their application to climate and air quality issues.
97 Quantifying the Magnitude and Uncertainty in Feedbacks between Arctic Clouds and the Arctic Climate System Quantifying the magnitude and uncertainty of Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks will reduce uncertainty in Arctic climate. Continuation of the collocated satellite lidar-radar record with technological advancements and a coordinated, synergistic use of satellites, ground sites, and focused field campaigns are needed to address our science target.
98 Constraining Atmospheric Ice Processes with Coincident Measurements of Ice Mass and Cloud Vertical Motion Advancing capabilities for observing and predicting the coupled hydrological cycle and energy balance responses to environmental forcings through coordinated multi-frequency Doppler radar and submillimeter radiometer measurements of ice mass, vertical motion, and precipitation.
99 Quantum Gravity Gradiometer and the Next Generation Gravity Mission The focus of this white paper is to propose a Quantum Gravity Gradiometer based on atomic interferometry as the technological observational path to making significant time variable gravity measurement improvements in the coming decade.
100 Water Vapor and Lapse Rate Feedbacks - Reducing Uncertainty With New Measurements We describe the need for reduction in uncertainty in knowledge of the absolute magnitudes of water vapor and lapse rate feedbacks. This knowledge is essential to reduce the uncertainty in climate sensitivity. New, accurate, SI-traceable temperature and moisture vertical profiles and measurements of top-of-atmosphere infrared spectra are required.
101 Measuring critical changes in ice and snow thicknesses in time and space Paper describes the following geophysical parameters and argues for the importance of measuring them from space to complement suborbital observations: Ice sheet thickness and bed topography Ice sheet basal conditions Ice sheet internal layers Ice sheet snow accumulation Ice shelf thickness changes/marine ice extent and thickness Sea ice snow thickness.
102 Comprehensive Imagery for Water Resource Management Our paper addresses the need to support the full characterization and understanding of regional to local water supply and demand within the context of global water availability, utilizing affordable and space-proven technology and algorithms.
103 High frequency measurements of coastal regions to improve predictive understanding of coastal oceans, protect ecosystems, & enhance economic activit Understanding coastal dynamics requires frequent high-quality coastal ocean color observations, which can only be obtained from a sensor in geostationary orbit. Such observations would, for the first time, capture coastal dynamics from space and obtain actionable knowledge for protecting ecosystems and the sustainable management of resources.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
104 Addressing Major Earth Science Challenges in Cloud and Precipitation Process Modeling Water is necessary for life on Earth, thus knowing where, when and how clouds form, and whether they precipitate or not, is vital for all civilization. We must observe the underlying cloud processes globally and locally that produce precipitation to inform and improve the next generation of climate and numerical weather prediction models.
105 Permafrost Active Layer Dynamics represent a Critical Climate Feedback requiring Space-based Measurements This white paper addresses the key question of “What are the spatial distributions and temporal dynamics of permafrost soils and what are their feedbacks to/from the regional and global climate?” The topic is of principal relevance to the panel for “IV. Climate Variability and Change: Seasonal to Centennial.” It is also relevant to panels I & III.
106 The Long-term Challenge of Detecting Unambiguous Trends in Stratospheric Temperature Quantified Earth Science Objective: Measure the global, annual temperature trend in stratospheric layers to better than 0.1 K/decade at the 95% confidence level in the lower (30 km), middle (40 km), and upper (45 km) stratosphere with layer thicknesses of 10 to 15 km.
107 Enabling measurement of groundwater distribution and dynamics in arid regions using subsurface radar imaging Simultaneous spatial and temporal large-scale systematic remotesensing of arid and semi-arid groundwater is needed at sufficiently high frequency and resolution to map the distributions of groundwater and fresh water flow, and to observe the water cycle process driving the recharge and discharge of young aquifers in these regions.
108 Investigating the coupled stratosphere-troposphere system with an advanced infrared limb sounder This RFI describes an IR limb sounder that addresses climate-chemistry-radiation-dynamics science themes & questions from the mid-troposphere through the stratosphere. The instrument, based upon Aura HIRDLS, would be low cost, & make high vertical resolution, global profiles of temperature and a large number of chemical species on a daily basis.
109 Rate Processes and Fluxes of Marine Biogeochemical Cycles, Ecosystem Functioning, and Natural Resources High temporal frequency (sub-diurnal) ocean color measurements to derive open ocean and coastal ocean primary production, carbon stocks, export production and phytoplankton community composition are needed to better constrain the magnitude and uncertainties in marine ecosystem climate change responses and feedbacks and improve application models.
110 Earth Surface Geochemistry and Mineralogy: Processes, Hazards, Soils, and Resources New spectroscopic measurements of the Earth’s exposed surface to derive mineralogy are required to address key science and application targets. These measurements will advance understanding of fundamental geological processes, natural and anthropogenic hazards, soil geochemistry and evolution, and the location of energy and mineral resources.
111 Space-based Global Assessment of Aerosol Impacts on Human Health Associated with Specific Pollution Sources in a Changing World Understanding the global distribution of specific airborne particulates and the associations between specific particle types and health impacts is critical because different types of particles originate from a variety of sources, and intervention and emission control strategies need to be prioritized to maximize protection of human health.
112 Enabling global measurement of the distribution and dynamics of deep groundwater and magma systems via resonance radar imaging Global sensing of the distribution and dynamics of deep groundwater and magma systems from space via resonant electromagnetic scattering of waves, instead of high frequency pulses as used in sounding radars today which operate based on geometrical optics scattering of a wideband signal and which cannot penetrate deep in lossy mediums.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
113 Understanding the Mechanics of Faults and Fault Systems Faults have many responses to stress, from slow creep to rapid earthquake ruptures. Measurement of 3D surface motion over fault systems around the Earth will enable understanding of spatial and temporal properties of faults and surrounding rocks, critical for forecasting their behavior, including location and probability of future earthquakes.
114 Biodiversity Biodiversity is changing rapidly across the globe. There is an urgent need for an integrated global observing system designed to quantify biodiversity on Earth and detect change through time to better understand the pace and consequences of this changes, and how to manage it.
115 The role of fire in the Earth System We describe the role of fire in the earth system from indirect and direct effects of greenhouse gases and aerosols to changes in the land surface. In this RFI we identify the fire community’s needs to both advance understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system and that are relevant to fire applications science.
116 Wetlands: a key component of the water cycle and driver of methane emission The excessive uncertainty in methane emissions (ME) from wetlands limits acceptable climate change projections. The hypothesis is that wetlands play a major role in ME, and their dominant pathways are yet to be determined. The rapid rate of wetland collapse demands urgent attention, both for ME and for the impact to water cycle assessments.
117 Constraining Climate Sensitivity Using Satellite Humidity Observations This white paper explains why the Earth Science community must invest on improving current state-of-the-art water vapor measurements and describes the science requirements needed. It suggests possible ways to achieve this task by current and future space-based platforms. Measuring the fine spatial structures of water vapor is key to reducing ECS.
118 The Importance of Kilometer-Scale Soil Moisture Observations to Terrestrial Hydrology We focus on the scientific benefits of kilometer-scale soil moisture observations, which are important to understanding the soil moisture-precipitation feedback, a fundamental land surface-atmosphere interaction. Ground-reflected Global Navigation Satellite System signals received from satellite may be able to provide the needed observations.
119 Long-term Observations of Tropopause Parameters for Climate Change Detection and Model Assessments Long-term temperature observations with high vertical resolution, accuracy, and stability are sorely needed to address key climate objectives relating to future changes in large-scale circulation and stratospheric water vapor concentration. The science objectives can be met affordably with a sufficient number of GNSS-RO receivers in space.
120 Ozone Impacts on Crop and Ecosystem Health Tropospheric ozone reduces crop production, alters forest productivity and carbon storage, and may drive changes in plant species distributions and biodiversity. This white paper describes the need for measurements that will substantially improve our quantification and understanding of ozone damage to crops and ecosystems at large scales.
121 Narrowing Uncertainty in Climate Sensitivity Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity (ECS) remains the largest uncertainty in estimating future economic impacts of climate change. This uncertainty is driven by uncertainty in cloud feedback. More rapid reduction of ECS uncertainty requires improved accuracy of decadal change of shortwave cloud radiative forcing. New approaches are described.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
124 A rigorous and efficient ground truth strategy to evaluate satellite greenhouse gas measurements using commercial aircraft Accurate vertical profile measurements of CO2, CH4, and H2O from commercial aircraft would provide uniquely valuable and cost-effective ground truth data for current and new space-based greenhouse gas missions using a wide variety of approaches. We propose new infrastructure to firmly establish long-term continuity of greenhouse gas measurements.
125 Assessing Transient Threats and Disasters in the Coastal Zone with Airborne Portable Sensors Assessing threats and hazards in the coastal zone requires high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution imagery from portable airborne sensors. A fleet of well-equipped drones that could be deployed to respond to immediate threats and hazards along the U.S. coastal zone with imaging spectrometers, fluorescence and bathymetric lidars.
126 Improved retrievals of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration over the ocean to reduce indirect forcing uncertainties in climate models We propose that satellite retrieval of CCN number concentrations within a factor of two of the measured values are required to constrain anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect in climate models. Such high accuracy in CCN retrievals can be achieved by the most capable High Spectral Resolution Lidar that is envisioned for the NASA ACE mission
127 Constraining Upper Bounds On Global Sea Level Rise Over The Next Century This white paper attempts to provide an affordable, prioritized, list of cross-cutting geophysical measurements that are most important for constraining the upper bound of sea level rise projections.
128 The Pressing Need for Reactive Nitrogen Measurements for Space A geostationary satellite mission for North America over the next decade providing information on the temporal variability of reactive nitrogen is critical for addressing ecosystems, food security, air quality, and climate management needs.
129 Reducing Current Uncertainties in Cloud-Climate Feedbacks with Space Lidar Nearly a decade of observation by satellite-borne active sensors have transformed our understanding of the vertical distribution of condensate and are central to advancing understanding of the atmospheric energy budget, the coupling of clouds to circulation and the response of clouds to warming (i.e., cloud feedbacks).
130 USGS RFI Response for the ESAS 2017 Decadal Survey for Earth Science and Applications from Space USGS RFI response for water topic area based on 2015 USGS value tree information elicitation.
131 USGS RFI Response for the ESAS 2017 Decadal Survey for Earth Science and Applications from Space USGS RFI response for ecosystems topic area based on 2015 USGS value tree information elicitation.
132 USGS RFI Response for the ESAS 2017 Decadal Survey for Earth Science and Applications from Space USGS RFI response for geology and hazards topic area based on 2015 USGS value tree information elicitation.
133 Understanding Snow Cover and its Role in Providing Water for Life and a Habitable Climate The seasonal blanket of snow that covers land, sea ice, and glaciers drives global climate and is the main source of freshwater run-off for billions of people. Here we describe a multi-sensor approach to obtaining higher resolution and more accurate distributed fields of snow water equivalent for water management, modeling and climate studies.
134 Atmospheric Boundary Layer Thermodynamic Structure: Blending Infrared and Radar Observations To solve key weather and climate ABL challenges, there is an urgent need for more accurate observations of ABL water vapor and temperature structure. This can be achieved in the next 10 years by investing in an optimal combination of (i) higher resolution IR sounding in clear sky with (ii) water vapor radar profiling within clouds.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
135 Toward a Next-Generation Global Observing System for Air Quality Air pollution is responsible for ~3.7 million premature deaths worldwide. This white paper describes the measurements needed to reduce the end-to-end uncertainty of the global air quality monitoring and prediction system, from emissions attribution, to transformation in the atmosphere, to exposure and climate forcing.
136 Understanding glaciers and ice sheets response to changes in atmosphere and ocean conditions Desired geophysical observations for improving understanding of glacier and ice sheet processes relevant to improving projections of sea level change. The three key variables identified are repeat measurements of surface velocity, gravity and elevation.
137 Cross-cutting Applications of Vertically Resolved Optical Properties to Reduce Uncertainties in Atmosphere and Ocean Earth System Processes Several submission to RFIs #1 and #2 call for vertically resolved atmospheric and/or oceanic measurements of particulate backscatter, extinction, depolarization, and speciation. This paper identifies measurement requirements common to several submissions and explains the range of lidar capabilities required for these cross-cutting applications.
138 Understanding the controls on cryospheric albedo, energy balance, and melting in a changing world The distribution and quantification of forcings controlling accelerated melting of snow and ice are poorly known. We must measure with optical spectroscopy the grain size and radiative forcing by impurities with the accuracy and precision of which we understand the distribution of present GHG warming.
140 Predicting Changes in the Behavior of Erupting Volcanoes, and Reducing the Uncertainties Associated with their Impact on Society and the Environment Satellite observations allow us to characterize the complexity of terrestrial volcanism on global scales. Improvements in the spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of space-borne instruments will enable improved forecasts of when eruptions begin and end, and how volcanic hazards impact lives at global, regional, and local scales.
141 Dynamics of Canopy to Root-zone Water Content Predicting Forest Ecosystem Vulnerability to Water Stress Forest ecosystems are vulnerable to water stress that are projected to intensify in future climates. Here, we propose frequent global measurements of water status in soil and vegetation as an imperative observational strategy for the coming decade to predict and to mitigate the vulnerability of terrestrial ecosystem to climatic stress.
142 The Ocean Surface Boundary Layer: Remote Profiling To Improve Air-Sea Exchange Quantification And Forecasting Of Climate, Weather & Ecology Recent advances in LiDAR technology make feasible remote Ocean Surface Boundary Layer (OSBL) turbulence, temperature, and salinity profiling capabilities. Proposed observations will lead to significant progress in multiple areas of research. Development of an airborne campaign can be achieved in the 2017-2027 time frame.
143 Understanding Clouds & Their Interactions with Aerosols: Bridging Gaps with Airborne Programs, Next-Gen Satellite Sensors & Novel Retrieval Algorithms Representations of clouds and their interactions with aerosols in GCMs are major sources of uncertainty in predicting climate change. To address this stubborn issue, we need to map aerosol-cloud systems in 3D using well-designed sensors, space-based & airborne, and whole new class of algorithms to process their signals into key physical quantities.
144 Temporally-Resolved Observations of Cloud Processes and Precipitation We address temporally resolved observations of cloud processes that lead to precipitation. Improvement of parameterization in global climate models is essential to improve understanding of climate variability and change. Temporal sampling of convective precipitation with 5 minutes resolution can be achieved with a 5-nanosatellite constellation.
145 Understanding anthropogenic methane and carbon dioxide point source emissions We propose a tiered observational strategy focused on methane and carbon dioxide point source fluxes at fine-space time scales sufficient to detect, quantify and attribute them to address key earth system science questions and provide timely information to decision makers.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
×
RFI Response Number Response Title Summary Descriptiona
146 Global Observations of Coastal and Inland Aquatic Habitats The proposed Quantified Earth Science Objective (QESO) is to inventory and assess coastal and inland aquatic habitats, which are extremely important and are very vulnerable to global anthropogenic pressures and climatic change. Multiple orbiting and airborne platforms may be needed to get complete picture of how these vital resources are changing.
147 Remote sensing of marine debris to study dynamics, balances and trends Marine debris has become one of the most urgent global environmental problems. We argue that only remote sensing can provide a global and uniform observing system to deal with the problem. Most of the necessary technologies already exist but their parameters and output formats need to be adjusted to provide the useful data on marine debris.
148 The Role of Global Lightning Detection in Earth System Science Continued and improved satellite observations of global lightning are needed to monitor weather and climate-forced changes in regional to global-scale deep convective cloud properties, associated impacts on atmospheric composition, and as a means to detect and monitor changes in extreme storms and wildland fire ignitions.
149 Carbon Emissions from Biomass Burning Measurement needs for calculating carbon emissions from biomass burning.
150 Enabling a global perspective for deterministic modeling of volcanic unrest The biggest challenge to volcano science is understanding how magma systems evolve before volcanoes erupt. Remote sensing of precursor emissions to bound physics-based predictive models is dramatically more effective when atmospheric water is accounted for. We recommend hyperspectral thermal infrared measurements to lift the water veil.
151 3D Vegetation Structure and Dynamics In this white paper we propose to measure fine-scale 3D forest structure and its rate of changes over time using radar technology to (1) understand future trajectories of atmospheric carbon dioxide, (2) elucidate how climate is evolving and affecting Earth’s biodiversity, and (3) assess how Earth’s forests are changing due to human activities.

aEach person submitting a response to the request for information was required to provide a summary description. These descriptions are provided here unedited.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Request for Information and Responses from the Community." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24938.
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We live on a dynamic Earth shaped by both natural processes and the impacts of humans on their environment. It is in our collective interest to observe and understand our planet, and to predict future behavior to the extent possible, in order to effectively manage resources, successfully respond to threats from natural and human-induced environmental change, and capitalize on the opportunities – social, economic, security, and more – that such knowledge can bring.

By continuously monitoring and exploring Earth, developing a deep understanding of its evolving behavior, and characterizing the processes that shape and reshape the environment in which we live, we not only advance knowledge and basic discovery about our planet, but we further develop the foundation upon which benefits to society are built. Thriving on Our Changing Planet presents prioritized science, applications, and observations, along with related strategic and programmatic guidance, to support the U.S. civil space Earth observation program over the coming decade.

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