National Academies Press: OpenBook

Indicators for Monitoring Undergraduate STEM Education (2017)

Chapter: Appendix B Possible Formulas for Calculating Selected Indicators

« Previous: Appendix A Public Comments on Draft Report and Committee Response
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Possible Formulas for Calculating Selected Indicators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Indicators for Monitoring Undergraduate STEM Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24943.
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Page 183
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Possible Formulas for Calculating Selected Indicators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Indicators for Monitoring Undergraduate STEM Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24943.
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Page 184
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Possible Formulas for Calculating Selected Indicators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Indicators for Monitoring Undergraduate STEM Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24943.
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Page 185
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Possible Formulas for Calculating Selected Indicators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Indicators for Monitoring Undergraduate STEM Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24943.
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Page 186

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PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Appendix B Possible Formulas for Calculating Selected Indicators This appendix presents measurement approaches and formulas that could potentially be used to calculate some of the committee’s proposed indicators. Given the complexity of the phenomena the indicators are designed to measure and the limited data available, the committee does not propose an approach or formula for every indicator. Table B-1 lists only selected indicators. TABLE B-1 Possible Formulas for Selected Indicators Indicator Possible Formula 1.1.1 Use of evidence-based practices in Percentage of faculty who report using course development and delivery instructional practices supported by research as likely to foster student learning 1.1.2 Use of evidence-based practices outside Percentage of students in mentored the classroom research experiences and percentage of students involved in service learning Percentage of instructors who annually 1.2.1 Extent of instructors’ involvement in report more than 10 hours of formal professional development teaching-related professional development of any kind; dollars spent annually by an 1.3.1 Use of valid measures of teaching institution on faculty development and effectiveness instructional support, per instructor Percentage of departments that use validated measures other than typical student evaluations to measure instructional quality (such as validated 1.3.2 Consideration of evidence-based observation protocols, teaching portfolios, teaching in personnel decisions by departments validated self-report tools) and institutions Percentage of departments at an institution that explicitly consider use of evidence- based teaching in decisions for merit, retention, promotion 2.1.1 Institutional structures, policies, and Curricular practices that strengthen levels practices that strengthen STEM readiness for of STEM readiness for entering and entering and enrolled college students enrolled students (e.g., accelerated AppB-1

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS developmental mathematics course sequences); assessment and placement practices that strengthen levels of STEM readiness for entering and enrolled students (e.g., multiple measures for mathematics placement); academic program structures that promote coherence in STEM course taking and timely degree completion (e.g., guided pathways); institutional structures that enhance access to STEM courses (e.g., dual enrollment) 2.1.2 Entrance to and persistence in STEM Percentage of entering college students that educational programs state an intention to major in STEM, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first- generation status, and ability status; persistence rates for STEM aspirants, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first- generation status, and ability status 2.1.3 Equitable student participation in Proportion of students who participated in evidence-based STEM educational practices evidence-based educational experiences inside or outside the classroom, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first- generation status, and ability status 2.2.1 Diversity of STEM degree and certificate Ratio of the share of STEM undergraduate earners in comparison with the diversity of degrees earned to the share of all degree and certificate earners in all fields undergraduate degrees earned, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first- generation status, and ability status 2.2.2 Diversity of students who transfer from Ratio of the share of community college 2- to 4-year STEM programs in comparison transfer students entering 4-year STEM with diversity of students in 2-year STEM degree programs to the share of all programs community college students, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first-generation status, and ability status AppB-2

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS 2.2.3 Time to degree for students in STEM 3-year graduation rates for students in 2- academic programs year STEM programs, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first-generation status, and ability status; 4- and 6-year graduation rates for students in 4-year STEM programs, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first- generation status, and ability status; average time to degree of students earning bachelor degrees; average time to degree of students earning associate degrees; average academic terms (semesters or quarters) to degree of students earning bachelor degrees; average academic terms (semesters or quarters) to degree of students earning associate degrees 2.3.1 Diversity of STEM instructors in Ratio of the share of STEM instructors to comparison with diversity of STEM graduate the share of all STEM graduate degree degree holders holders, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first-generation status, and ability status and by STEM discipline and institutional type 2.3.2 Diversity of STEM graduate student Ratio of the share of STEM teaching instructors in comparison with diversity of assistants to the share of all STEM STEM graduate students graduate students, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first-generation status, and ability status and by STEM discipline and institutional type 2.4.1 Students who are pursuing STEM Average sense of belonging that STEM credentials feel included and supported in their students feel toward their college or academic programs and departments university, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first-generation status, and ability status and by STEM discipline and institutional type; overall sense among STEM students that faculty are approachable, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic, first-generation status, and ability status and by STEM AppB-3

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS discipline and institutional type. STEM students’ overall sense of support from peers, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first-generation status, and ability status and by STEM discipline and institutional type; annual proportion of students unable to enroll in the courses they need to matriculate in their degree programs, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, first- generation status, and ability status and by STEM discipline and institutional type 2.4.2. Instructors who teach Courses in STEM Proportion of STEM faculty expressing disciplines feel supported and included in their satisfaction with the collegiality among eepartments faculty in their departments, disaggregated by race and ethnicity, gender, rank, and employment status and by STEM discipline and institutional type; proportion of STEM faculty experiencing stress due to discrimination, disaggregated by race/ethnicity, gender, rank, and employment status and by STEM discipline and institutional type 2.4.3 Institutional practices are culturally Departmental use of culturally responsive responsive, inclusive, and consistent across the instructional practices; institution Institutional use of faculty search and hiring practices known to effectively diversify STEM faculty AppB-4

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Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professionals generate a stream of scientific discoveries and technological innovations that fuel job creation and national economic growth. Ensuring a robust supply of these professionals is critical for sustaining growth and creating jobs growth at a time of intense global competition. Undergraduate STEM education prepares the STEM professionals of today and those of tomorrow, while also helping all students develop knowledge and skills they can draw on in a variety of occupations and as individual citizens. However, many capable students intending to major in STEM later switch to another field or drop out of higher education altogether, partly because of documented weaknesses in STEM teaching, learning and student supports. Improving undergraduate STEM education to address these weaknesses is a national imperative.

Many initiatives are now underway to improve the quality of undergraduate STEM teaching and learning. Some focus on the national level, others involve multi-institution collaborations, and others take place on individual campuses. At present, however, policymakers and the public do not know whether these various initiatives are accomplishing their goals and leading to nationwide improvement in undergraduate STEM education.

Indicators for Monitoring Undergraduate STEM Education outlines a framework and a set of indicators that document the status and quality of undergraduate STEM education at the national level over multiple years. It also indicates areas where additional research is needed in order to develop appropriate measures. This publication will be valuable to government agencies that make investments in higher education, institutions of higher education, private funders of higher education programs, and industry stakeholders. It will also be of interest to researchers who study higher education.

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