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Section II Effects of E-Cigarettes on Health Although laboratory tests of e-cigarette ingredients, in vitro toxicological tests, and short-term human studies suggest that e-cigarettes are likely less harmful than combustible tobacco cigarettes, due to lack of long-term epidemiological studies and large clinical trials, the implications for long-term effects on morbidity and mortality are not yet clear and the absolute safety of the products cannot be unambiguously assessed at this time. Use of e-cigarettes instead of combustible tobacco cigarettes by those with existing respiratory disease might be less harmful. 7 MODES OF ACTION 8 DEPENDENCE AND ABUSE LIABILITY 9 CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES 10 CANCER 11 RESPIRATORY DISEASES 12 ORAL DISEASES 13 DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS 14 INJURIES AND POISONINGS 15 RESEARCH NEEDS: EFFECTS OF E-CIGARETTES ON HEALTH PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS