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2017 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 862 Guide to Deploying Clean Truck Freight Strategies Louis Browning ICF Aptos, CA Philip Sheehy ICF San Diego, CA Jeffrey Ang-Olson ICF Sacramento, CA Lawrence OâRourke ICF Cambridge, MA James Choe ICF San Francisco, CA Michael Tunnell ATRI Arlington, VA Subscriber Categories Environmentâ â¢â FreightâTransportationâ â¢â VehiclesâandâEquipment Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide inter- est to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these top- ics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 862 Project 25-46 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44666-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2017958360 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 862 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 25-46 PANEL Field of Transportation PlanningâArea of Impact Analysis Edward R. Hutchinson, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL (Chair) Timothy V. Sexton, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul, MN William Keith Kahl, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN Donald P. Kopec, St. Charles, IL Kathleen T. Kovach, Combined Resources, Seattle, WA Caroline A. Mays, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Annie Nam, Southern California Association of Governments, Los Angeles, CA Victoria Martinez, FHWA Liaison Eric C. Shen, MARAD Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
NCHRP Research Report 862 provides decision makers with a guide to assist in the potential deployment of fuel-efficient and low-emission truck freight strategies. The guide includes an analytical tool to identify and evaluate appropriate strategies, alone or in com- bination, that can be deployed at the state, regional, and local levels. The guide will allow transportation practitioners to encourage the best use of the technological, operational, and infrastructure investment alternatives that mitigate truck freight impacts on criteria air pollutants, fuel efficiency, and greenhouse gas emissions. Freight volumes are expected to increase in the future, while at the same time, air quality is a growing concern. Truck freight movements generate a significant amount of greenhouse gases and particulate emissions. States, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), and cities will need to look more closely at reducing truck freight emissions through fuel- and emissions-reduction technologies, operational changes, and infrastructure investments in order to meet new air quality standards. In addition, large freight-generating facilities such as medical centers, universities, airports, and convention centers need to understand how they can conduct their activities in ways that can mitigate the negative impacts of truck freight on air quality. Understanding the emissions- and fuel-reduction technologies avail- able, the challenges to wider adoption of these technologies, where these technologies best fit diverse geography and efficient supply-chain needs, and the potential emissions reductions, could have significant impacts on truck freight emissions and fuel usage. In NCHRP Project 25-46, ICF was asked to (1) identify and discuss existing and emerg- ing emissions-reduction technologies and applicable operational changes and infrastructure investments in the United States and Canada; (2) interview a broad cross-section of state departments of transportation (DOTs), ports, and MPOs to gather detailed examples of their efforts to reduce emissions from truck freight operations; (3) conduct in-depth interviews with 20 motor carriers in various operational environments who have adopted emissions- or fuel-reduction technologies to determine their decision-making processes and lessons learned; (4) develop a tool for selecting and applying strategies to promote fuel-efficient and low-emission freight truck movements; and (5) test the tool in five case studies. More detailed technical and user information, including case study examples, is provided in a separate docu- ment, the âUser Manual for Clean Truck Strategies Analysis Tool.â (The tool and user manual can be found on the TRB website by searching for âNCHRP Research Report 862.â) F O R E W O R D ByâWilliamâC.âRogers StaffâOfficer TransportationâResearchâBoard
Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Purpose 2 1.2 Background 2 1.3 Overview of Final Report 3 Chapter 2 CleanâTruckâStrategies 3 2.1 Engine and Aftertreatment Technologies â Targeting Criteria Pollutants 5 2.2 Engine and Powertrain Technologies â Targeting Fuel Efficiency 7 2.3 Alternative Fuels 9 2.4 Vehicle Technologies â Targeting Fuel Efficiency 13 2.5 Operational Strategies 16 2.6 Clean Truck Corridor Infrastructure 18 Chapter 3 Public-SectorâPerspectives 18 3.1 Introduction 18 3.2 Clean Truck Programs 25 3.3 Key Takeaways from Interviews 26 3.4 Additional Participation 27 Chapter 4 Private-SectorâPerspectives 27 4.1 Trucking Industry Background 29 4.2 Interviews with Motor Carriers 30 4.3 Technology Deployment 33 4.4 Role of Government 34 4.5 Summary of Motor Carrier Interviews 36 Chapter 5 StakeholderâWorkshop 36 5.1 Workshop 39 Chapter 6 ToolâCaseâStudies 40 6.1 MPO Case Study 47 6.2 State DOT Case Study 54 6.3 Port Operator Case Study 58 Chapter 7 GuideâandâTool 58 7.1 Guide 59 7.2 Tool 62 7.3 Tool User Manual C O N T E N T S