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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

Environmental Chemicals,
the Human Microbiome,
and Health Risk

— A RESEARCH STRATEGY —

Committee on Advancing Understanding of the Implications
of Environmental-Chemical Interactions with the Human Microbiome

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Board on Life Sciences

Division on Earth and Life Studies

A Consensus Study Report of

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Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

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This project was supported by Contract EP-C-14-005, TO#0012 between the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Contract HHSN263201200074I, TO#HHSN26300097, US Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24960.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

COMMITTEE ON ADVANCING UNDERSTANDING OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL-CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS WITH THE HUMAN MICROBIOME

Members

RONALD M. ATLAS (Chair), University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

KJERSTI M. AAGAARD, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

ELAINE HSIAO, University of California, Los Angeles, CA

YVONNE HUANG, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

CURTIS HUTTENHOWER, Harvard University, Boston, MA

ROSA KRAJMALNIK-BROWN, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

SUSAN LYNCH, University of California, San Francisco, CA

WILLIAM W. NAZAROFF, University of California, Berkeley, CA

ANDREW D. PATTERSON, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

JOHN F. RAWLS, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC

JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, Ramboll Environ, Arlington, VA

PAMELA SHUBAT (Retired), Minnesota Department of Health, MN

BRIAN THRALL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

Staff

ELLEN K. MANTUS, Project Director

ANDREA HODGSON, Associate Program Officer

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center

RADIAH ROSE-CRAWFORD, Manager, Editorial Projects

IVORY CLARKE, Research Assistant

Sponsors

US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Members

WILLIAM H. FARLAND (Chair), Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

RICHARD A. BECKER, American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC

E. WILLIAM COLGLAZIER, AAAS, Washington, DC

DOMINIC M. DITORO, University of Delaware, Newark, DE

DAVID C. DORMAN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, JR., Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY

ANNE FAIRBROTHER, Exponent, Inc., Philomath, OR

GEORGE GRAY, The George Washington University, Washington, DC

STEVEN P. HAMBURG, Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY

ROBERT A. HIATT, University of California, San Francisco, CA

SAMUEL KACEW, University of Ottawa, Ontario

H. SCOTT MATTHEWS, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

ROBERT PERCIASEPE, Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, VA

R. CRAIG POSTLEWAITE, Department of Defense, Burke, VA

MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

JOAN B. ROSE, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

GINA M. SOLOMON, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA

ROBERT M. SUSSMAN, Sussman and Associates, Washington, DC

DEBORAH L. SWACKHAMER, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN

PETER S. THORNE, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

Senior Staff

TERESA A. FRYBERGER, Director

ELLEN K. MANTUS, Scholar and Director of Risk Assessment

RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Scholar and Director of Environmental Studies

SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology

ELIZABETH BOYLE, Program Officer

TAMARA DAWSON, Program Associate

BERNIDEAN WILLIAMS-SMITH, Financial Associate

SUZANNE THILENIUS, Administrative Coordinator

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES

Members

JAMES P. COLLINS (Chair), Arizona State University

A. ALONSO AGUIRRE, George Mason University

ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Burroughs Wellcome Fund

ROGER D. CONE, University of Michigan

NANCY D. CONNELL, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School

JOSEPH R. ECKER, Salk Institute for Biological Studies

SCOTT V. EDWARDS, Harvard University

SARAH C.R. ELGIN, Washington University, St. Louis

ROBERT J. FULL, University of California, Berkeley

ELIZABETH HEITMAN, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

JUDITH KIMBLE, University of Wisconsin–Madison

MARY E. MAXON, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

JILL P. MESIROV, University of California, San Diego

KAREN E. NELSON, J. Craig Venter Institute

CLAIRE POMEROY, Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation

MARY E. POWER, University of California, Berkeley

LANA SKIRBOLL, Sanofi

JANIS WEEKS, University of Oregon

Senior Staff

FRANCES SHARPLES, Director

JO HUSBANDS, Senior Scholar

JAY LABOV, Senior Scholar

LIDA ANESTIDOU, Senior Program Officer

KATIE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer

KEEGAN SAWYER, Senior Program Officer

AUDREY THEVENON, Program Officer

ANDREA HODGSON, Associate Program Officer

BETHELHEM MEKASHA, Financial Associate

JENNA OGILVIE, Research Associate

ANGELA KOLESNIKOVA, Senior Program Assistant

AANIKA SENN, Senior Program Assistant

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

Acknowledgments

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Gary Ginsberg, Connecticut Department of Public Health

Elizabeth Grice, University of Pennsylvania

Karen Guillemin, University of Oregon

Rob Knight, University of California, San Diego

Kun Lu, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Linda McCauley, Emory University

M. Allen Northrup, MIODx

Howard Rosen, AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Joyce Tsuji, Exponent

Lauren Zeise, California Environmental Protection Agency

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Michael Ladisch, Purdue University, and Charles Haas, Drexel University, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

The committee gratefully acknowledges the following for their presentations to the committee during open sessions: Tina Bahadori, US Environmental Protection Agency; Lisa Chadwick, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Jay Garland, US Environmental Protection Agency; Elizabeth Grice, University of Pennsylvania; Kerry Kinney, University of Texas, Austin; Laura Kolb, US Environmental Protection Agency; Tamara Tal, US Environmental Protection Agency; Peter Turnbaugh, University of California, San Francisco; and Vincent Young, University of Michigan. The committee is also grateful for the assistance of Norman Grossblatt who served as the report editor.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×

Research to Address Risk-Assessment Needs and Implications

Identifying Health Risk Assessments That Might Need Re-Evaluation

Findings

References

6 RESEARCH STRATEGY

Selection of Chemicals for Experimental Approaches

Effects of Environmental Chemicals on the Human Microbiome

The Role of the Human Microbiome in Modulating Exposures to Environmental Chemicals

The Importance of Microbiome Variation and Variability

Tool Development

Opportunities for Collaboration and Coordination

Concluding Remarks

References

APPENDIX

BIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ON THE COMMITTEE ON ADVANCING UNDERSTANDING OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL-CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS WITH THE HUMAN MICROBIOME

BOXES AND FIGURES

BOXES

1-1 Statement of Task

1-2 Definitions of Selected Terms

6-1 Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic or Pharmacodynamic Models

6-2 Resources for Research Collaborations

FIGURES

S-1 Standard four-step framework for risk assessment

1-1 The gut microbiome plays important roles in human physiology and metabolism and functions as an ecologic niche that has an interface with the environment

2-1 (A) Gut microbiome development in infancy is influenced by early-life events, and (B) acquisition of microbiota in early life is thought to shape infant development

3-1 General mechanisms by which a microbiome might directly or indirectly modulate the exposure–response relationship of an environmental chemical

4-1 Culture-independent molecular approaches to study host–microbiome interactions

5-1 The standard four-step framework for risk assessment

6-1 Parallelogram strategy (blue boxes) for predicting human response to chemical exposure that incorporates in vitro and in vivo data into PBPK-PD models

6-2 Susceptibility to environmental-chemical exposure and associated health risks might be affected not only by developmental stage and baseline health status but by the variation and variability in the human microbiome

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk: A Research Strategy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24960.
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Page R12
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A great number of diverse microorganisms inhabit the human body and are collectively referred to as the human microbiome. Until recently, the role of the human microbiome in maintaining human health was not fully appreciated. Today, however, research is beginning to elucidate associations between perturbations in the human microbiome and human disease and the factors that might be responsible for the perturbations. Studies have indicated that the human microbiome could be affected by environmental chemicals or could modulate exposure to environmental chemicals.

Environmental Chemicals, the Human Microbiome, and Health Risk presents a research strategy to improve our understanding of the interactions between environmental chemicals and the human microbiome and the implications of those interactions for human health risk. This report identifies barriers to such research and opportunities for collaboration, highlights key aspects of the human microbiome and its relation to health, describes potential interactions between environmental chemicals and the human microbiome, reviews the risk-assessment framework and reasons for incorporating chemical–microbiome interactions.

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