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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
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A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA Committee on a Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract NNH11CD57B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/24966 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2017 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24966. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON A MIDTERM ASSESSMENT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DECADAL SURVEY ON LIFE AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES RESEARCH AT NASA DANIEL L. DUMBACHER, Purdue University, Co-Chair ROBERT J. FERL, University of Florida, Co-Chair REZA ABBASCHIAN, University of California, Riverside ALAN R. HARGENS, University of California, San Diego YIGUANG JU, Princeton University DOMINIQUE LANGEVIN, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides of the University Paris Sud GLORIA LEON, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis W. CARL LINEBERGER, NAS,1 University of Colorado, Boulder ELLIOT M. MEYEROWITZ, NAS, California Institute of Technology TODD J. MOSHER, Syncroness, Inc. ELAINE S. ORAN, University of Maryland2 JAMES A. PAWELCZYK, The Pennsylvania State University JAMES T’IEN, Case Western Reserve University MARK M. WEISLOGEL, Portland State University GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK, Northwestern University Consultant LISELOTTE J. SCHIOLER, Schioler Consulting Staff SANDRA GRAHAM, Study Director MARCHEL HOLLE, Research Associate DIONNA J. WISE, Program Coordinator MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Resigned April 21, 2017. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

SPACE STUDIES BOARD FIONA HARRISON, NAS,1 California Institute of Technology, Chair ROBERT D. BRAUN, NAE,2 University of Colorado, Boulder, Vice Chair JAMES G. ANDERSON, NAS, Harvard University JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant JAY C. BUCKEY, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth ADAM S. BURROWS, NAS, Princeton University MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Dittmar Associates JOSEPH FULLER, JR., Futron Corporation THOMAS R. GAVIN, California Institute of Technology SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research VICTORIA E. HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute ANTHONY C. JANETOS, Boston University CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, NAS, George Washington University DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University LARRY J. PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, University of California, Los Angeles Staff MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate MEG A. KNEMEYER, Financial Officer ANTHONY BRYANT, Senior Financial Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD ALAN H. EPSTEIN, NAE,1 Pratt & Whitney, Chair ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Arizona State University, Vice Chair ARNOLD D. ALDRICH, Aerospace Consultant BRIAN M. ARGROW, University of Colorado, Boulder STEVEN J. BATTEL, NAE, Battel Engineering MEYER J. BENZAKEIN, NAE, Ohio State University BRIAN J. CANTWELL, NAE, Stanford University EILEEN M. COLLINS, Space Presentations, LLC MICHAEL P. DELANEY, Boeing Commercial Airplanes KAREN FEIGH, Georgia Institute of Technology NICHOLAS D. LAPPOS, Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company MARK J. LEWIS, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute VALERIE MANNING, Airbus RICHARD MCKINNEY, Consultant PARVIZ MOIN, NAS2/NAE, Stanford University JOHN M. OLSON, Polaris Industries ROBIE I. SAMANTA ROY, Lockheed Martin Corporation AGAM N. SINHA, ANS Aviation International, LLC ALAN M. TITLE, NAS/NAE, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center DAVID M. VAN WIE, NAE, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory IAN A. WAITZ, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SHERRIE L. ZACHARIUS, Aerospace Corporation Staff MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate MEG A. KNEMEYER, Financial Officer ANTHONY BRYANT, Senior Financial Assistant 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Preface The Committee on a Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA was charged to review the progress of NASA’s program in addressing the strategies, goals, and priorities outlined in the 2011 NRC decadal survey report,1 Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration, Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era.2 The committee’s complete statement of task is reprinted in Appendix A. The tasks before the committee encompassed areas of science, science policy, and science implementation, which have been under extraordinary evolution since the publication of the Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration. To address both the tasks and the evolutions in the field, the committee held four in-person meetings and many teleconferences from January through December 2017. The committee heard extensively from the NASA Division of Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications (SLPSRA), the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), the NASA Office of the Chief Scientist, and the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). As part of the May 2017 meeting, a wide-ranging and interactive Community Input Symposium was held at a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine meeting building in Washington, D.C. The committee witnessed the extensive work being done within SLPSRA and the broader ISS research program, as well as within the CASIS and international programs that impact the portfolio. This multipronged approach to science is in line with the general priority of the decadal survey, which was restoring and then maintaining a broad portfolio for space life and physical sciences, led by NASA. This resurgence in growth was extensively discussed by the committee within the bounds of the statement of task, and the scope of the statement of task was thoroughly examined by the committee in the extensive context of the entities now involved. The discussions of the committee were also guided by the now rapid evolution of an increasingly commercial or private space “ecosystem.” This ecosystem already involves the use of commercial carriers to the International Space Station (ISS), and it also includes the potential further economic development of low Earth orbit (LEO) in a broader sense. This discussion is particularly relevant as NASA considers science in and around LEO during the period that will define NASA’s operational transition away from the ISS as its focus. Thus, the potential transition of ISS capabilities toward the private sector and the focus of NASA more toward deep space had a dramatic impact on committee deliberations and recommendations. The committee and the co-chairs thank the many very busy people at NASA, CASIS, in the larger U.S. government, and especially the members of the national and international community of space life and physical sciences, who helped the committee through presentations, written input, and discussions. Special thanks go to the staff of the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and the Space Studies Board. While the words of this report are those of the committee, the extraordinary expertise of the National Academies staff made the work of the committee possible, and their guidance consistently enabled the committee to pull informative data and reach enlightened conclusions. Without their support, this report would not have been possible. 1 Hereinafter also referred to as “the decadal survey” or “the 2011 decadal survey,” and “the 2011 decadal survey on space life and physical sciences.” 2 National Research Council, 2011, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., https://doi.org/10.17226/13048. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Susan A. Bloomfield, Texas A&M University, Vijay K. Dhir, NAE,1 University of California, Los Angeles, Mary Lynne Dittmar, Coalition for Deep Space Exploration, Simon Gilroy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Elaine S. Oran, NAE, University of Maryland, Lawrence A. Palinkas, University of Southern California, Daniel J. Scheeres, NAS,2 University of Colorado, Boulder, Peter B. Sunderland, University of Maryland, Peter W. Voorhees, Northwestern University, Erika B. Wagner, Blue Origin, LLC, and Michael M. Weil, Colorado State University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Louis J. Lanzerotti, NAE, New Jersey Institute of Technology. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

Contents SUMMARY S-1 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Exploration Imperative Since the Decadal Survey 1.2 Study Context and Challenges 1.3 Report Organization 2 THE NASA PROGRAMMATIC APPROACH AND STRATEGY ADDRESSING THE 2-1 2011 SPACE LIFE AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES DECADAL SURVEY 2.1 Program Development Since the 2011 Decadal Survey 2.1.1 The Diversifying Landscape of Entities Involved in Microgravity Research 2.1.2 Research Inputs, Outputs and Available Assessment Tools 2.2 NASA Budget and Funding Environment Since the 2011 Space Life and Physical Sciences Decadal Survey 2.2.1 Top Level View of NASA Budgets and Programs in Microgravity Science 2.2.2 ISS Timeline and Microgravity Science 2.2.3 Taskbook Assessment of PIs and Tasks 2004-2016, 2.2.4 Solicitations and Selections 2010-2016, 2.2.5 External Grants Toal Funding for Microgravity Science 2007-2016, 2.2.6 NASA Funding Aligned to Specific Decadal Recommendations, 2.3 Existing and Emerging Challenges to and Opportunities for Implementation of the 2011 Decadal Survey 2.3.1 The ISS U.S. National Laboratory 2.3.2 Crew on ISS and Crew Time Available for Science 2.3.3 Interagency Multi-Sponsorship and Commercial Interactions 2.3.4 Lead Collaborate Watch and Park Opportunities 2.4 Plans for the International Space Station; ISS Post 2024 2.4.1 Budget Allocation in Light of Limited Time Remaining on ISS 2.4.2 Reference Experiments and Open Databases 3 SCIENCE PROGRESS TOWARDS GOALS AND PRIORITIES OF THE 2011 SPACE 3-1 LIFE AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES DECADAL SURVEY 3.1 Plant and Microbiology 3.2 Behavior and Mental Health 3.3 Animal and Human Biology 3.4 Cross-Cutting Issues for Humans in the Space Environment 3.5 Fundamental Physical Sciences in Space 3.5.1 FP1. Soft Condensed Matter Physics and Complex Fluids 3.5.2 FP2. Precision Measurements of Fundamental Forces and Symmetries 3.5.3 FP3. Quantum Gases 3.5.4 FP4. Critical Phenomena 3.6 Applied Physics PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xiii

3.6.1 Physical Science Informatics (Open-Access Database) 3.6.2 Fluid Physics 3.6.3 Combustion Research 3.6.4 Materials Research 3.7 Translation to Space Exploration Systems 3.8 Science Status in Light of Exploration Mission Development 4 PRIORITIZATIONS AND RANKINGS TO OPTIMIZE AND ENABLE THE 4-1 EXPANSION OF DEEP SPACE HUMAN EXPLORATION 4.1 Targeting Decadal Exploration Research Priorities 4.1.1 The Decadal Approach to Organizing Priorities 4.1.2 Overarching Space Exploration Strategy 4.2 Criteria for MidTerm Ranking of the High Priority Recommendations for Exploration 4.3 Highest Priority Recommendations for Exploration 4.4 Science Context for the Rankings 4.4.1 Plant Biology and Microbiology 4.4.1.1 Role in Human Exploration 4.4.1.2 Plant and Microbial Biology Research Platforms and Approaches Relevant to Exploration 4.4.1.3 Recent Advances Relevant to Plant and Microbial Microgravity Science 4.4.1.4 Highest Priority Plant and Microbial Recommendations for Exploration 4.4.2 Behavior and Mental Health 4.4.2.1 Role in Human Exploration and Future Implementation 4.4.2.2 Research Platforms and Approaches Relevant to Exploration 4.4.2.3 Recent Advances Relevant to Microgravity Science 4.4.2.4 Further Considerations for Implementing Decadal Recommendations 4.4.2.5 Highest Priority Recommendations for Exploration 4.4.3 Animal and Human Biology 4.4.3.1 Role in Human Exploration 4.4.3.2 Research Platforms and Approaches Relevant to Exploration 4.4.3.3 Recent Advances Relevant to Animal and Human Biology Microgravity Science 4.4.3.4 Highest Priority Animal and Human Biology Recommendations for Exploration 4.4.4 Cross-Cutting Issues for Humans in the Space Environment 4.4.4.1 Role in Human Exploration 4.4.4.2 Research Platforms and Approaches Relevant to Exploration 4.4.4.3 Recent Advances Relevant to Cross-Cutting Issues for Humans in the Space Environment 4.4.4.4 Highest Priority Cross-cutting Recommendations for Exploration 4.4.5 Radiation Component of Cross-cutting Decadal Recommendations 4.4.5.1 Role in Human Exploration 4.4.5.2 Highest Priority Recommendations for Exploration 4.4.5.3 Research Platforms and Approaches Relevant to Exploration 4.4.5.4 Recent Advances Relevant to Microgravity Science 4.4.6 Fundamental Physical Sciences in Space 4.4.6.1 Role in Human Exploration 4.4.6.2 Highest Priority Recommendations for Exploration 4.4.6.3 Research Platforms and Approaches Relevant to Exploration 4.4.6.4 Recent Advances Relevant to Microgravity Science 4.4.7 Applied Physical Sciences in Space 4.4.7.1 Fluid Physics PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xiv

4.4.7.1.1 Role in Human Exploration and Future Implementation 4.4.7.1.2 Research Platforms for fluid physics and Approaches Relevant to Exploration 4.4.7.1.3 Recent Advances in Fluid Physics Relevant to Microgravity Science 4.4.7.1.4 Application of Fluid Physics Research 4.4.7.1.5 Highest Priority Fluid Physics Recommendations for Exploration 4.4.7.2 Combustion 4.4.7.2.1 Role in Human Exploration and Future Implementation 4.4.7.2.2 Highest Priority Recommendations for Exploration 4.4.7.2.3 Research Platforms for combustion and Approaches Relevant to Exploration 4.4.7.3 Material Science 4.4.7.3.1 Role in Human Exploration, Recent Advances and Future Implementation 4.4.7.3.2 Highest Priority Recommendations for Exploration and Research Platforms 4.4.7.4 Implementing Decadal Recommendations in Applied Physics 4.4.8 Translation to Space Exploration Systems 4.4.8.1 Role in Human Exploration 4.5 Summary of Science and Top Priorities 5 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING THE DECADAL PORTFOLIO OVER REMAINING YEARS WITHIN CONSTRAINTS 5-1 5.1 Current Status and Challenges that Constrain Resources,5-2 5.1.1 Create Regular Requests for Research Proposal in Order to Enhance Science Capability 5.1.2 Maximize use of Crew Time for Decadal Research 5.1.3 Significantly Improve Research Result Reporting and Integration 5.1.4 Strengthen Relationships with other Agencies and International Partners 5.2 Maximum Science Progress for the Next Decadal Survey 5.2.1 Traceability of Exploration Strategy to Research Priorities 5.2.2 Cross – Organizational Efforts 5.2.3 Direct Larger Balance of Budget to Science Research 5.2.4 Proactively Use Full Range of Platforms 5.3 Path to Exploration and Beyond 2024 5.3.1 Provide Additional Funding to Address Significant Risks and Unknowns for Human Exploration 5.3.2 Expeditiously Develop LEO Post 2024 Strategy 5.3.3 Develop the Identified High Priority Science Research Areas 5.4 Summary: Addressing Exploration and Basic Science APPENDIXES A Statement of Task A-1 B Meeting Agendas B-1 C Biographies and Committee Members C-1 D Acronyms D-1 E Criteria and Table Reprinted from the Decadal Survey E-1 F Commercial Spaceflight Federation Listing of Microgravity Experiments Since 2011 that Have Flown on Balloons, Parabolic, or Suborbital Missions F-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xv

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A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA Get This Book
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The 2011 National Research Council decadal survey on biological and physical sciences in space, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, was written during a critical period in the evolution of science in support of space exploration. The research agenda in space life and physical sciences had been significantly descoped during the programmatic adjustments of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2005, and this occurred in the same era as the International Space Station (ISS) assembly was nearing completion in 2011. Out of that period of change, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration presented a cogent argument for the critical need for space life and physical sciences, both for enabling and expanding the exploration capabilities of NASA as well as for contributing unique science in many fields that can be enabled by access to the spaceflight environment.

Since the 2011 publication of the decadal survey, NASA has seen tremendous change, including the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program and the maturation of the ISS. NASA formation of the Division of Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications provided renewed focus on the research of the decadal survey. NASA has modestly regrown some of the budget of space life and physical sciences within the agency and engaged the U.S. science community outside NASA to join in this research. In addition, NASA has collaborated with the international space science community.

This midterm assessment reviews NASA’s progress since the 2011 decadal survey in order to evaluate the high-priority research identified in the decadal survey in light of future human Mars exploration. It makes recommendations on science priorities, specifically those priorities that best enable deep space exploration.

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