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A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2018)

Chapter: Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×

E

Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey

Box 13.2 and Tables 13.1 to 13.3 from the 2011 decadal survey1 are reprinted below.

___________________

1 National Research Council, 2011, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×

TABLE 13.1 Summary of Highest-Priority Recommendations Made in Chapters 4 Through 10

Recommendation Identifiera Recommendation Enabled by (EB) and/or Enabling (E) Space Exploration
Plant and Microbial Biology (Chapter 4)
P1 Establish a microbial observatory program on the ISS to conduct long-term, multigenerational studies of microbial population dynamics. EB
P2 Establish a robust spaceflight program of research analyzing plant and microbial growth and physiological responses to the multiple stimuli encountered in spaceflight environments. EB
P3 Develop a research program aimed at demonstrating the roles of microbial-plant systems in long-term life support systems. EB/E
Behavior and Mental Health (Chapter 5)
B1 Develop sensitive, meaningful, and valid measures of mission-relevant performance for both astronauts and mission control personnel. E
B2 Conduct integrated translational research in which long-duration missions are simulated specifically for the purpose of studying the interrelationships among individual functioning, cognitive performance, sleep, and group dynamics. E
B3 Determine the genetic, physiological, and psychological underpinnings of individual differences in resilience to stressors during extended space missions, with development of an individualized medicine approach to sustaining astronauts during such missions. E
B4 Conduct research to enhance cohesiveness, team performance, and effectiveness of multinational crews, especially under conditions of extreme isolation and autonomy. EB/E
Animal and Human Biology (Chapter 6)
AH1 The efficacy of bisphosphonates should be tested in an adequate population of astronauts on the ISS during a 6-month mission. EB/E
AH2 The preservation/reversibility of bone structure/strength should be evaluated when assessing countermeasures. EB/E
AH3 Bone loss studies of genetically altered mice exposed to weightlessness are strongly recommended. EB
AH4 New osteoporosis drugs under clinical development should be tested in animal models of weightlessness. EB
AH5 Conduct studies to identify underlying mechanisms regulating net skeletal muscle protein balance and protein turnover during states of unloading and recovery. EB/E
AH6 Conduct studies to develop and test new prototype exercise devices and to optimize physical activity paradigms/prescriptions targeting multisystem countermeasures. EB/E
AH7 Determine the daily levels and pattern of recruitment of flexor and extensor muscles of the neck, trunk, arms, and legs at 1 g and after being in a novel gravitational environment for up to 6 months. EB
AH8 Determine the basic mechanisms, adaptations, and clinical significance of changes in regional vascular/interstitial pressures (Starling forces) during long-duration space missions. EB/E
AH9 Investigate the effects of prolonged periods of microgravity and partial gravity (3/8 or 1/6 g) on the determinants of task-specific, enabling levels of work capacity. EB/E
AH10 Determine the integrative mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance after restoration of gravitational gradients (both 1 g and 3/8 g). EB/E
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Recommendation Identifiera Recommendation Enabled by (EB) and/or Enabling (E) Space Exploration
AH11 Collaborative studies among flight medicine and cardiovascular epidemiologists are recommended to determine the best screening strategies to avoid flying astronauts with subclinical coronary heart disease that could become manifest during a long-duration exploration-class mission (3 years). EB/E
AH12 Determine the amount and site of the deposition of aerosols of different sizes in the lungs of humans and animals in microgravity. EB/E
AH13 Multiple parameters of T cell activation in cells should be obtained from astronauts before and after re-entry to establish which parameters are altered during flight. EB
AH14 Both to address the mechanism(s) of the changes in the immune system and to develop measures to limit the changes, data from multiple organ/system-based studies need to be integrated. EB/E
AH15 Perform mouse studies of immunization and challenge on the ISS, using immune samples acquired both prior to and immediately upon re-entry, to establish the biological relevance of the changes observed in the immune system. Parameters examined need to be aligned with those in humans influenced by flight. EB
AH16 Studies should be conducted on transmission across generations of structural and functional changes induced by exposure to space during development. Ground-based studies should be conducted to develop specialized habitats to support reproducing and developing rodents in space. EB
Crosscutting Issues for Humans in the Space Environment (Chapter 7)
CC1 To ensure the safety of future commercial orbital and exploration crews, quantify postlanding vertigo and orthostatic intolerance in a sufficiently large sample of returning ISS crews, as part of the immediate post-flight medical exam. EB/E
CC2 Determine whether artificial gravity (AG) is needed as a multisystem countermeasure and whether continuous large-radius AG is needed or intermittent exercise within lower-body negative pressure or short-radius AG is sufficient. Human studies in ground laboratories are essential to establish dose-response relationships, and what gravity level, gradient, rotations per minute, duration, and frequency are adequate. E
CC3 Conduct studies on humans to determine whether there is an effect of gravity on micronucleation and/or intrapulmonary shunting or whether the unexpectedly low prevalence of decompression sickness on the space shuttle/ISS is due to underreporting. Conduct studies to determine operationally acceptable low suit pressure and hypobaric hypoxia limits. E
CC4 Determine optimal dietary strategies for crews and food preservation strategies that will maintain bioavailability for 12 or more months. E
CC5 Initiate a robust food science program focused on preserving nutrient stability for 3 or more years. E
CC6 Include food and energy intake as an outcome variable in dietary intervention trials in humans. EB/E
CC7 Conduct longitudinal studies of astronauts for cataract incidence, quality, and pathology related to radiation exposures to understand both cataract risk and radiation-induced late tissue toxicities in humans. E
CC8 Expand the use of animal studies to assess space radiation risks to humans from cancer, cataracts, cardiovascular disease, neurologic dysfunction, degenerative diseases, and acute toxicities such as fever, nausea, bone marrow suppression, and others. E
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Recommendation Identifiera Recommendation Enabled by (EB) and/or Enabling (E) Space Exploration
CC9 Continue ground-based cellular studies to develop end points and markers for acute and late radiation toxicities, using radiation facilities that are able to mimic space radiation exposures. E
CC10 Expand understanding of gender differences in adaptation to the spaceflight environment through flight- and ground-based research, particularly potential differences in bone, muscle, and cardiovascular function and long-term radiation risks. EB/E
CC11 Investigate the biophysical principles of thermal balance to determine whether microgravity reduces the threshold for thermal intolerance. EB/E
Fundamental Physical Sciences in Space (Chapter 8)
FP1 Research on complex fluids and soft matter. Microgravity provides a unique opportunity to study structures and forces important to the properties of these materials without the interference caused by Earth-strength gravity. EB/E
FP2 Understanding of the fundamental forces and symmetries of nature. High-precision measurements in space can test relativistic gravity, fundamental high-energy physics, and related symmetries in ways that are not practical on Earth. Novel effects predicted by new theoretical approaches provide distinct signatures for precision experimental searches that are often best carried out in space. EB
FP3 Research related to the physics and applications of quantum gases. The space environment enables many investigations, not feasible on Earth, of the remarkably unusual properties of quantum gases and degenerate Fermi gases. EB/E
FP4 Investigations of matter near a critical phase transition. Experiments that have already been designed and brought to a level of flight readiness can elucidate how materials behave in the vicinity of thermodynamically determined critical points. These experiments, which require a microgravity environment, will provide insights into new effects observable when such systems are driven away from equilibrium conditions. EB
Applied Physical Sciences in Space (Chapter 9)
AP1 Reduced-gravity multiphase flows, cryogenics and heat transfer database and modeling, including phase separation and distribution (i.e., flow regimes), phase-change heat transfer, pressure drop, and multiphase system stability. EB/E
AP2 Interfacial flows and phenomena (including induced and spontaneous multiphase flows with or without phase change) relevant to storage and handling systems for cryogens and other liquids, life support systems, power generation, thermal control systems, and other important multiphase systems. EB/E
AP3 Dynamic granular material behavior and subsurface geotechnics to improve predictions and site-specific models of lunar and martian soil behavior. E
AP4 Development of fundamentals-based strategies and methods for dust mitigation during advanced human and robotic exploration of planetary bodies. E
AP5 Experiments on the ISS to understand complex fluid physics in microgravity, including fluid behavior of granular materials, colloids and foams, biofluids, non-Newtonian and critical point fluids, etc. EB
AP6 Fire safety research to improve methods for screening materials for flammability and fire suppression in space environments. E
AP7 Combustion processes research, including reduced-gravity experiments with longer durations, larger scales, new fuels, and practical aerospace materials relevant to future missions. EB/E
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Recommendation Identifiera Recommendation Enabled by (EB) and/or Enabling (E) Space Exploration
AP8 Research on numerical simulation of combustion to develop and validate detailed single phase and multiphase combustion models for interpreting and facilitating combustion experiments and tests. E
AP9 Reduced-gravity research on materials synthesis and processing and control of microstructure and properties, to improve the properties of existing and new materials on the ground. EB/E
AP10 Development of new and advanced materials that enable operations in harsh space environments and reduce the cost of human space exploration. E
AP11 Fundamental and applied research to develop technologies that facilitate extraction, synthesis, and processing of minerals, metals, and other materials available on extraterrestrial surfaces. EB/E
Translation to Space Exploration Systems (Chapter 10)
TSES1 Conduct research to address issues for active two-phase flow relevant to thermal management (T1). E
TSES2 To support zero-boiloff propellant storage and cryogenic fluid management technologies, conduct research on advanced insulation materials research, active cooling, multiphase flows, and capillary effectiveness (T2), as well as active and passive storage, fluid transfer, gauging, pressurization, pressure control, leak detection, and mixing destratification (T3). E
TSES3 NASA should enhance surface mobility; relevant research includes suited astronaut computational modeling, biomechanics analysis for partial gravity, robot-human testing of advanced spacesuit joints and full body suits, and musculoskeletal modeling and suited range-of-motion studies (T4), plus studies of human-robot interaction (including teleoperations) for the construction and operation of planetary surface habitats (T26). E
TSES4 NASA should develop and demonstrate technologies to mitigate the effects of dust on extravehicular activity (EVA) systems and suits, life support systems, and surface construction systems. Supporting research includes impact mechanics of particulates, design of outer-layer dust garments, advanced material and design concepts for micrometeoroid mitigation, magnetic repulsive technologies, and the quantification of plasma electrodynamic interactions with EVA systems (T5); dynamics of electrostatic field coupling with dust (T23); and regolith mechanics and gravity-dependent soil models (T27). E
TSES5 NASA should define requirements for thermal control, micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact and protection, and radiation protection for EVA systems, rovers, and habitats and develop a plan for radiation shelters (T19). E
TSES6 NASA should conduct research for the development and demonstration of closed-loop life support systems and supporting technologies. Fundamental research includes heat and mass transfer in porous media under partial gravity and microgravity conditions (T6) and understanding the effect of variable gravity on multiphase flow systems (T21, T22). E
TSES7 NASA should develop and demonstrate technologies to support thermoregulation of habitats, rovers, and spacesuits on the lunar surface (T20). E
TSES8 NASA should perform critical fire safety research to develop new standards to qualify materials for flight and to improve fire and particle detectors. Supporting research is necessary in materials qualification for ignition, flame spread, and generation of toxic and/or corrosive gases (T7) and in characterizing particle sizes from smoldering and flaming fires under reduced gravity (T8). E
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Recommendation Identifiera Recommendation Enabled by (EB) and/or Enabling (E) Space Exploration
TSES9 NASA should develop a standard methodology for qualifying fire suppression systems in relevant atmospheres and gravity levels and would benefit from strategies for safe post-fire recovery. Specific research is needed to characterize the effectiveness of fire suppression agents and systems under reduced gravity (T9) and to assess the toxicity of various fire products (T10). E
TSES10 Research should be conducted to allow regenerative fuel cell technologies to be demonstrated in reduced-gravity environments (T11). E
TSES11 To support the development of new energy conversion technologies, research should be done on high-temperature energy conversion cycles, device coupling to essential working fluids, heat rejection systems, materials, etc. (T12). Research is also required on more efficient surface-base primary power and on the technologies to enable solar electric propulsion as an option to transfer large masses of propellant and cargo to distant locations (T18). E
TSES12 To make fission surface power systems a viable option, research is needed on high-temperature, low-weight materials for power conversion and radiators and on other supporting technologies (T13). E
TSES13 Development and demonstration of ascent and descent system technologies are needed, including ascent/descent propulsion technologies, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators, and supersonic retro propulsion systems. The required research includes propellant ignition, flame stability, and active thermal control (T14); lightweight flexible materials (T15); and rocket plume aerothermodynamics and vehicle dynamics and control (T16). E
TSES14 Research is required to support the development and demonstration of space nuclear propulsion systems, including liquid-metal cooling under reduced gravity, thawing under reduced gravity, and system dynamics (T17). E
TSES15 Research is needed to identify and adapt excavation, extraction, preparation, handling, and processing techniques for a lunar water/oxygen extraction system (T24). E
TSES16 NASA should establish plans for surface operations, particularly ISRU capability development and surface habitats. Research is needed to characterize resources available at lunar and martian surface destinations (T25) and to define surface habitability systems design requirements (T28). E

aIdentifiers correspond to the identifiers given to the highest-priority recommendations listed at the ends of Chapters 4 through 10, which provide context and clarifying discussion.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×

TABLE 13.2 Highest-Priority Recommendations That Provide High Support in Meeting Each of Eight Specific Prioritization Criteria

<-------------------------------------------------------------------------Prioritization Criteria----------------------------------------------------------------------->
(1) Positive Impact on Exploration Efforts, Improved Access to Data or to Samples, Risk Reduction (2) Potential to Enhance Mission Options or to Reduce Mission Costs (3) Positive Impact on Exploration Efforts, Improved Access to Data or to Samples (4) Relative Impact Within Research Field (5) Needs Unique to NASA Exploration Programs (6) Research Programs That Could Be Dual-Use (7) Research Value of Using Reduced-Gravity Environment (8) Ability to Translate Results to Terrestrial Needs
Life Sciences P2, P3, B1, B2, B3, B4, AH1, AH2, AH3, AH5, AH6, AH7, AH8, AH9, AH10, AH11 P3, B1, B2, B3, B4, AH6, AH9, AH10, AH11 P3, B4, AH1, AH2, AH3, AH5, AH6, AH7, AH8, AH9, AH10, AH11 P1, P2, B3, B4, AH9, AH10, AH11, AH16 P1, P2, P3, AH1, AH2, AH3, AH4, AH5, AH6, AH7, AH8, AH9, AH10, AH11, AH16 B1, B2, B3, B4, AH1, AH2, AH3, AH4, AH5, AH6, AH7, AH9, AH10 P1, B1, B4, AH12, AH16 B1, B2, B3, B4, AH1, AH2, AH3, AH4, AH5, AH6, AH7
Translational Life Sciences CCH2, CCH4, CCH7 CCH2, CCH4, CCH6, CCH7 CCH2, CCH4, CCH6, CCH7, CCH8 CCH2, CCH6 CCH1, CCH2, CHH3, CCH6, CCH7, CCH8 CCH1, CHH2, CHH3, CCH7, CCH11
Physical Sciences AP1, AP4, AP6, AP8, AP11 AP1, AP2, AP10, AP11 AP1, AP2, AP3, AP10, AP11 FP1, FP2, FP3, AP5, AP7, AP8, AP9 AP1, AP2, AP3, AP4, AP6, AP11 AP7, AP8, AP9, AP10 FP1, FP2, FP3, FP4, AP1, AP2, AP5, AP6, AP7, AP9 AP1, AP2, AP7, AP8, AP9
Translational Physical Sciences TSES1, TSES2, TSES3, TSES14 TSES1, TSES3, TSES5, TSES10 TSES14 TSES2, TSES3, TSES4, TSES5, TSES6, TSES7, TSES12, TSES13, TSES14, TSES 16 TSES10, TSES11, TSES12 TSES1, TSES2, TSES3, TSES4, TSES5, TSES12, TSES13, TSES14, TSES15, TSES16 TSES10

NOTE: Identifiers are as listed in Table 13.1 and correspond with the recommendations listed there and also presented with clarifying discussion in Chapters 4 through 10.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×

TABLE 13.3 Level of Support Provided by High-Priority Recommendations for Each of Eight Prioritization Criteria

Recommendation Identifiera Within Suggested Program Elements <-------------------------------------------------------------------------Prioritization Criteria----------------------------------------------------------->
(1) Positive Impact on Exploration Efforts, Improved Access to Data or to Samples, Risk Reduction (2) Potential to Enhance Mission Options or to Reduce Mission Costs (3) Positive Impact on Exploration Efforts, Improved Access to Data or to Samples (4) Relative Impact Within Research Field (5) Needs Unique to NASA Exploration Programs (6) Research Programs That Could Be Dual-Use (7) Research Value of Using Reduced-Gravity Environment (8) Ability to Translate Results to Terrestrial Needs
Plant and Microbial Biology Research
P1 Medium Low Low High High Medium High Medium
P2 High Medium Medium High High Medium Medium Medium
P3 High High High Low High Medium Medium Medium
Human Behavior and Mental Health Research
B1 High High Low Medium Low High High High
B2 High High Low Medium Low High Low High
B3 High High Medium High Low High Low High
B4 High High High High Medium High High High
Animal and Human Biological Research
AH1 High Medium High Medium High High Medium High
AH2 High Medium High Medium High High Medium High
AH3 High Medium High Medium High High Medium High
AH4 Medium Medium Medium Medium High High Medium High
AH5 High Medium High Medium High High Medium High
AH6 High High High Medium High High Medium High
AH7 High Medium High Medium High High Medium High
AH8 High Medium High Medium High Medium Medium Medium
AH9 High High High High High High Medium Medium
AH10 High High High High High High Medium Medium
AH11 High High High High High Medium Medium Medium
AH12 Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Low High Medium
AH13 Medium Low Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium
AH14 Medium Low Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium
AH15 Medium/Low Low Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium
AH16 Medium/Low Medium/Low Medium/Low High High Low High Medium
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Recommendation Identifiera Within Suggested Program Elements <-------------------------------------------------------------------------Prioritization Criteria----------------------------------------------------------->
(1) Positive Impact on Exploration Efforts, Improved Access to Data or to Samples, Risk Reduction (2) Potential to Enhance Mission Options or to Reduce Mission Costs (3) Positive Impact on Exploration Efforts, Improved Access to Data or to Samples (4) Relative Impact Within Research Field (5) Needs Unique to NASA Exploration Programs (6) Research Programs That Could Be Dual-Use (7) Research Value of Using Reduced-Gravity Environment (8) Ability to Translate Results to Terrestrial Needs
Crosscutting Research for the Human System
CC1 Medium Low Low Low High Low High Medium
CC2 High High High High High Low High Low
CC3 Medium Medium Medium Low High Low High Low
CC4 High High High Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium
CC5 Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium
CC6 Medium High High High High Medium Low Medium
CC7 High High High Low High Low High Low
CC8 Medium Medium High Low High Low Low Low
CC9 Medium Low Low Low Medium Low Low Low
CC10 Medium Medium/Low Medium Low Medium Medium Low Medium
CC11 Medium Medium/Low Medium Low Medium Medium/Low High/Medium Medium
Fundamental Physical Sciences Research
FP1 Low Low Medium High Low Medium High Medium
FP2 Low Low Low High Low Medium High Medium
FP3 Low Low Medium High Low Medium High Medium
FP4 Low Low Low Medium Low Medium High Medium
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Applied Physical Sciences Research
AP1 High High High Medium High Low High High
AP2 Medium High High Medium High Medium High High
AP3 Medium Medium High Low High N/A Low Low
AP4 High Medium Medium Low High N/A Medium Low
AP5 Low Low Medium High Low Medium High Medium
AP6 High Medium Low Low High Low High Medium
AP7 Medium N/A N/A High Medium High High High
AP8 High Medium Low High Medium High N/A High
AP9 N/A N/A Low High Low High High High
AP10 Low High High Medium Medium High Low Medium
AP11 High High High Low High N/A Medium N/A
Translation to Space Exploration Systems Research
TSES1 High High Low Low Medium Medium High Low
TSES2 High High Medium Low High Medium High Medium
TSES3 High High High Low High Medium High Medium
TSES4 Medium Medium High Low High Low High Low
TSES5 Medium Medium High Low High Low Medium Low
TSES6 Medium Medium Medium Low High Low Medium Low
TSES7 Medium Medium High Low High Medium Medium Medium
TSES8 Low Low Low Low Medium Medium High Medium
TSES9 Low Low Low Low Medium Medium High Medium
TSES10 Medium High Low Low Medium High Medium Medium
TSES11 Medium Medium Low Low Medium High Low Medium
TSES12 Medium Medium Low Low High High High Medium
TSES13 Medium Medium Low Low High Medium High Medium
TSES14 High Medium High Medium High Medium High Medium
TSES15 Medium Medium Low Low Medium Low High Low
TSES16 Medium Medium Low Low High Low High Low

aIdentifiers are listed in Table 13.1 and correspond with the recommendations listed there and also presented the ends of Chapters 4 through 10, which provide context and clarifying discussion.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Page 111
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Page 112
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
Page 118
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Criteria and Table Reprinted from the 2011 Decadal Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. A Midterm Assessment of Implementation of the Decadal Survey on Life and Physical Sciences Research at NASA. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24966.
×
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Next: Appendix F: Commercial Spaceflight Federation Listing of Microgravity Experiments Since 2011 that Have Flown on Balloons, Parabolic, or Suborbital Missions »
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The 2011 National Research Council decadal survey on biological and physical sciences in space, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, was written during a critical period in the evolution of science in support of space exploration. The research agenda in space life and physical sciences had been significantly descoped during the programmatic adjustments of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2005, and this occurred in the same era as the International Space Station (ISS) assembly was nearing completion in 2011. Out of that period of change, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration presented a cogent argument for the critical need for space life and physical sciences, both for enabling and expanding the exploration capabilities of NASA as well as for contributing unique science in many fields that can be enabled by access to the spaceflight environment.

Since the 2011 publication of the decadal survey, NASA has seen tremendous change, including the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program and the maturation of the ISS. NASA formation of the Division of Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications provided renewed focus on the research of the decadal survey. NASA has modestly regrown some of the budget of space life and physical sciences within the agency and engaged the U.S. science community outside NASA to join in this research. In addition, NASA has collaborated with the international space science community.

This midterm assessment reviews NASA’s progress since the 2011 decadal survey in order to evaluate the high-priority research identified in the decadal survey in light of future human Mars exploration. It makes recommendations on science priorities, specifically those priorities that best enable deep space exploration.

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