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Suggested Citation:"Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24972.
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Suggested Citation:"Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24972.
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Suggested Citation:"Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24972.
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Page 309
Suggested Citation:"Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART)." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24972.
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B‐10  Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART)  Case Study:  Honolulu, HI  Highlights:  The Honolulu Department of Transportation Services (DTS) is a part of municipal  government.  The Department pursues “resilience” as part of preparedness, response, recovery, and  mitigation, in particular in the context of flooding, hurricanes and tsunamis.  The agency’s focus on  emergency preparedness stems from a threat and hazard assessment completed using FEMA’s Threat  and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) Guide.  DTS has mapped its critical infrastructure  and assets in terms of vulnerability to hurricanes and storm surge and has standard operating  procedures in place to ensure assets are protected when severe weather is forecast.  In addition, the  agency’s infrastructure design standards require the use of resilient materials in all of its rehabilitation,  reconstruction, and new construction projects that are vulnerable to extreme weather.   Key Resiliency Drivers:   State, County and City Legislation;  Hurricanes and Tsunamis. Key Successes   Building a culture of response and preparedness within all governmental and private‐sector agencies under the direction of the DEM. Key Lessons Learned   The Department of Transportation Services (DTS) does not set policy decisions in regards to resiliency type initiatives. This is done by the DEM.  Coordination between governmental agencies and the private sector is critical when responding to a disaster.  Consultant agencies are hired by DTS for implementing infrastructure projects. Agency Details  Geographic Location  Pacific Island  Modes Operated  Metro Bus  Vehicles Operated (all modes)(2011)  519  Annual Unlinked Trips (2012‐2013)  75.5 million  Typical Hazards  Wildfires, High Winds/Lightning, Hurricanes/Tropical  Storms, Flooding, Storm Surges or Wave Action,  Tsunami, Volcanoes, Sea Level Rise 

B‐11  Policy and Administration  The Honolulu Department of Transportation Services (DTS) is a part of the municipal government. It  consists of four divisions: Public Transit, Traffic Engineering, Traffic Safety and Technology, and  Transportation Planning (2). The Public Transit Division (PTD) plans, manages, and maintains the city's  public transit systems, facilities, and equipment.  Public transportation within DTS consists of TheBus  and TheHandi‐Van (paratransit) and is operated by Oahu Transit Services, Inc., a private, not‐for‐profit  management firm under contract with DTS (3). DTS policy decisions and spending priorities must be  approved by the City Council.  In regards to resiliency type initiatives, DEM sets the policy decisions. However, resilience is a term not  used by DEM; instead, they use a framework that includes preparedness, response, recovery, and  mitigation when setting plans or policies. DTS has a seat at the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and  is a support agency within the Emergency Operations Plan (EOP).  DTS works closely with all governmental agencies in responding to and preparing for natural disasters  and provides support at the direction of DEM. DEM activates the EOC when a disaster strikes and  becomes the lead agency.  Every department within the agency has an emergency coordinator that is responsible for making sure  resiliency‐ type measures are implemented when a disaster strikes. DEM provides training classes for  each agency and has monthly meetings pertaining to lessons learned, best practices, and after‐action  and collective‐action sessions, highlighting what agencies did right and wrong. DTS also hosts FEMA for  training sessions and works closely with the state civil defense agency.  To communicate with the public, policy makers, and customers about steps being taken to make transit  infrastructure more resilient (this term is not used) in the face of natural disaster and/or weather‐ related events, the agency utilizes its website. Customers can also download an application called Nixle,  which gives updated weather reports, relevant information regarding public safety, emergency  notifications, etc. When the EOC is activated, DTS partners with local organizations such as the Red  Cross, NGO’s, one electric utility, city departments, other utilities, and the Local Emergency Planning  Committee, to effectively plan for an emergency.  Systems Planning  The agency, in cooperation with DEM and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), completed  a threat and hazard identification risk assessment (THIRA) for assets at risk of being impacted by  extreme weather, natural disasters, and/or climate change (although the term is not used). Hurricanes  and tsunamis were identified as the largest threats to critical infrastructure, which includes: (1) two bus  facilities in Kalihi and Pearl City; (2) all of the agency’s rolling stock; (3) bus facilities where vehicles are  repaired and maintained; (4) fuel tanks; (5) central control; and (6) radio communication within the  rolling stock. These assets and infrastructure have been mapped in terms of vulnerability from  hurricanes and tsunamis by the agency’s GIS Department.  

B‐12  Project Development, Infrastructure Design, and Construction  DTS solicits consultants to develop and regularly update infrastructure design standards to address  changing requirements. However, it is incumbent on the consultant to follow whatever structural  building requirements are used. For example, hurricane clips are required as part of the building code  and must be addressed by the hired consultant.   DTS also requires the use of resilient materials in rehabilitation, reconstruction, and new construction  projects that are vulnerable to extreme weather, especially hurricanes and tsunamis. For instance, when  purchasing material for infrastructure, a project information form that includes life cycle and  maintenance must be completed and justified. This is the first step if a project is to be approved.  However, during the project development process as part of the environmental review, the agency hires  a consultant and does not require them to consider resiliency and/or climate change. DTS does  however, have a program in place to elevate infrastructure, if flood designation requires it, above future  flood levels and install flood‐proofing measures such as levees, sea walls, and dikes to protect critical  infrastructure.  Operations and Maintenance  When extreme weather or natural disasters are anticipated, the agency has a program in place to  relocate its vehicle stock that sits within the inundation zone. The agency also has a standard operating  procedure in place with local police and first responders to quickly implement the re‐routing of vehicles  in the event of a disruption.  Work is also in progress on a communications system that will communicate with front‐line workers and  field managers in case of a disruption. The agency has recently constructed its main central control  center and is currently working on redundant central control centers at other bus facilities as funding  becomes available.  In case of a major service disruption, DTS has back up generators and a communications plan in place.  For example, if the EOC was activated, information would be placed on the DTS website and Nixle, and  the Mayor would send out a press release highlighting the disruption. Also, in the case of a hurricane or  tsunami, a siren system is in place. Work is also underway for new sirens that will be strategically  located throughout transit stations. In anticipation of a hurricane, DTS has maintenance people who will  clear culverts at all transportation facilities that may be affected.  Emergency Preparedness  DTS is a part of an EOP that is in place that addresses most weather‐related and human‐made hazards,  specifically, hurricanes, tsunamis, terrorism, and flooding. The Emergency Management Department is  responsible for developing and maintaining the EOP for DTS. Under emergency conditions, as part of the  EOP, DTS is responsible for a number of conditions that include: 1) the coordination of all forms of  ground transportation, which includes DTS’s contract with TheBus and TheHandi‐Van services operator,  motorcycle clubs, taxis, tour bus companies, and other private agencies; 2) the city’s point of contact  with the Hawaii Transportation Association transportation assets; and 3) provide support for the city’s  mass care and evacuation operations (1). 

B‐13  The City and County of Honolulu EOP is also consistent with the Federal Government’s National Incident  Management System and National Response Framework. Within this framework, when a state or  federal Civil Defense Emergency is declared, it is the role of DTS to coordinate the city's requirements  with Emergency Support Function #1, Transportation, of the State and/or National Response Plan, the  State Department of Transportation, and State Emergency Response Team (SERT), as required.  References  1. City and County of Honolulu. 2007. Emergency Operations Plan: Basic Plan. January 11, 2007. Honolulu, HI.  2. City and County of Honolulu Department of Transportation Services. 2016. Directors Message. About Us. Available at http://www.honolulu.gov/dts/aboutus.html.  3. City and County of Honolulu Department of Transportation Services. 2016. Public Transit. Available at http://www.honolulu.gov/dts/aboutus/publictransit.html. 

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Web Only Document 70: Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies includes appendicies that outline the literature reviewed and 17 case studies that explore how transit agencies absorb the impacts of disaster, recover quickly, and return rapidly to providing the services that customers rely on to meet their travel needs. The report is accompanied by Volume 1: A Guide, Volume 2: Research Overview, and a database called resilienttransit.org to help practitioners search for and identify tools to help plan for natural disasters.

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