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Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide (2017)

Chapter: Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 3 Reinforce Your Agency s Regional Interdependencies ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24973.
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Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-1 CHAPTER 3 Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies STEPS: Step 1. Engage Those Who Depend on Your Agency Step 2. Join Regional Resilience Efforts Step 3. Strengthen Key Transit Agency and Supplier Relationships

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Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-3 long-term capital investment. An agency is also intricately interwoven with and dependent on the infrastructure of the region, including roads, bridges and tunnels, railroads, water and sewer systems, electric, gasoline, diesel fuel and natural gas power systems, satellite, cable, radio and internet communications systems, and much more. You can and should make the case for transit as an essential partner for resilience. Your transit system represents a vital link to employment, goods and services, education and recreation for many people in the community (illustrated in Figure 3.1). Confirming that value and those links can bolster the case for transit agency resilience efforts and investments. One or two active members or leaders from your internal agency resilience working group can serve as valuable liaisons for the regional effort, sharing information both ways. They, or others, may also be tasked with establishing formal Memoranda of Understanding with key suppliers, customers, government funding agencies and/or other transit agencies to foster resilience through operations, contracting and other agreements. Specific strategies and approaches for collaboration will be particular to each region, as are the risks and resources available. However, the precepts of communication and collaboration mirror those of agency resilience, on a larger scale. In this section, resilience strategies that include multiple partners and provide co-benefits to many take

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Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-6 FTA Emergency Relief Manual Excerpt: Section 2.2 Operations “Coordinate with local human services organizations and schools” In conjunction with Federal, State, local, and tribal emergency management structures, transit agencies should establish relationships with local human services and health care organizations, schools, and other NGOs (e.g., Red Cross, Salvation Army) that have access to transportation departments or other transportation resources (e.g., vehicles, drivers, fuel, maintenance facilities) available for emergency response. Availability of accessible, smaller, or specialized vehicles may be especially important.” (FTA, 2015) Transit-dependent and communities with access and functional needs can suffer greatly from loss of services when major portions of the fleet or other major infrastructure are damaged or destroyed in natural disasters. Imagining the community, especially the most transit- dependent residents, without your functioning and effective transit system in the event of a disaster may help make the case for transit as critical infrastructure in your region. The FTA Emergency Relief Manual provides extensive information on FTA and FEMA grant support for preparing for and responding to emergency situations, including resilience aspects. Several recommendations for disaster preparation considerations in the FTA Emergency Relief Manual recommend customer-facing community interaction and involvement.

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-7 For example, the preparedness realm (Section 2.1 of the manual), recommends that transit agencies:  Participate in state [and regional] emergency plan exercises.  Develop policies to address personal belongings, pets and service animals (for evacuation situations).  Coordinate and pre-plan evacuation of special populations. The Manual specifically refers to TCRP Report 150: Communication with Vulnerable Populations: A Transportation and Emergency Management Toolkit as a resource for this activity. The Toolkit provides “how to” steps for identifying vulnerable populations and those who work with them, reaching out and establishing communications networks; using, growing and improving the networks, and sustaining the communications networks. In the operations realm (Section 2.2), transit agencies are advised to:  Identify pick-up point, shelter and treatment center points of contact (POCs) and protocols.  Consider fare suspension (may require consultation with governing agencies).  Coordinate with local human services organizations and schools. (FTA, 2015).

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-8 Your agency may already have extensive ties to local human services and health care organizations. For example, some transit agencies serve as the host for legacy “United We Ride” or other mobility management coordination committees or working groups. Mobility management is defined as an eligible capital project expense under FAST Act Section 5302, Definitions, (3) Capital project (K) (1); and cited as an eligible research project under FAST Act Section 5312, Public Transit Innovation, (C) Research, (2) Project Eligibility, (B) Mobility management and improvements and travel management systems. Consider working with such groups or forums, to ensure that resilience and emergency preparedness and response are on their radar screen. i. Evacuation support Consider that your agency may be called upon by the state or local Emergency Management Agency to provide substantial evacuation support in many types of emergencies, as well as reentry support. If your agency is in a community that receives people who have been evacuated (as has been true for parts of Louisiana, Texas and other locations that received large numbers of displaced persons from Hurricane Katrina), you may be called upon to provide substantial transit services on an emergency basis, possibly extending for quite a while. It is helpful to have a good working relationship with

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Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-10 STEP 2. Join Regional Resilience Efforts Your transit agency will rarely be the lead agency for resilience in the region. However, many transit agencies throughout the country are key players in resilience efforts. Regions may use many different names and organizing principles for resilience (such as Sustainability Committee, or Local Emergency Preparedness Council, and so on), just as transit agencies themselves use various resilience-related names, definitions and compelling rationales for actions. This step includes four sub-steps: i. Identify potential regulatory and organizational frameworks for partners. ii. Join the regional dialog (if there is one). iii. Be part of the discussion to identify regional threats, essential interdependencies and critical infrastructure. iv. Be part of the solution to develop and implement strategies that proactively address identified gaps and weaknesses across agency and jurisdictional lines. These sub-steps are not intended to be sequential.

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-11 i. Identify potential regulatory and organizational frameworks for partners The Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act), passed by Congress and signed into law in December 2015, calls for MPOs to consider resilience (the textbox FAST Act, MPOs and Resilience provides the legislative foundation for the MPO role in resilience). Therefore, your MPO may be a good place to begin looking for local resilience leadership. However, your MPO may not be the only entity working on resilience, with other examples cited throughout this step.

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-12 FAST Act, MPOs and Resilience The FAST Act identifies resilience as an eligible transit agency priority, as discussed in previous sections. The FAST Act also calls out resilience as a new planning factor for Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), as a matter of policy, and as an important element of the MPO planning scope. Relevant portions of 49 U.S.C. 5303 are reproduced below, with emphasis added on the new resiliency language. 5303 (a) “Policy—it is in the national interest— “(1) to encourage and promote the safe and efficient management, operation, and development of resilient surface transportation systems that will serve the mobility needs of people and freight and foster economic growth and development within and between States and urbanized areas, while minimizing transportation-related fuel consumption and air pollution through metropolitan and statewide transportation planning processes identified in this chapter; and “(2) to encourage the continued improvement and evolution of the metropolitan and statewide transportation planning processes by metropolitan planning organizations, State departments of transportation, and public transit operators as guided by the planning factors identified in subsection (h) and section 5304(d).” 5303 (h) “Scope of Planning Process.— “(1) In general.—The metropolitan planning process for a metropolitan planning area under this section shall provide for consideration of projects and strategies that will— (A) support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency; (B) increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users; (C) increase the security of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users; (D) increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight; (E) protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns; (F) enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight; (G) promote efficient system management and operation; and (H) emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system; and (I) improve the resiliency and reliability of the transportation system.” [New with FAST Act)

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iii. Be reg inte infr This Gu some g –as the forward differen coopera particip level m part of CASE Reinfor (BCDC to sea collab Tides.” Transi to ide impor within leader broad poten climat such a part of ional th rdepen astruct ide imagi roups tha entity wh . Your co t name o tive effor ate. More ay be taki such disc ce Your Age ) provides level rise orative pr t Agency ntify resili tant issue, BART has ship back ly after eff tial vulner e change, s earthqu the disc reats, e dencies ure nes a hyp t exist in c ere coope mmunity m r composi t is called than one ng place. ussions an ncy’s Regio guidance and storm oject calle level: BAR ence from beyond e been suc ing to add ectively c abilities B as well as akes. ussion ssentia and cr othetical t ommunit rative pla ay have tion. Wha , it will be initiative Your state d plannin nal Interdep to increa events t d “Adapti T has beg extreme arthquak cessful in ress resil ommunica ART has in known n to ident l itical askforce– ies around nning is m such a gr tever the worth yo on a regi DOT ma g. endencies se resilien hrough a ng to Risi un proac weather a e safety. S obtaining ience mor ting the the face atural haz ify –represen the cou oving oup with group or ur time to onal or st y already – 3-17 ce ng tively s an taff e of ards ting ntry– a ate be

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-18 The discussion points and tools in this Guide, along with the cases and resources profiled in Chapter 4 and included in the Database, are intended to support such a collaborative effort. A regional resilience taskforce is usually charged with bringing key stakeholders to the table to address regional resilience challenges. This includes large issues that affect multiple organizations or jurisdictions, such as repeated flooding, increased storm surge, or drought and wildfires, as well as interdependencies of critical infrastructure elements, such as power, water and sewer, communications and transportation. Infrastructure and interdependencies Discussions on interdependencies usually focus on the four basic systems depicted in Figure 4.3: power, water and wastewater, communications, and transportation. These four systems form basic foundations of modern life and are closely interrelated. Other necessities of life, such as delivery and distribution of food and other goods and supplies, and provision of health, education and other services, are highly dependent on these four core systems. They are, therefore, a major focus for any resilience effort. The infrastructure for these systems is often co-located. For example, water and sewer lines and power and communications lines are often above or below highway or

rail righ water m tree bra system of these other sy Figure 3 “cascad fo Reinfor ts of way ain break nches shu is likely to systems stems, as .3. Such ing failure Figure 3.3 rmer Asso ce Your Age . Common s, and ph tting dow affect th is likely to well as th disruption s.” Basic Inte ciat ion of B or ig inal at ncy’s Regio , and usu one and p n roads. e others. have ser e entire r s are ofte rdependenc ay Area G tr ibut ion av nal Interdep ally minor ower line Critical da And disru ious impa egion, as n referred ies - adap overnment ai lable endencies example s downed mage to ption of a cts on th illustrated to as ted from s p lan, no – 3-19 s, are by one ny e in

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-20 Some examples:  Pumps in tunnels that rely on electricity will fail if power is disrupted, potentially flooding tunnels and disrupting communications and other lines that are co- located.  Water systems require regular deliveries of chlorine, often by rail, to purify water.  Water, telecomm and power systems need a functioning transportation system for their employees to get to work.  Many power stations require deliveries of diesel or other fuels for auxiliary systems.  Most rail systems rely on sophisticated communications to safely operate high-frequency service.  Urban heavy rail, light rail, and many commuter rail systems rely on electricity to power their trains, as well as maintenance and repair facilities.  Traffic signals rely on power; some also rely on communications.  Bus systems rely on water, power and communications to manage, operate and maintain their fleets, and operate on the roads.

Every a related connec worse. Interde deal wi are priv entities Bay Are additio categor nuance in a cas include is descr Resilien Guidan and Life process interde improve the inab due to Profiled organiz internat sectors. Reinfor gency will to their o ted throug pendencie th becaus ate, for-p . Figure 3. a Govern nal breakd ies, to de and com e study o d in the D ibed in C ce Plannin ce, and in line Coun they wen pendencie ments in ility to de lack of inf below ar ations hav ional) effo Such sec ce Your Age be able t wn circum hout the s can be e many of rofit, or no 4 from th ments (AB own of th monstrate plexity. AB n interdep atabase. T hapter 4, S g Frame cludes link cil report t through s and prio weak link al with so ormation e two exa e taken a rts to eng tors includ ncy’s Regio o think of stances. T ir commu challengin the partn n-profit e Associat AG) provi e four ba additiona AG is fea endence, he case s ection 3, works and s to the A s. It illustr to identi ritize acti s. This inc me secto and enga mples of lead role age for-p e utilities nal Interdep other exa ransit ag nities, for g to ers ion of des sic l tured tudy BAG ates the fy ons for luded rs’ perceiv gement. cases whe in multi- rofit and and logis endencies mples, encies are better and ed weak re non-pr state (and semi-pub tics provi Asso report Threa The fro Fra Int – 3-21 for links, ofit lic ders Figure 3.4 ciat ion of B "Cascadin ts to Trans data for th m the City ncisco's L erdepende Excerpt fr ay Area G g Fai lures portat ion a e graphic w and Coun i fe l ine Cou ncies Stud om the overnment : Earthqua nd Uti l i t ies as der ived ty of San nci l 2014 y. (2014) s ke ."

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-22 in resilience, emergency preparedness and response planning and implementation. The Pacific Northwest Economic Region and the Center for Regional Disaster Resilience (PNWER/RDR) includes five mainland states including Alaska, and three provinces and two territories in Canada. PNWER was established to strengthen the resilience of the electric grid in the region. Its regular Cascade exercises, led by private sector partners, have examined and tabletop tested many different logistical challenges, improving coordination across state, province and international borders (including improving cross-border coordination for the Olympics and freight movements). Its continuity is evidence of its relevance and value after more than 25 years. (PNWER/RDR is the first case study in NCHRP Report 777, available free online.) The All Hazards Consortium (AHC) is modeled after PNWER and includes eight Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia, including urban areas of New York City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Newark, New Jersey. It was established to give the private sector a voice in regional disaster and resilience planning, and it has played important coordination roles since its inception. Examples include facilitating the movement of fleets of utility vehicles from across the country through regional tollbooths in the wake of Hurricane Sandy. (AHC is also a case study from NCHRP Report 777.)

The Na source The Na provide those t The NIP sector p sensitiv NIPP ad infrastru across t hazards weathe terroris acciden failures sectors, 3.5. It p emphas sectors, includin informa the Dat the bes are in d updated Reinfor tional In of resou tional Infr support hat engag P provide artners, a e discussi dresses c cture pro he full sp , including r, pandem m, cyber t ts or tech . It addres as shown laces a m is on coo as well a g coordin tion appe abase; ho t source, evelopme informat ce Your Age frastruct rces and astructure for region e private s structur s well as ons. ritical tection ectrum of extreme ic, hreats, an nical ses 16 in Figure ajor rdinating s across s ating with ars as a t wever, the as new ini nt as part ion will b ncy’s Regio ure Prot support Protectio al resilien sector par es for col legal fram d among ectors, local and ool profile NIPP we tiatives on of the 20 e availabl nal Interdep ection Pl n Plan (N ce efforts, tners, suc laboration eworks fo regional in Chapt bsite itsel regional 16 NIPP e on an o Fig endencies an: pote IPP) may in particu h as utilit with priv r confide entities. T er 4 and i f is proba coordina Challenge ngoing ba ure 3.5 S – 3-23 ntial lar ies. ate ntial, his n bly tion , and sis. ix teen sect by NIPP ors addressed

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-24 NIPP Core Tenet 2. “Understanding and addressing risks from cross- sector dependencies and interdependencies is essential to enhancing critical infrastructure security and resilience. The way infrastructure sectors interact, including through reliance on shared information and communications technologies (e.g., cloud services), shapes how the Nation’s critical infrastructure partners should collectively manage risk. For example, all critical infrastructure sectors rely on functions provided by energy, communications, transportation, and water systems, among others. In addition, interdependencies flow both ways, as with the dependence of energy and communications systems on each other and on other functions. It is important for the critical infrastructure community to understand and appropriately account for dependencies and interdependencies when managing risk.” (NIPP Plan 2013, p. 13) Although the NIPP identifies 16 sectors, it recognizes the greater criticality and interdependence of all sectors on the four sectors identified above. NIPP also emphasizes the importance of state, local, tribal and territorial government coordination with the private sector. In terms of information sharing, the NIPP notes “many of the [information sharing] structures take advantage of the Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) (http://www.dhs.gov/critical-infrastructure- partnership-advisory- council). The Secretary of Homeland Security established CIPAC in 2006 as a mechanism to directly support sectors’ interest to engage in public-private critical infrastructure discussions and participate in a broad spectrum of activities. CIPAC exempts partnership meetings from the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Public Law 92–463 (October 6, 1972), allowing the public-private critical infrastructure community to engage in frank or sensitive dialog to mitigate critical infrastructure vulnerabilities and lessen impacts from developing or emerging threats . . . the CIPAC model provides the legal framework for cross-sector collaboration.”(NIPP 2014, p. 12).

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-25 Regional resilience taskforce A regional resilience taskforce can convene frank and useful (and sometimes confidential) discussions on assets, strengths, weaknesses, and vulnerabilities. Your agency can take a leadership role in discussions, or provide critical information and support to designated leaders. Example discussion and regional exercise topics could be along the lines of the following:  Discuss and assess regional risks and hazards: o What kinds of events have happened in your region and in neighboring regions over the past 20 years? The past 100 years? o Have major events been occurring with greater frequency or greater severity or both in recent years or decades? o What events are most likely to occur in the future? Consider anticipated recurrence intervals and averages, as well as extremes. o Is the region subject to potential cataclysmic events (such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis)? o Is the region subject to major weather-related events like hurricanes, droughts, wildfires, severe flooding or major tornadoes?

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-26  Is your region subject to slower-moving events, like sea level rise and/or coastal land subsidence?  What do climate scientists or geologists forecast for high-likelihood situations for your region by 2030? 2050? 2080? 2100?  What do they foresee as less likely, but still possible, high consequence weather or other natural disaster by those same years?  Can (or have) regional partners agree (d) on a scenario or a range of scenarios that you can reasonably use for planning for resilience? Know that scenarios can be updated as events occur. It is important to get started and working on incremental and long range strategies. (The NASA case study in the Database can help you with this, along with the tools described in Chapter 4; often a trained facilitator can be a great help.)  Understand that you are all mutually interdependent. o On whom do you depend? And on whom do they depend? How do you get fuel, power, and clean water? o Where are weak links without redundancies? o Think of major events in other areas. What were the biggest failures? How would your region cope? How can it prepare? And how can you

 T v s  W  T T y d  D d (e w A im fr li CASE Reinfor prepa servic ake stock ulnerabilit ectors. ork out “ hink creat he SWOT our agenc iscussions iscuss reg efinitions xcess pre eather) an gree on b pacts, an equent an kely but v New J Hobok stormw train s roadw modif floodg ce Your Age re? You e if “every of capacit ies to diff worst/ ba ively abou tools and y discussi . ional risks and assum cipitation, d potent asic prem d the nee d high-p ery high c ersey Tra en on ini ater to r tations. In ay rebuild ied to incl ates to p ncy’s Regio can’t effec thing” is ies, redun erent stre d case sce t challeng other pro ons can a and haza ptions fo drought, ial climate ises of th d to focu robability onsequen nsit work tiatives to educe rec New Yor ing proje ude conve rotect aga nal Interdep tively ope shut down dancies, a ssors in d narios” to es and o blem-solv lso help in rds, inclu r extreme both cold change s e range o s efforts o events, as ce events ed with th absorb m urrent floo k, an alre ct was pro rsion of c inst storm endencies rate your . nd ifferent gether. pportuniti ing tools regional ding weather er and ho cenarios. f potentia n both well as le . e City of ore ding at k ady plann posed to ulverts to surge an – 3-27 es. for risks tter l ss ey ed be d

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-28 flooding, improving an evacuation route and protection of residences and businesses. Hazard assessments and climate change studies can require significant resources to develop, maintain and update. In most cases, it will be most appropriate to develop a common, agreed-upon regional framework with underlying assumptions on the most likely types of hazards and worst- case scenarios. These can be revised and updated over time as information evolves or as emergency situations occur. To take the role your agency deserves in the regional resilience conversation you can:  Actively participate in regional tabletop and other exercises.  Reinforce, if necessary, the case for transit as an essential partner for resilience.  Participate in planning and carrying out regional exercises.  Work out “worst/ bad case scenarios” with partners: o Jointly create scenarios for tabletop testing or more robust exercises; o Exercise scenarios to test abilities and procedures (communications, coordination, logistics, weak points, successes); and

 P s a re in CASE Reinfor o Deve for co infras strate lan for ac hort-range daptation gion’s rea terrelated HART basins solutio mitiga ce Your Age lop after a rrective a tructure, a gies and tion. The d and long strategies diness fo and casc is workin , and is al ns to red te localize facility. ncy’s Regio ction repo ctions- inc daptation projects. esign an er-range and proj r and abil ading fail g with Tam so using g uce storm d floodin nal Interdep rts and fo luding op , and miti d impleme mitigation ects can i ity to reco ures of a pa on d reen infr water run g for thei endencies llow-up p erations, gation ntation o and mprove th ver from disaster. ownstream astructure off and r operatio – 3-29 lans f e the ns

iv. Be imp add acr Look fo redund grids ar in the N emerge based, transit a TOOL Reinfor part of lement ress id oss age  Dis tim Ope  Con See inve bet resi Par pro and imp r opportu ancy to cr e being p ortheast ncy. Hurri mutually b s an inte The L multi inclu indic ce Your Age the solu strateg entified ncy and cuss the v e frames, rating? A tribute ti k opportu stments, ween a fe lience co- ticipate in jects, and mechani lementati nities to s itical infra roposed o to protect cane Sand eneficial gral partn ACMTA ple indica de both T ators. ncy’s Regio tion to ies that gaps a jurisd ision and action ori ddressing me, ideas, nities for or joint p w sponso benefits seeking g developin sms. Parti on, in a le trengthen structure. r implem essential y led to a resilience er. Resilienc tors relat echnical nal Interdep develop proacti nd weak ictional mission fo entation- interdepe questions regional s rograms a rs that pro to multipl rants, pri g funding cipate in p ad or sup , harden For exam ented in m services i variety o projects t e Indica ed to ext and Orga endencies and vely nesses lines r resilien Capital? ndencies , and ans trategies nd projec vide e partners oritizing strategie roject port role. and/or ad ple, micro any loca n case of f commu hat includ tor Fram ernal sta nizationa – 3-30 ce- ? wers. and ts . s d - tions nity- ed ework in keholders l Resil ien cludes . These ce

Relative resilienc for proj Kansas core pa plants a runoff, respect The Fix passed calls fo MPOs a the MP good p Howeve resilienc TOOL Reinfor ly quick, v e can he ects with City, in pa rk and-rid nd trees. and gene for bus s ing Ameri by Congr r MPOs to nd Resilie O role in lace to be r, your M e, with ot The m Oper includ these The t INVE evalu evalu altern Resil water ce Your Age isible suc lp maintai longer lea rtnership e lot with This mitig rates neig top shelte ca’s Surfac ess and si consider nce provi resilience) gin lookin PO may n her exam atrix too ational In ed in the key issu ools you ST and E ations. In ating reg ative stra ience Eva , wastew ncy’s Regio cesses in n momen d times. with KCA permeab ates flood hborhood rs and oth e Transpo gned into resilience des the le . Therefor g for loca ot be the ples cited l Interna terdepe Databas es and q use for a nvision) addit ion ional ben tegies. F luation a ater and nal Interdep collaborat tum and e TA, upgra le pavem ing risk b pride and er public rtation A law in De (the textb gislative f e, your M l resilienc only enti througho l and Ext ndencies e can he uestions. gency eva may also , there ar efits and or examp nd Aware stormwat endencies ion on nergy ded an ur ent, native y reducin more property. ct (FAST A cember 2 ox FAST oundation PO may b e leaders ty working ut this ste ernal Sta profi led lp remind luations be helpf e new an co-benef le, the E ness Too er resil ien – 3-31 TIP ban g ct), 015, Act, for e a hip. on p. A i D i a l c r v d i T t B G ( D o a keholde in Chapte you of so (such as ul for reg d emergi its to com PA Clima l (CREAT ce. cknowle nterdepe iscuss m nterdepe nd poten inks. Tak apacit ies edundanc ulnerabil i f ferent s n differen he case he Assoc ay Area overnme ABAG) in atabase n interde ssessme r r 4 and me of CAPTA , ional ng tools f pare te ) evalua dge ndencies. utual ndencies t ial weak e stock o , ies, and it ies to tressors t sectors study on iation of nts the focuses pendency nts. or tes f . TOOL

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-32 STEP 3. Strengthen Key Transit Agency and Supplier Relationships Strategic discussions on managing risks within your agency, as discussed in Chapter 2, in parallel with regional discussions on interdependencies, as discussed in Steps 1 and 2 in this chapter, have probably identified some obvious and some not-so-obvious partners who are critical to your agency’s resilience as a transit agency, per se. It is valuable to be part of the broader regional approach to resilience, as “no agency is an island”. It is essential to establish and maintain relationships and agreements with your suppliers, potential contractors, and other agencies, including transit agencies, for mutual aid and other support. i. Build closer relationships and establish formal agreements with transit-specific partners for essential services and mutual support as appropriate. Identify and establish agreements with essential partners Your discussions within your agency undertaken in Chapters 1 and 2 have likely identified some key “outside” stakeholders that you rely on to carry out everyday business. Have you identified all of the following, including the roles they play in your operations and resiliency?  Fuel suppliers – for all vehicle types

Reinforce Your Agency’s Regional Interdependencies – 3-33  Power suppliers – for facilities and equipment  Communication providers – central control to drivers; equipment communications (e.g., Communications Based Train Control, GPS bus monitors, signal equipment); supervisors and management with regional and state leadership and with all employees; communications with customers, the general public, and other stakeholders  Water suppliers  Highway department and associated support services  Other transit agencies  Agencies or organizations where you can store (and refuel?) in case of threat or damage to your own storage (and refueling?) facilities. (Having a plan in place and ready to go to move as much of your fleet as possible out of immediate harm’s way is the primary objective for this readily achieved preparation. If an entire maintenance facility is at risk, your internal deliberations may need to go in other directions as well.)  Representatives of pertinent government agencies–– MPO, city, county or state leaders, representing emergency management, sustainability, resilience, public safety, as appropriate for your region

Confirm immedi of the s Particip regiona in gaps Exampl  O s p c c  H p  O s n  H re Your ag transit TOOL Reinfor that you ate access trengths ating in a l resilienc in your o es of pote ther trans upport, in ersonnel, ustomer s ould oper ighway d riorities fo ther pote uppliers o ecessities; igher gro fuel equi ency may agencies Revisit Chapt your ne grows. ce Your Age have cur to partn and limita commun e taskforc wn circle ntial part it agencie cluding ba shared co ervice, oth ate remot epartment r clearing ntial partn f natural g und locat pment. require m well outs the Initi er 4 and twork of i ncy’s Regio rent conta ers and un tions of e ity-wide e e, will be of contact ners includ s: equipm ckup sup ntracting er “back ely in case and asso roads, re ers such as, clean ion to relo utual aid ide the re al Identif found in nternal ag nal Interdep cts for derstand ach of the ffort, such able to he s. e: ent excha port for e authority, room” fun of emer ciated ser storing se as special diesel, an cate and agreem gional fr ication o the Data ency and endencies T ing m. as lp you fil nges, oth ssential shared ctions tha gency; vices: rvice; ized fuel d other preferably ents with amework f Stakeho base to u external – 3-34 IP l er t , to lders pr pdate co stakehold In th real the desc eme cont prov reco deve “just cont requ and mutu agre othe agen orga sam com area ofiled in ntacts as ers e contrac m (Sectio FTA manu ribes rgency fe racting isions, an mmends loping ad -in-t ime” racts for ired serv MOAs or al aid ements “ r relevan cies or nizations e or adjo munit ies s.” (FTA, 2 ts n 2.3), al deral d vance ices with t in the ining or 015).

assist w situatio your an more d neighbo focused or othe custom Remem provide suppor situatio recomm the FTA peer tra CASE Reinfor ith emerg ns. For ex d nearby istant age rs, depen requirem r fuel sup ary region ber that t s extensi t for prep ns, includ endation Emergen nsit agen HART refueli damag mutua refueli The N equipm of reg ce Your Age ency buse ample, a s transit ag ncies for ding on t ents, such plies, may al interes he FTA Em ve inform aring for ing resilie s for disas cy Relief cy interac has estab ng vehicle ed or de l aid or o ng capab ew Orlea ent at th ion” reloc ncy’s Regio s and op erious em encies. Yo MOAs or he types as ensur need to ts. ergency ation on and respo nce aspec ter prepa Manual re tion and i lished co s, in case stroyed. T ther agree ility is ava ns RTA se e Baton R ation of e nal Interdep erators in ergency u may wi MOUs, as of risks yo ing steady occur out Relief M FTA and nding to ts. Severa ration con commend nvolveme ntingency infrastruc hese plan ments to ilable whe cured saf ouge Airp quipment endencies some may disab sh to cons well as u face. O natural g side the anual FEMA gra emergenc l sideration supplier nt. plans for ture is s include ensure th n needed e havens ort for “o . – 3-35 le ider ther as nt y s in and at . for ut

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Web Only Document 70: Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 1: A Guide offers practices for transit systems of all sizes to absorb the impacts of disaster, recover quickly, and return rapidly to providing the services that customers rely on to meet their travel needs. The report shows how to identify and implement appropriate resilience strategies to strengthen operations and infrastructure throughout an agency. It explores ways that agencies can become more resilient through incremental adjustments in planning and small changes in what they do every day. The guide also shows how to identify critical transit-related interdependencies and engage in broader regional resilience efforts. The guide is accompanied by Volume 2: Research Overview, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies, and a database called resilienttransit.org to help practitioners search for and identify tools to help plan for natural disasters.

This website is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

TRB hosted a webinar that discusses the research on March 12, 2018. A recording is available.

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