Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
TCRP Annual Report TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM I I TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ADDRESS SERVICE REQUESTED TCRP 2017 ANNUAL REPORT OF PROGRESS T C R P A N N U A L R E P O R T O F P R O G R E S S 2 0 1 7 T R B T C R P A N N U A L R E P O R T O F P R O G R E S S 2 0 1 7 T R B Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration
TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR Paul C. Jablonski San Diego Metropolitan Transit System VICE CHAIR Doran J. Barnes Foothill Transit SECRETARY TREASURER Mortimer L. Downey, III Mort Downey Consulting LLC MEMBERS Jeffrey Arndt VIA Metropolitan Transit Authority Jameson Auten Kansas City Area Transportation Authority Mallory R. Avis Michigan Department of Transportation Paul J. Ballard Fort Worth Transportation Authority Alva Carrasco Sacramento Regional Transit District Dorval Ronald Carter, Jr. Chicago Transit Authority Francis âBuddyâ Coleman Clever Devices Ltd. Ryan I. Daniel St. Cloud Metro Bus Katharine Eagan Hillsborough Area RTA Suzie Edrington San Antonio VIA Betsy Kachmar Citilink/Fort Wayne Public Transportation Corporation John Lewis Charlotte Area Transit System Sherry Little Cardinal Infrastructure Kris Lyon Lane Transit District W.H. (Bill) McCloud McCloud Transport Associates Jonathan H. McDonald CH2M E. Susan Meyer Spokane Transit Authority Daniel J. Raudebaugh Center for Transportation and the Environment T.J. Ross PACE Vicki L. Shotland Greater Hartford Transit District Gary Thomas Dallas Area Rapid Transit Denise Tyler Delaware Transit Corporation Ed Watt Amalgamated Transit Union David C. Wilcock Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. K. Jane Williams Federal Transit Admininstration EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Brandye Hendrickson FHWA Neil J. Pedersen TRB Richard A. White APTA Frederick G. (Bud) Wright AASHTO TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Arthur L. Guzzetti APTA SECRETARY Christopher J. Hedges TRB TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2017 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: Malcolm Dougherty, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento ViCe Chair: Katherine F. Turnbull, Executive Associate Director and Research Scientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station exeCutiVe DireCtor: Neil J. Pedersen, Transportation Research Board MEMBERS Victoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center; Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director, Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC Scott E. Bennett, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock Jennifer Cohan, Secretary, Delaware DOT, Dover James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations (retired), DallasâFort Worth International Airport, TX Nathaniel P. Ford, Sr., Executive DirectorâCEO, Jacksonville Transportation Authority, Jacksonville, FL A. Stewart Fotheringham, Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe John S. Halikowski, Director, Arizona DOT, Phoenix Susan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA Steve Heminger, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, CA Chris T. Hendrickson, Hamerschlag Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Jeffrey D. Holt, Managing Director, Power, Energy, and Infrastructure Group, BMO Capital Markets Corporation, New York S. Jack Hu, Vice President for Research and J. Reid and Polly Anderson Professor of Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Roger B. Huff, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI Geraldine Knatz, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles Melinda McGrath, Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Patrick K. McKenna, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City James P. Redeker, Commissioner, Connecticut DOT, Newington Mark L. Rosenberg, Executive Director, The Task Force for Global Health, Inc., Decatur, GA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis Gary C. Thomas, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX Pat Thomas, Senior Vice President of State Government Affairs, United Parcel Service, Washington, DC James M. Tien, Distinguished Professor and Dean Emeritus, College of Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL Dean H. Wise, Vice President of Network Strategy, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, Fort Worth, TX Charles A. Zelle, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, Saint Paul EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Michael Berube, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy Mary R. Brooks, Professor Emerita, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and Chair, TRB Marine Board Mark H. Buzby (Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy), Executive Director, Maritime Administration, U.S. DOT Steven Cliff, Deputy Executive Officer, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento Howard R. Elliott, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. DOT Audrey Farley, Executive Director, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, U.S. DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Heath Hall, Deputy Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. DOT Brandye Hendrickson, Deputy Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. DOT Michael P. Huerta, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. DOT Daphne Y. Jefferson, Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. DOT Heidi King, Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. DOT Bevan B. Kirley, Research Associate, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council Wayne Nastri, Acting Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Craig A. Rutland, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL Todd T. Semonite (Lieutenant General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Karl Simon, Director, Transportation and Climate Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard A. White, Acting President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC K. Jane Williams, Executive Director, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. DOT Frederick G. (Bud) Wright, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Paul F. Zukunft (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security * Membership as of October 2017.* Membership as of November 2017. 2017 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMTCRP 2017 ANNUAL REPORT OF PROGRESS Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation
2017 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMTCRP 2017 ANNUAL REPORT OF PROGRESS Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is nec- essary to solve operating problems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit indus- try can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recog- nized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transpor- tation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), reauthorized in June 1998 by the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), again reauthorized in August 2005 by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), reauthorized again in 2012 by Mov- ing Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), and reauthorized in 2015 by the Fixing Americaâs Sur- face Transportation (FAST) Act. On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies of Sci- ences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Tran- sit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the indepen- dent governing board, designated as the TCRP Over- sight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. This memorandum agreement was updated on January 12, 1999. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Com- mittee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evalua- tion, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contrac- tors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and select- ing research agencies has been used by TRB in man- aging cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. For additional information, go to www.trb.org/ TCRP. ADDRESS INFORMATION TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD Cooperative Research Programs 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20001 Phone: 202-334-3224 www.trb.org ON THE COVER Cover photograph: Judiciary Square Metro Station, Washington, D.C. Photo by George Chafee Howard. Cover design by Tony Olivis, Studio 2.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF Director Christopher J. Hedges, Director Deputy Director Lori L. Sundstrom ACRP Manager Michael R. Salamone TCRP Manager Gwen Chisholm Smith Senior Program Officers Mark S. Bush Mariela Garcia-Colberg Camille Crichton-Sumners Waseem Dekelbab B. Ray Derr Jo Allen Gause Lawrence D. Goldstein Marci A. Greenberger Amir N. Hanna Edward T. Harrigan Ann M. Hartell Inam Jawed Andrew C. Lemer Sid Mohan Joseph D. Navarrete Stephan A. Parker William C. Rogers Theresia H. Schatz Dianne S. Schwager Gail R. Staba Program Officer Velvet Basemera-Fitzpatrick Administrative Coordinator Joseph J. Snell Administrative Associate Cynthia E. Butler Program Coordinators Deborah Irvin Brittany Summerlin-Azeez Program Associate Sheila A. Moore Senior Program Assistants Anthony P. Avery Megan A. Chamberlain Cheryl Keith Thu M. Le Daniel J. Magnolia Hana Vagnerova Demisha Williams Program Assistant Stephanie L. Campbell Director of Publications Eileen P. Delaney Senior Editors Natalie Barnes Ellen M. Chafee Linda A. Dziobek Hilary Freer Scott E. Hitchcock Editors Doug English Margaret B. Hagood Sharon Lamberton Sreyashi Roy Heidi Willis Senior Editorial Assistant Kathleen Mion Systems Analyst Roy N. Mesler Web Developer Natassja Linzau Synthesis Program Contractors Thomas Helms Tanya M. Zwahlen
CONTENTS Annual Report of Progress, 1 Introduction, 1 How TCRP Programs Are Formulated, 1 Research Program, 3 Financing the Program, 4 How TCRP Is Organized to Administer Research Programs, 4 Project Panels, 6 How Projects Are Placed Under Contract, 7 Monitoring Research in Progress, 8 Promoting Dissemination and Application of Research Results, 8 Current Status, 9 Accomplishments in 2017, 10 FY 2018 Program, 12 Policies on Bias and Conflict of Interest, 12 Summary, 14 Publications of the Transit Cooperative Research Program, 15 Summary of Project Status, 35 Summary of Project D-7 Status, 72 Summary of Project J-4 Status, 74 Summary of Project J-5 Status, 81 Summary of Project J-6 Status, 86 Summary of Project J-7 Status, 92 Summary of Project J-9 Status, 104 Summary of Project J-10 Status, 105 Summary of Project J-11 Status, 107 New Projects and Continuations, 110 Notice to Readers, 111 How to Order, 111