LA RUE ALLEN (Chair) is the Raymond and Rosalee Weiss professor of applied psychology and chair of the Department of Applied Psychology in the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at New York University. She also directs the Child and Family Policy Center, which focuses on bringing social science knowledge to policy makers and practitioners concerned with young children and their families. In her work at the center, she has partnered with agencies that oversee the publicly funded early care and education (ECE) systems in New York City and New York State on research initiatives such as authentic assessment in prekindergarten settings and ECE workforce development. She was a visiting scholar at the Centre de Recherche de l’Education Spécialisée et de l’Adaptation Scolaire in Paris, France, where she conducted research on the role of parents and educators in the development of civic attitudes and behaviors among youth. She chaired the study committee that authored the Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8 report, the foundation for this study. She received her Ph.D. in clinical/community/developmental psychology from Yale University.
CELIA C. AYALA is the senior advisor to the Los Angeles Universal Preschool (LAUP) Child360 and a recognized leader in early care and education (ECE) innovation and access to educational services. She has advocated successfully for ECE investments, quality improvements, policy, and workforce development. With her influence, LAUP has been recognized as a state and national model in ECE coaching, training and consulting, early language development, fiscal coaching, and family engagement. She is a
member of the Congressional Pre-K Caucus, a bipartisan forum intended to inform members of Congress about high-quality ECE programs and to develop bipartisan policy recommendations to improve and expand ECE opportunities. In 2008, she was appointed to the California Early Learning Improvement System Advisory Committee, where she helped develop and implement a statewide quality improvement system for early learning, which has become the foundation for quality rating and improvement systems across the state. Prior to joining LAUP, she served as assistant superintendent, Division of Children and Family Services, Riverside County Office of Education, where she managed all county ECE programs and activities, including the Head Start program. She has also served as the Pasadena Unified School District’s director of curriculum, instruction and educational technologies; principal at James Madison Elementary School; and director of the Los Angeles County Department of Education’s Division of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment. She received a doctorate in education from the University of Southern California.
EMILY P. BACKES is costudy director for this report and a program officer for the Board on Children, Youth, and Families in the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. During her more than 5 years with the National Academies, she has provided analytical and editorial support for studies and contributed technical writings for many reports. Her projects have included the areas of law and justice; children’s cognitive, affective, and behavioral health; education and literacy; science communication; and science and human rights. Recent National Academies reports include Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime and Communities; Science Literacy: Concepts, Contexts, and Consequences; Reforming Juvenile Justice: The Federal Role; Understanding the U.S. Illicit Tobacco Market; and Support for Forensic Science Research. She received an M.A. and B.A. in history from the University of Missouri and is currently pursuing a J.D. at the University of the District of Columbia.
DAPHNA BASSOK is an associate professor of education and public policy at the University of Virginia and is associate director of EdPolicyWorks, a joint collaboration of the Curry School of Education and the Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy. Her research focuses on the impacts of large-scale early care and education (ECE) policies on the well-being of low-income children. She currently leads a project to examine Louisiana’s efforts to overhaul its ECE system through a focus on educator–child interactions. In January 2017, she received a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers in recognition of the Louisiana project. Other
recent research includes an evaluation of medium-term impacts of full-day prekindergarten, a quasi-experimental study measuring the effects of North Carolina’s quality rating and improvement systems, and studies tracking changes in early childhood achievement gaps over time. She holds a Ph.D. in the economics of education, an M.A. in economics, and an M.A. in policy analysis and evaluation, all from Stanford University.
RICHARD N. BRANDON retired as founding director of the Human Services Policy Center at the University of Washington’s Evans School of Public Affairs. An expert in public finance, he led the center’s research on financing of public education and child care and founded the Washington Kids Count project. He currently works on several national projects related to early care and education (ECE) services and planning and budgeting for children’s services, and recent research includes the impact of recession on ECE practitioner employment. He was co-principal investigator for both a study of access to high-quality ECE options for overseas military personnel and the National Survey of Early Care and Education. For the latter, he had lead responsibility for ECE workforce issues and was lead author of the survey’s workforce report. For UNICEF, he was principal investigator on a contract to develop financial analytic tools and training for government officials in Bosnia and Herzegovina. He previously served as staff director of the U.S. Senate Budget Committee. Prior to that position, he directed systems analysis and budgeting for the New York City Department of Mental Health and analyzed Social Security financing as a fellow of the Employee Benefit Research Institute. He has consulted on human services and financing and workforce issues with state and local governments; UNICEF; the American Association of Retired Persons; the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government; and Fannie Mae. He received a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Pennsylvania.
EMILY BYERS is a Christine Mirzayan science and technology policy fellow who served during her fellowship as a research associate with the National Academies, assisted in the research for this study. She currently is an associate program officer, serving the National Academies’ Health and Medicine Division, Health Care Services Board standing committee and the Committee on Improving Health Outcomes for Children with Disabilities. She is active in science communication, serving as editor for the Journal on Science Policy and Governance and managing editor/staff writer for ScIU: Conversations in Science. She is a doctoral candidate in speech and hearing sciences at Indiana University and holds a master’s degree in linguistics from Florida International University. Her research focuses on bilingual language acquisition, language policy, and speech perception.
GERALD M. CUTTS is the founding president and CEO of First Children’s Finance, a multistate not-for-profit, established in 1991 that works to increase high-quality early care and education (ECE) access in lower-income communities by focusing on the business and financial aspects of strategies that increase the sustainability and supply of high-quality ECE services. Activities include providing business technical assistance to ECE business owners and to urban and rural communities, assisting state governments, developing strategies for public and private partnerships to fund and finance ECE options, and providing ECE facility financing for providers that serve lower-income families. As president and CEO, he is responsible for strategic direction, financial oversight, resource development, national and local policy, and strategic business development. Previously, he was co-director of an ECE center and worked in a community economic development corporation, where he applied economic development finance tools and strategies to finance home-based ECE services through use of bonding; tax increment financing; and packaging of federal, state, and local funds. He holds a master of city planning degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a J.D. from the Northeastern University School of Law.
KIM DANCY is a senior policy analyst with the Education Policy program at New America. She works with the Higher Education Initiative, where she conducts original research and data analysis on higher education issues, including federal funding for education programs, quality assurance and consumer protection, and general data and analytic support. Previously, she worked for the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, focusing on the use of competency-based education in career and technical fields, as well as the alignment of educational programs with labor market needs. She holds a bachelor’s degree from the University of Michigan and a master’s degree in public policy from Georgetown University.
ELIZABETH E. DAVIS is professor of applied economics at the University of Minnesota. Her research focuses on economics and public policy related to low-income families and early care and education in the United States. Her recent research examines the dynamics of participation in early care and education (ECE) subsidy programs, why parents stop using subsidies, ECE access and affordability, and the connection between parents’ employment and ECE choices. Other research has focused on rural and low-wage labor markets and includes studies of the impact of local competition on wages and job turnover in the retail food industry and the relationship between local labor market conditions and employment outcomes for disadvantaged workers. She is a member of the American Economic Association, Association of Public Policy and Management, Society of Labor
Economists, and the Community and Regional Economics Network. She received an M.A and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan.
HARRIET DICHTER is a fellow at ICF, focusing on early education work in collaboration with the federal and state governments. She also provides policy and strategy consulting to foundations, policy nonprofits, local and state governments, and school districts. Her career has focused on innovation in early learning. She founded and led the Pennsylvania Office of Child Development and Early Learning, where she established the state’s prekindergarten program, its business-led early learning investment commission, its early childhood mental health consultation program, and full-day kindergarten; reformed its approach to child care assistance, professional development, quality improvement and accountability; and led internal and external advocacy on behalf of the Governor’s agenda, including cultivation of business leaders and mobilization of the early childhood community and other key stakeholders. In Pennsylvania, she also served as secretary of the Department of Public Welfare and as policy director, Department of Education. In Philadelphia she was deputy managing director for child policy, maternal and child health director, and special assistant to the Mayor. She also has worked in Delaware as the founding executive director of the Office of Early Learning, where she accelerated the pace, quality, and accountability of comprehensive early childhood work. In the nonprofit sector, she has held many leadership roles ranging from service nationally at the First Five Years Fund, the Ounce of Prevention Fund, and the Pew Charitable Trusts to local service at community-based nonprofits. She received a B.A. in psychology and in American studies from Yale University and a J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School.
KATHY GLAZER joined the Virginia Early Childhood Foundation, a nonpartisan public-private venture, as president in January 2012. Under her leadership, the foundation promotes innovative initiatives and public–private partnerships to ensure that Virginia’s children enter kindergarten healthy and ready to succeed in school, the workforce, and life. Previously she worked with the national Build Initiative as director of state services, providing strategic advice to states on advancing their early care and education (ECE) policies and agendas. From 2005 until 2009, she served in Virginia state government positions including executive director of the governor’s office for early childhood policy and director of the Office of Early Childhood Development, an office created to span ECE programs, staff, and funding streams across state agencies. She has provided leadership for many of Virginia’s key early childhood initiatives, leveraging public-private partnerships to create the statewide Smart Beginnings network and the Virginia Early Childhood Foundation and spearheading Virginia’s ECE
standards alignment and at-risk prekindergarten initiatives. She received a B.A. from the University of Georgia and an M.P.A. from Virginia Commonwealth University.
LYNN A. KAROLY is a senior economist at the RAND Corporation and a professor at the Pardee RAND Graduate School. A labor economist, her recent research has focused on human capital investments, social welfare policy, child and family well-being, and U.S. labor markets. Her research on child-related policy has included studies on the use and quality of early care and education (ECE) programs, the system of publicly subsidized ECE programs, professional development for the ECE workforce, and ECE quality rating and improvement systems. In related work, she has examined the costs, benefits, and economic returns of early childhood interventions and youth development programs, and more generally she has assessed the use of benefit-cost analysis to evaluate social programs. Other research has examined issues pertaining to poverty, inequality, immigration, welfare reform, and U.S. labor markets. She served as the director of RAND’s Office of Research Quality Assurance and as director of RAND Labor and Population. She is an editor for the Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Journal of Human Resources and was vice president and now president of the Society for Benefit-Cost Analysis. She received her Ph.D. in economics from Yale University.
HELEN F. LADD is Susan B. King professor emerita of public policy and economics at Duke University’s Sanford School of Public Policy. She has written on charter schools and school choice in North Carolina, self-governing schools and parental choice in New Zealand, market-based reforms in urban school districts, voucher programs, school reform in post-Apartheid South Africa, and school finance in the Netherlands. With Duke University colleagues she has used longitudinal data from North Carolina to report on ECE programs and to write articles on school segregation, educator labor markets, and educator quality. She has co-edited or coauthored books on such topics as performance-based reform in education, educational finance and policy, and educational reform in other countries. Prior to joining the Duke University faculty, she taught at Dartmouth College and Wellesley College. At Harvard University, she taught first in the City and Regional Planning Program and then in the Kennedy School of Government. She is past president of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management and a member of the National Academy of Education. She holds a B.A. degree from Wellesley College, an M.A. degree from the London School of Economics, and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.
SHEILA MOATS is a program officer with the Board on Children, Youth, and Families (BCYF) at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and co-study director for the consensus study on Financing Early Care and Education, which produced this report. Other projects she has contributed to within BCYF include the consensus reports Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation and Promoting the Educational Success of Children and Youth Learning English: Promising Futures. During her 16 years on the National Academies staff, she has also worked on projects with the Food and Nutrition Board and has been the director of several workshops, in addition to working on numerous consensus studies. Prior to joining the National Academies, she worked for the American Diabetes Association and the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. She received a B.S. in nutrition science from The Pennsylvania State University.
SHAYNE SPAULDING is a senior research associate in the Income and Benefits Policy Center at the Urban Institute and codirector of Bridging the Gap, an initiative focused on the intersection between ECE services and services for low-income adults seeking skill improvement. She also directs an assessment of the New Skills at Work initiative, a $250 million investment in national and global workforce development. She led the Urban Institute’s work for the MacArthur Foundation on Cities of Learning, an initiative to improve educational and workforce outcomes for youth. She has spent nearly 20 years in the workforce development field as an evaluator, technical assistance provider, and program manager. Her research has focused on evaluations of workforce development and postsecondary education programs and strategies. Previously, she was the university director of workforce development for the City University of New York, where she oversaw continuing education and workforce programs across that university’s 24 campuses. Before that, she was a senior program director for Public/Private Ventures. She serves on the board of the Workforce Professionals Training Institute. She holds a B.A. in American government from Wesleyan University and an M.A. in public policy from Johns Hopkins University.
SARAH TRACEY is a staff member on the Board on Children, Youth, and Families (BCYF). She provides support on the Forum on Promoting Children’s Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Health (The Children’s Forum) and leads the Collaboratives on Healthy Parenting in Primary Care; Preparing the Future Health Care Workforce, and Vital Signs for the Health and Wellbeing of Children and Families. She is also collaborating with members and sponsors on defining the Forum’s strategic priorities and defining Forum impact on research, policy, and practice. In addition, Ms. Tracey is developing communication products for targeted audiences at the state and
local levels and has interest in mapping stakeholder relationships across the education and health sectors to effect systems-level change. Since 2013, Ms. Tracey has worked on a number of projects in BCYF related to early childhood education, workforce education and development, and health policy, including the consensus report Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation. She also led the subsequent expert meeting on the Funding Landscape for Preschool with a Highly Qualified Workforce and provided support at the outset of the study on Financing Early Care and Education with a Highly Qualified Workforce. Ms. Tracey received her M.A. in international education from New York University in 2011, and has experience as a teacher, collaborator, writer, designer, and student.
MARCY WHITEBOOK is founder and director of the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment in the Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, University of California, Berkeley. Her research focuses on compensation, work environments, and appropriate and accessible professional preparation for the early care and education (ECE) workforce, with specific attention to how these issues relate to children’s development and learning. Her most recent reports document the current status of the ECE workforce and analyze how federal and state workforce policies serve to support or undermine effective teaching, contribute to inequitable services for children and families, and often pose risks to the personal and familial well-being of the ECE workforce. Previously she was the founding executive director of the Center for the Child Care Workforce, which she began in 1977 as the Child Care Employee Project. Dr. Whitebook has led several large-scale ECE research projects, including the 1989 National Child Care Staffing Study. She holds a B.A. in religious studies and an M.A. in early childhood education from the University of California, Berkeley; her Ph.D. in development studies in education is from the University of California, Los Angeles.