National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes—Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24992.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes—Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24992.
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Page iii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes—Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24992.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes—Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24992.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes—Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24992.
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Env Lawre Debo Leigh Louis New Y David Deva Micha Alan Rutge New New B ACKNOWEDG This work was with the Feder which is admin Medicine. COPYRIGHT I Authors herein persons who o Cooperative R purposes. Per FMCSA, FRA, product, metho uses will give a request permis DISCLAIMER The opinions a are not necess or the program The informatio edited by TRB ironme Implem nce Pesesk rah Matherly Lane Berger ork, NY Aimen Deka el Smart M. Voorhees rs, The Stat Jersey runswick, N MENT sponsored by t al Highway Adm istered by the T NFORMATION are responsibl wn the copyrigh esearch Progra mission is give FTA, Office of d, or practice. ppropriate ack sion from CRP nd conclusions arily those of th sponsors. n contained in t . W ntal Jus entatio y Transporta e University J he American As inistration, and ransportation R e for the authen t to any previo ms (CRP) gran n with the unde the Assistant Se It is expected th nowledgment o . expressed or im e Transportatio his document w NC eb-Only tice An n or Ra tion Center of sociation of St was conducted esearch Board ticity of their m usly published o ts permission to rstanding that n cretary for Res at those reprod f the source of a plied in this re n Research Bo as taken direct HR Docume alyses te Chan ate Highway an in the Nationa (TRB) of the N aterials and for r copyrighted m reproduce ma one of the mate earch and Tec ucing the mate ny reprinted or port are those o ard; the Nation ly from the subm P nt 237 When C ges—F Asha We San Jose San Jose Bruce Br PRR Seattle, W Anne Mo Anne Mo Columbi d Transportatio l Cooperative H ational Academ obtaining writte aterial used he terial in this pub rial will be used hnology, PHMS rial in this docu reproduced ma f the researche al Academies o ission of the a onside inal Re instein Agra State Unive , CA own A rris rris & Assoc a, SC Final Report n Officials (AAS ighway Resea ies of Science n permissions f rein. lication for clas to imply TRB, A, or TDC endo ment for educat terial. For oth rs who perform f Sciences, Eng uthor(s). This m ring To port wal rsity iates, LLC for NCHRP Pro Submitted Ja HTO), in coop rch Program (N s, Engineering, rom publishers sroom and not AASHTO, FAA rsement of a p ional and not-fo er uses of the m ed the researc ineering, and M aterial has not ll ject 08-100 nuary 2017 eration CHRP), and or -for-profit , FHWA, articular r-profit aterial, h. They edicine; been

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

NCHRP 08‐100: Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes  Page i  Contents Acronym List ................................................................................................................................................ iii  1.0 Objectives of the Research ..................................................................................................................... 1  2.0 Research Methodology .......................................................................................................................... 3  3.0 Research Results ..................................................................................................................................... 6  3.1  Summary of Literature Review ............................................................................................................ 6  3.1.1  Methodology ................................................................................................................................ 6  3.1.2  Articles Reviewed for Literature Review ...................................................................................... 7  3.1.3  Observations and Preliminary Findings ...................................................................................... 36  3.2  Summary of Planning and Environmental Document Review .......................................................... 65  3.2.1  Geographic Distribution ............................................................................................................. 81  3.2.2  Pricing Arrangements ................................................................................................................. 81  3.2.3  Transponder Discussion .............................................................................................................. 81  3.2.4  Identification of Affected Populations, Threshold Criteria, and Geographic Boundaries .......... 81  3.2.5  Public Involvement Referenced .................................................................................................. 83  3.2.6  Surveys, Focus Groups, and Interviews ...................................................................................... 84  3.2.7  Data Sources, Analytical Methods, and Regional Travel‐Related Measures and Metrics .......... 84  3.2.8  Traffic Diversion .......................................................................................................................... 85  3.2.9  Evaluation of EJ Findings ............................................................................................................ 85  3.2.10 Assessment ................................................................................................................................. 85  3.3  State‐of‐Practice Interviews: Perceived Gaps and Needs for Guidance ........................................... 87  3.3.1  Theme #1: More Federal Guidance ............................................................................................ 87  3.3.2  Theme #2: Continuing Challenges with Inclusive Public Outreach ............................................ 88  3.3.3  Theme 3: Need for Modeling and Analytical Tools that Can Address EJ and Equity .................. 88  3.3.4  Theme #4: Convey How Pricing Can Support More Equitable Transportation Systems ............ 89  3.3.5  Theme #5: Database of Existing Analysis and Mitigation Strategies .......................................... 89  3.4  Summary of Travel Behavior and Attitudes Survey Analysis ............................................................ 90  4.0 Research Findings Relevant to Developing the Toolbox ...................................................................... 94  4.1  Engage in Meaningful Public Involvement with Low‐Income and Minority Populations ................. 97  4.1.1  Interviews Theme #2: Continuing Challenges with Inclusive Public Outreach: ......................... 97  4.1.2  Interviews Theme #5: Database of Existing Analysis and Mitigation Strategies ........................ 97  4.2  Define Appropriate Study Areas – Size, Level or Detail and Related Demographic Characteristics . 98  4.2.1  Interview Theme 3: Need for Modeling and Analytical Tools that Can Address EJ and Equity . 98  4.3  Evaluate Travel Patterns, with and Without the Project, by Income Level ...................................... 99  4.3.1  Interview Theme 3: Need for Modeling and Analytical Tools that Can Address EJ and Equity: 99 

NCHRP 08‐100: Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes  Page ii  4.4  Evaluate Impacts including Disproportionate Impacts ..................................................................... 99  4.4.1  Interviews Theme #1: More Federal Guidance: ......................................................................... 99  4.4.2  Interviews Theme #5: Database of Existing Analysis and Mitigation Strategies ........................ 99  4.5  Identify Potential Mitigation Measures .......................................................................................... 100  4.5.1  Interviews Theme #5: Database of Existing Analysis and Mitigation Strategies ...................... 100  4.6  Document the Process and Findings ............................................................................................... 100  4.7  Implement Ongoing Monitoring ..................................................................................................... 101  5.0  Identified Needs for Future Research ................................................................................................ 102  Appendix A:    Literature Review Summaries  Appendix B:    Content Review Summaries: Planning and Project Level Technical Report Assessment:  Treatment of EJ Considerations  Appendix C:    State‐of‐the‐Practice Interviews: Protocols and Questionnaire   Appendix D:    Summary Table of Content Review of Travel Finding Surveys   Appendix E:    Bibliography 

NCHRP 08‐100: Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes  Page iii  Acronym List CBCP – Credit‐Based Congestion Pricing  CRD – Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) program  EJ – Environmental Justice   ELD – Express Lanes Demonstration Program  ETC – electronic toll collection   FAIR – Fast & Intertwined Regular Lanes    GAO – Government Accountability Office  HOT – high‐occupancy tolling   HOV – high‐occupancy vehicle  LEP – Limited English Proficiency   MPO – Metropolitan Planning Organization  MTP – Metropolitan Transportation Plan  NCTCOG – North Central Texas Council of Governments   NEPA – National Environmental Policy Act  O&D – origin and destination  TAZ – Traffic Analysis Zone  TxDOT – Texas Department of Transportation  UPA – Urban Partnership Agreement program  VMT – vehicle miles traveled  VPPP – Value Pricing Pilot Program.

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 237: Environmental Justice Analyses When Considering Toll Implementation or Rate Changes—Final Report presents information gathered in the development of NCHRP Research Report 860: Assessing the Environmental Justice Effects of Toll Implementation or Rate Changes: Guidebook and Toolbox. This web-only document summarizes the technical research and presents the technical memorandum that documents the literature, existing case studies, resource documents, and other reports compiled.

NCHRP Research Report 860 provides a set of tools to enable analysis and measurement of the impacts of toll pricing, toll payment, toll collection technology, and other aspects of toll implementation and rate changes on low-income and minority populations.

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