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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24993.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION  Testing at the Speed of Light—The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure Committee on Space Radiation Effects Testing Infrastructure for the U.S. Space Program National Materials and Manufacturing Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY–SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study was supported by Contract No. DE-EP0000026/DE-DT0012373 with the Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/24993 Cover: This publication is available in limited quantities from National Materials and Manufacturing Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 nmmb@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmmb Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Testing at the Speed of Light: The State of U.S. Electronic Parts Radiation Testing Infrastructure. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24993. PREPUBLICATION COPY–SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY–SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY–SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

COMMITTEE ON SPACE RADIATION EFFECTS TESTING INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE U.S. SPACE PROGRAM BHAVYA LAL, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute, Co-Chair PAUL D. NIELSEN, NAE,1 Software Engineering Institute, Co-Chair ARDEN L. BEMENT, JR., NAE, Global Policy Research Institute JAMES BURCH, Southwest Research Institute HENRY B. GARRETT, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Retired) JAMES HARRIS, NAE, Stanford University SANDRA L. HYLAND, Northrop Grumman Corporation LINDA KATEHI, NAE, University of California, Davis RAY LADBURY, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center JOE MAZUR, Aerospace Corporation LEONARD ROCKETT, Technology Metrics, LLC RON TURNER, Analytic Services Staff DWAYNE A. DAY, Senior Program Officer, Study Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant HENRY KO, Research Associate 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. PREPUBLICATION COPY–SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD CELIA I. MERZBACHER, Semiconductor Research Corporation, Chair RODNEY C. ADKINS, NAE,2 IBM Corporate Strategy JIM C.I. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University, North Carolina State University LEO CHRISTODOULOU, Boeing, Inc. TOM DONNELLAN, Pennsylvania State University ERICA FUCHS, Carnegie Mellon University STEPHEN FORREST, NAS3/NAE, University of Michigan JACK HU, NAE, University of Michigan THERESA KOTANCHECK, Evolved Analytics LLC DAVID LARBALESTIER, NAE, Florida State University ROBERT MILLER, IBM Almaden Research Center EDWARD MORRIS, National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining, America Makes: The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS, NAE/NAM,4 University of Texas, Austin TRESA POLLOCK, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara F. STAN SETTLES, NAE, University of Southern California HAYDN G. WADLEY, University of Virginia BEN WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology STEVE ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Staff JAMES LANCASTER, Acting Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant HENRY KO, Research Assistant 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 3 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 4 Member, National Academy of Medicine. PREPUBLICATION COPY–SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Preface In fall 2016, the Department of Energy, with NASA and U.S. Air Force support, asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to undertake a study on the testing facilities in the United States for radiation hardened electronics for spacecraft. The statement of task is included as Appendix A. The Committee on Space Radiation Effects Testing Infrastructure for the U.S. Space Program met four times, in March, May, August, and October, and produced this report which entered review in November 2017. PREPUBLICATION COPY–SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Scott Anderson, Lockheed Martin, Steven J. Battel, NAE,1 Battel Engineering, Ethan Cascio, Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Henry L. Clark, Texas A&M University, Jeff Hopkins, Astrobotic, Barbara Jacak, NAS,2 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Sam Kayali, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, John Mather, NAS, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Larry Phair, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Heather Quinn, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Michael Sivertz, Brookhaven National Laboratory, NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Julia M. Phillips, NAE, Sandia National Laboratories (retired). She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY–SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 9 2 THE SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON ELECTRONICS 12 3 CURRENT STATE OF SEE HARDNESS ASSURANCE AND INFRASTRUCTURE 21 4 FUTURE INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS 46 5 A PATH TOWARD THE FUTURE 53 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 63 B Single Event Effects Testing Facilities in the United States 64 C Acronyms 66 D Sources for Further Reading 69 E Committee and Staff Biographies 71 PREPUBLICATION COPY–SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION xi

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Spacecraft depend on electronic components that must perform reliably over missions measured in years and decades. Space radiation is a primary source of degradation, reliability issues, and potentially failure for these electronic components. Although simulation and modeling are valuable for understanding the radiation risk to microelectronics, there is no substitute for testing, and an increased use of commercial-off-the- shelf parts in spacecraft may actually increase requirements for testing, as opposed to simulation and modeling.

Testing at the Speed of Light evaluates the nation’s current capabilities and future needs for testing the effects of space radiation on microelectronics to ensure mission success and makes recommendations on how to provide effective stewardship of the necessary radiation test infrastructure for the foreseeable future.

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