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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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190 SEXUAL HARASSMENT OF WOMEN Anonymous (1991). Sexual harassment: A female counseling student’s experience. Journal of Coun- seling and Development, 69, 502–506. Antecol, H., and Cobb-Clark, D. (2003). Does sexual harassment training change attitudes? A view from the federal level. Social Science Quarterly, 84(4), 826–842. Armstrong, M. A., and Jovanovic, J. (2015). Starting at the crossroads: Intersectional approaches to institutionally supporting underrepresented minority women STEM faculty. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 21(2). Ash, A. S., Carr, P. L., Goldstein, R., and Friedman, R. H. (2004). Compensation and advancement of women in academic medicine: Is there equity? Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(3), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2004.09.012. Ashburn-Nardo, L, Morris, K.A., Goodwin, S.A. (2008). The Confronting Prejudiced Responses (CPR) Model: Applying CPR in organizations. Academy of Management Learning & Educa- tion, 7(3), 332–342. Association for Title IX Administrators, Statement of Ethics and Title IX Coordinators Competencies 5 (2012), Retrieved from https://atixa.org/. Ayres, I., and Unkovic, C. (2012). Faculty Scholarship Series. Paper 4741. http://digitalcommons. law.yale.edu/fss_papers/4741. Bacharach, S. B., Bamberger, P. A., and McKinney, V. M. (2007). Harassing under the influence: The prevalence of male heavy drinking, the embeddedness of permissive workplace drinking norms, and the gender harassment of female coworkers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 232–250. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.12.3.232. Backhouse, C., and Cohen, L. (1978). The secret oppression: Sexual harassment of working women. Macmillan of Canada. Baker, C. N. (2008). The women’s movement against sexual harassment. Cambridge University Press. Baldwin, T. T., and Ford, J. K. (1988). Transfer of training: A review and directions for future re- search. Personnel Psychology, 41(1), 63–105. Baldwin Jr., D. C., Daugherty, S. R., and Rowley, B. D. (1996). Residents’ and medical students’ reports of sexual harassment and discrimination. Academic Medicine, 71(10), S25–7. Banakar, R., and Travers, M. eds. (2005). Theory and Method in Socio-Legal Research. Hart Publishing. Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 248–287. Banerjee, D., and Pawley, A. L. (2013). Gender and promotion: How do science, technology, engi- neering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty members survive a foggy climate? Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 19(4). Banyard, V. L. (2015). Toward the Next Generation of Bystander Prevention of Sexual and Rela- tionship Violence: Action Coils to Engage Communities. New York: Springer International Publishing. Banyard, V. L., Moynihan, M. M., and Plante, E. G. (2007). Sexual violence prevention through bystander education: An experimental evaluation. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(4), 463–481. Banyard, V. L., Plante, E. G., and Moynihan, M. M. (2004). Bystander education: Bringing a broader community perspective to sexual violence prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1), 61–79. Barickman, R., Paludi, M., and Rabinowitz, V. C. (1992). Sexual harassment of students: Victims of the college experience. Critical Issues in Victimology: International Perspectives, 153–165. Barling, J. (1996). The prediction, experience, and consequences of workplace violence. Violence on the Job: Identifying Risks and Developing Solutions, 2949. Barling, J., Dekker, I., Loughlin, C. A., Kevin Kelloway, E., Fullagar, C., and Johnson, D. (1996). Prediction and replication of the organizational and personal consequences of workplace sexual harassment. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11(5), 4–25. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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192 SEXUAL HARASSMENT OF WOMEN Bumiller, K. (1992). The Civil Rights Society: The Social Construction of Victims. JHU Press. Buzzelli, D. E. (1993). The definition of misconduct in science: A view from NSF. Science, 259(5095), 584–585. Cady, S. H., and Valentine, J. (1999). Team innovation and perceptions of consideration: What dif- ference does diversity make?. Small Group Research, 30(6), 730–750. Cahill, M. (2001). Social Construction of Sexual Harassment Law (No. 2895). Mathematica Policy Research. Calabrese, A. (2015). Liberalism’s disease: Civility above justice. European Journal of Communica- tion, 30(5), 539–553. Cammaert, L. P. (1985). How widespread is sexual harassment on campus? International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8(4), 388-397. Cantalupo, N. C., and W. Kidder. (2017). A systematic look at a serial problem: Sexual harassment of students by university faculty (May 20, 2017). Utah Law Review, forthcoming. https://ssrn. com/abstract=2971447. Cantalupo, N. C., and Kidder, W. C., Mapping the Title IX iceberg: Sexual harassment (mostly) in graduate school by college faculty, Journal of Legal Education, 66(4) (Summer 2017). Cantor, D., Fisher, B., Chibnall, S. H., Bruce, C., Townsend, R., Thomas, G., and Lee, H. (2015). Report on the AAU Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct. Caplan, P. J. (1993). Lifting a Ton of Feathers: A Woman’s Guide for Surviving in the Academic World. University of Toronto Press. Carbado, D. W. (2013). Colorblind intersectionality. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 38(4), 811–845. Carnes, M., Devine, P. G., Isaac, C., Manwell, L. B., Ford, C. E., Byars-Winston, A., Fine, E., and Sheridan, J. (2012). Promoting institutional change through bias literacy. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 5(2), 63–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028128. Carnes, M., Devine, P. G., Manwell, L. B., Byars-Winston, A., Fine, E., Ford, C. E., Forscher, P., et al. (2015). The effect of an intervention to break the gender bias habit for faculty at one institu- tion: A cluster randomized, controlled trial. Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 90(2), 221–230. http://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000552. Chan, D.K.S., Tang, C.S.-K, and Chan, Wai. (1999). Sexual harassment: A preliminary analysis of its effects on Hong Kong Chinese women in the workplace and academia. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, 661–672. Chan, D. K. S., Lam, C. B., Chow, S. Y., and Cheung, S. F. (2008). Examining the job-related, psy- chological, and physical outcomes of workplace sexual harassment: A meta-analytic review. Psychology of Women Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.00451.x. CHERI (Cornell Higher Education Research Institute). n.d. CHERI Survey of Start-Up Costs and Laboratory Allocation Rules: Summary of Findings. Retrieved from https://www.ilr.cornell.edu/ cheri/surveys/cheri-survey-start-costs-and-laboratory-allocation-rules. Cheung, H. K., Goldberg, C. B., King, E. B., and Magley, V. J. (2017). Are They True to the Cause? Beliefs about organizational and unit commitment to sexual harassment awareness training. Group & Organization Management, 1059601117726677. Cho, S., Crenshaw, K. W., McCall, L. (2013). Toward a field of intersectionality studies: Theory, ap- plications, and praxis. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 38(4), 785–810. Chronicle of Higher Education (September 22, 2017). What does the end of Obama’s Title IX mean for colleges? https://www.chronicle.com/article/What-Does-the-End-of-Obama-s/241281. Clancy, K. B. H., Nelson, R. G., Rutherford, J. N., and Hinde, K. (2014). Survey of Academic Field Experiences (SAFE): Trainees report harassment and assault. PLoS ONE, 9(7), 1–9. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102172. Clancy, K. B. H., Lee, K. M. N., Rodgers, E. M., and Richey, C. (2017). Double jeopardy in as- tronomy and planetary science: Women of color face greater risks of gendered and racial harassment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JE005256. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Over the last few decades, research, activity, and funding has been devoted to improving the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine. In recent years the diversity of those participating in these fields, particularly the participation of women, has improved and there are significantly more women entering careers and studying science, engineering, and medicine than ever before. However, as women increasingly enter these fields they face biases and barriers and it is not surprising that sexual harassment is one of these barriers.

Over thirty years the incidence of sexual harassment in different industries has held steady, yet now more women are in the workforce and in academia, and in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine (as students and faculty) and so more women are experiencing sexual harassment as they work and learn. Over the last several years, revelations of the sexual harassment experienced by women in the workplace and in academic settings have raised urgent questions about the specific impact of this discriminatory behavior on women and the extent to which it is limiting their careers.

Sexual Harassment of Women explores the influence of sexual harassment in academia on the career advancement of women in the scientific, technical, and medical workforce. This report reviews the research on the extent to which women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine are victimized by sexual harassment and examines the existing information on the extent to which sexual harassment in academia negatively impacts the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women pursuing scientific, engineering, technical, and medical careers. It also identifies and analyzes the policies, strategies and practices that have been the most successful in preventing and addressing sexual harassment in these settings.

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