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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24994.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

SEXUAL HARASSMENT OF WOMEN: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Paula A. Johnson, Sheila E. Widnall, and Frazier F. Benya, Editors Committee on the Impacts of Sexual Harassment in Academia Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine Policy and Global Affairs A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and Na- tional Science Foundation (Award # OIA-164492), the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- ministration (Award #10003408), National Institutes of Health (Award #HHSN26300101), National Institute of Standards and Technology (Award # SB134117CQ0017/18105), Na- tional Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Award # WC133R-11-CQ-0048, TO#14), the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Henry Luce Foundation, and the Howard Hughes Medi- cal Institute. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309- International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309- Digital Object Identifier:  https://doi.org/10.17226/24994 Library of Congress Control Number:  2018941721 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. p Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https:// doi.org/10.17226/24994. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institu- tion to advise the nation on issues related to science and ­ echnology. Members t are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of ­ ciences to S advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engi­ eering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and n a ­ dvice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and ­ increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and ­ edicine M at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engi­eering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the n study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and ­ pinions o contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

COMMITTEE ON THE IMPACTS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN ACADEMIA PAULA A. JOHNSON (NAM) (Co-Chair), President, Wellesley College SHEILA E. WIDNALL (NAE) (Co-Chair), Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALICE M. AGOGINO (NAE), Roscoe and Elizabeth Hughes Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley NICHOLAS ARNOLD, Professor of Engineering, Santa Barbara City College GILDA A. BARABINO, Daniel and Frances Berg Professor, Dean of the Grove School of Engineering, the City College of New York KATHRYN B. H. CLANCY, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign LILIA CORTINA, Professor of Psychology, Women’s Studies, and Management and Organizations, University of Michigan AMY DODRILL, Vice President and General Manager, Trumpf Medical USA LISA GARCIA BEDOLLA, Professor, Graduate School of Education, and Director, Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley LIZA H. GOLD, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Georgetown University School of Medicine MELVIN GREER, Chief Data Scientist, Americas, Intel Corporation LINDA GUNDERSEN, Scientist Emeritus, U.S. Geological Survey ELIZABETH L. HILLMAN, President, Mills College TIMOTHY R.B. JOHNSON, (NAM), Arthur F. Thurnau Professor, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Professor of Women’s Studies, University of Michigan ANNA KIRKLAND, Arthur F. Thurnau Professor, Professor of Women’s Studies and Director, Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan EDWARD LAZOWSKA (NAE), Bill & Melinda Gates Chair, Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington VICKI MAGLEY, Professor of Psychology, University of Connecticut ROBERTA MARINELLI, Dean, College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University CONSTANCE A. MORELLA, Former Congresswoman JOHN B. PRYOR, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Psychology, Illinois State University BILLY M. WILLIAMS, Vice President for Ethics, Diversity, and Inclusion, American Geophysical Union v PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Study Staff FRAZIER BENYA, Study Director AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Senior Program Assistant (from May 2017) ASHLEY BEAR, Program Officer ALLISON BERGER, Senior Program Assistant (from September 2017) JAIME COLEMAN, Senior Program Assistant (November 2016 to December 2017) ADRIANA COUREMBIS, Financial Officer FRED LESTINA, Senior Program Assistant (from December 2017) MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Program Officer IRENE NGUN, Research Associate THOMAS RUDIN, Director, Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine Fellows ALEX HELMAN, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (January 2018 to April 2018) KELLYANN JONES-JAMTGAARD, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (January 2017 to April 2017) vi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE JOAN WENNSTROM BENNETT (Current Chair), Distinguished Professor of Plant Biology and Pathology, Associate Vice President in the Office for Promotion of Women in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics, Rutgers University (from January 2018) RITA R. COLWELL (Past Chair), Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland, College Park, and Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (until December 2017) ALICE M. AGOGINO, Roscoe and Elizabeth Hughes Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (until December 2017) CRISTINA H. AMON, Dean and Alumni Professor of Bioengineering, University of Toronto, Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering NANCY ANDREWS, Dean of the Duke University School of Medicine and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs, and Nanaline H. Duke Professor of Pediatrics and Professor of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University JOAN W. BENNETT, Distinguished Professor, Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, and Associate Vice President, Office for Promotion of Women in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics, Rutgers University MAY BERENBAUM, Professor and Head of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (from January 2018) EMERY N. BROWN, Taplin Professor of Medical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Warren M. Zapol Professor of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital ANA MARI CAUCE, President, University of Washington (from January 2018) JENNIFER T. CHAYES, Technical Fellow and Managing Director of Microsoft Research New England, Microsoft Research New York City, and Microsoft Research Maluuba, Montreal (until December 2017) VALERIE CONN, Executive Director, Science Philanthropy Alliance (from January 2018) MACHI DILWORTH, Vice President, Gender Equality and Human Resource Development, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (from January 2018) PAULA T. HAMMOND, David H. Koch Professor of Engineering, Department Head, Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology EVELYNN M. HAMMONDS, Barbara Gutmann Rosenkrantz Professor of the History of Science; Professor of African and African American Studies; Chair, Department of the History of Science, Harvard University vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

JANE E. HENNEY, Home Secretary, National Academy of Medicine (from May 2017) HILARY LAPIN-SCOTT, Senior Pro-Vice Chancellor, Swansea University, United Kingdom (from January 2018) ED LAZOWSKA, Bill & Melinda Gates Chair, Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Home Secretary, National Academy of Engineering (from May 2017) VIVIAN W. PINN, Senior Scientist Emerita, Fogarty International Center; and Former Director, Office of Research on Women’s Health (Retired), National Institutes of Health (until December 2017) VALERIE TAYLOR, Director, Mathematics and Computer Science Division, U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory SUSAN R. WESSLER, Neil A. and Rochelle A. Campbell Presidential Chair for Innovation in Science Education, University of California, Riverside SHELDON WEINBAUM, CUNY Distinguished Professor Emeritus, the City College of the City University of New York Committee Staff AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Senior Program Assistant (from May 2017) ASHLEY BEAR, Program Officer LIDA BENINSON, Program Officer FRAZIER BENYA, Program Officer ALLISON BERGER, Senior Program Assistant (from September 2017) JAIME COLMAN, Senior Program Assistant (November 2016 to December 2017) MARIA DAHLBERG, Program Officer LEIGH JACKSON, Senior Program Officer BARBARA NATALIZIO, Program Officer (from September 2017) IRENE NGUN, Research Associate LAYNE SCHERER, Program Officer THOMAS RUDIN, Director viii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Preface Throughout our careers we have worked to encourage women to pursue their interests and capabilities in science, engineering, and medicine. And we are delighted with the continual increase in the percentage of women in these fields. We have also worked to ensure a welcoming and safe environment in academia for women students, faculty, and staff. We believe that universities have a spe- cial responsibility to provide a welcoming and effective environment for women students. We believe that this report focuses on the issues that must be addressed for our communities to take the next step. Preventing and effectively addressing sexual harassment of women in col- leges and universities has remained a challenge for decades, but over that time a strong research base has been developed that reveals the true nature of sexual harassment and its impacts on women’s careers—and also reveals what can be done to successfully address it. The Committee on Women in Science, Engineer- ing, and Medicine developed the idea for this study on the Impacts of Sexual Harassment in Academia more than 2 years ago, and proposed that a special study committee be appointed to examine the research on sexual harassment to determine what could be done to prevent it in academic settings in science, engineering, and medicine. With this charge, our study committee of distinguished scientists, engineers, and physicians, and experts in sexual harassment research, legal studies, and psychology held a series of workshops and undertook a deep analysis of the literature to gather information for our study and to simultaneously help inform the broader community about the problem of sexual harassment. Over the course of the study, which was launched in late 2016, the topic rose in prominence in the national discourse, most significantly with the rise of the #MeToo movement, ix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

x PREFACE which dramatically increased awareness of how many women have experienced sexual harassment and what these sexual harassment experiences looked like in the real world. Through our work it became clear that sexual harassment is a serious issue for women at all levels in academic science, engineering, and medicine, and that these fields share characteristics that create conditions that make harassment more likely to occur. Such environments can silence and limit the career opportunities in the short and long terms for both the targets of the sexual harassment and the bystanders—with at least some leaving their field. The consequence of this is a significant and costly loss of talent in science, engineering, and medicine. However, we are encouraged by the research that suggests that the most potent predictor of sexual harassment is organizational climate—the degree to which those in the organization perceive that sexual harassment is or is not tolerated. This means that institutions can take concrete steps to reduce sexual harassment by making systemwide changes that demonstrate how seriously they take this issue and that reflect that they are listening to those who courageously speak up to report their sexual harassment experiences. Because of the strength of the research, we are optimistic that academic institutions (campuswide as well as within schools, programs, and departments) can meet the challenge of reducing and preventing sexual harassment, and can even lead other industry sectors in addressing this issue. Ultimately, success in addressing this challenge will require committed leadership, hard work, initiative, and financial investment from administrators at every level within academia, as well as support, cooperation, and work from all members of our nation’s college campuses—students, faculty, and staff. We call on our fellow leaders and all the members of our campus communities to take on the responsibility for promot- ing a civil and respectful environment that prevents sexual harassment from occurring and creates a healthier environment for all people working in science, engineering, and medicine—and indeed in all academic disciplines. Eliminating sexual harassment is everyone’s responsibility, and the time to act is now. We believe this report offers strong guidance for such action. Paula A. Johnson and Sheila Widnall, Co-Chairs Committee on the Impacts of Sexual Harassment in Academia PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Acknowledgments The Committee on the Impacts of Sexual Harassment in Academia would like to acknowledge and thank the many people who made this study possible. First, we would like to acknowledge the support of the standing National Acad- emies Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine, which of- fered oversight for the study. Secondly, we would like to acknowledge that this report was informed by the efforts of the many people who shared their data, in- sights, ideas, enthusiasm, and expertise with the committee. We would especially like to thank the following people who presented at the committee’s meetings and information-gathering workshops: • Katherine Alatalo, Astronomy Allies • Ann M. Arvin, Stanford University. • Shereen Bingham, University of Nebraska • Enobong (Anna) Branch, University of Massachusetts Amherst • Adam Christensen, Pennsylvania State University System • Robert Cosgrove, National Science Foundation • Frank Dobbin, Harvard University • Heather Flewelling, Astronomy Allies • Jennifer Freyd, University of Oregon • Susan J. Garfinkel, Department of Health and Human Services • Miriam Goldstein, Legislative Director for Representative Jackie Speier’s Office • Joanna Grossman, Southern Methodist University • C. K. Gunsalus, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign • Anita Hill, Brandeis University xi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS • Myra Hindus, Creative Diversity Solutions • Saira Jesrai, LRN Corporation • Jackson Katz, Mentors in Violence Prevention Program • Eden King, George Mason University • Janet Koster, Association for Women in Science • Diana Lautenberger, Association of American Medical Colleges • Claire Mackay Dickey, Graduate and Professional Student Title IX Advisory Board, Yale University • Sherry Marts, Smarts Consulting • Sharon Masling, U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission • Chris McEntee, American Geophysical Union • David Mogk, Montana State University • Priya Moni, Graduate Community Fellow in Violence Prevention and Response, Massachusetts Institute of Technology • Dara Norman, Chair of the Ethics Task Force, American Astronomical Society • Diane O’Dowd, University of California, Irvine • Jessica Polka, Future of Research and Whitehead Institute • Sharyn Potter, University of New Hampshire • Fran Sepler, Sepler & Associates • Kate M. Sleeth, National Postdoctoral Association • Justine Tinkler, University of Georgia • Rose Marie Ward, Miami University The committee would like to acknowledge the work of the consultants who have contributed to the report: Dr. Monique Clinton-Sherrod and Tasseli McKay for their work on the Qualitative Study of Sexual Harassment in Sciences, En- gineering, and Medicine; Dr. Kevin Swartout for his work on the University of Texas System ARC3 Campus Climate Survey; and Dr. Shoshana Grossbard and Dr. Elena Stancanelli for their literature review on the economic costs of sexual harassment. The committee would also like to acknowledge the University of Texas System, the Pennsylvania State University System, and Miami University for analyzing and presenting their campus climate data to help inform the work of this committee. Further, the committee would like thank the sponsors that made this study possible. The National Science Foundation was the major funder of the study. The Henry Luce Foundation funded the initial project workshop and also pro- vided funding for the study. The National Institutes of Health, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and National Institute of Standards and Technology also sponsored the study. Next, we thank the reviewers of the report. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evi- dence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Ana Mari Cauce, University of Washington; Michele Decker, Johns Hopkins University; Lauren Edelman, University of California, Berkeley; Julie Freischlag, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center; Nancy Gertner, Harvard Law School; Brenda Manuel, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Lisa Nishii, Cornell University; Bernice Pescosolido, Indiana University; Rafael Reif, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Michael Stryker, University of California, San Francisco; and Kathryn Yount, Emory University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recom- mendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Susan Curry, The University of Iowa and Enriqueta Bond, Burroughs Wellcome Fund (retired). They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Finally, we thank the staff of this project for their valuable leadership, input, and support. Specifically, we would like to thank Program Officer and Study Director Frazier Benya; Program Officer Ashley Bear; Program Officer Maria Dahlberg; Research Associate Irene Ngun; CWSEM Director Tom Rudin; Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Fellows Alex Helman and Kellyann Jones-Jamtgaard; Senior Program Assistant Austen Applegate; Senior Program Assistant Allison Berger; and Senior Program Assistant Jaime Colman. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 13 Statement of Task, 17 Defining the Population, 18 Work of the Study Committee, 19 Commissioned Work, 20 The Organization of the Report, 21 2 SEXUAL HARASSMENT RESEARCH 23 Definitions of Key Terms, 23 Research Methods Used to Examine Sexual Harassment, 30 Prevalence of Sexual Harassment, 39 Characteristics of Sexual Harassment and Sexually Harassing Environments, 41 Findings and Conclusions, 48 3 SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN ACADEMIC SCIENCES, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE 51 The Academic Environment in Science, Engineering, and Medicine, 52 Sexual Harassment of Faculty and Staff, 56 Sexual Harassment of Trainees, 58 Sexual Harassment within the Sciences, 62 Sexual Harassment within Medicine, 63 Findings and Conclusions, 63 xv PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xvi CONTENTS 4 JOB AND HEALTH OUTCOMES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND HOW WOMEN RESPOND TO SEXUAL HARASSMENT 67 Outcomes of Sexual Harassment for Individuals, 68 Outcomes of Sexual Harassment for Witnesses and Workgroups, 78 Coping with Sexual Harassment: Why Women Are Not Likely to Report, 79 Outcomes of Sexual Harassment in Academic Science, Engineering, and Medicine, 83 Findings and Conclusions, 90 5 LEGAL AND POLICY MECHANISMS FOR ADDRESSING SEXUAL HARASSMENT 93 Legal and Policy History, 93 The Legal Requirements of Title VII and Title IX, 96 The Implementation of the Legal Requirements in Academia, 99 The Implementation of the Legal Requirements by Federal Funding Agencies, 111 Sexual Harassment and Policies on Research Misconduct and Research Integrity, 114 Findings and Conclusions, 118 6 CHANGING THE CULTURE AND CLIMATE IN HIGHER EDUCATION 121 Creating a Diverse, Inclusive, and Respectful Environment, 124 Diffusing the Power Structure and Reducing Isolation, 134 Supportive Environments for Targets, 137 Improving Transparency and Accountability, 143 Strong, Diverse, and Accountable Leadership, 147 Effective Sexual Harassment Training, 150 Measuring Progress and Incentivizing Change, 154 The Role of Professional Societies and Organizations that Facilitate Research and Training, 160 Findings and Conclusions, 163 7 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 169 Findings and Conclusions, 170 Recommendations, 180 REFERENCES 189 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

CONTENTS xvii APPENDIXES A Committee Biographical Information 211 B Committee Meeting and Workshop Agendas 221 C Qualitative Study of Sexual Harassment in Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 229 D Report on the University of Texas System Campus Climate Survey 273 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Boxes, Figures, and Tables BOXES 2-1 Summary of Key Terms, 29 5-1 How NASA, NSF, and NIH Repond to Allegations of Sexual Harassment Among Grantee Institutions, 112 FIGURES 2-1 The relationship between discriminatory behaviors, sex/gender discrimination, sexual harassment, gender harassment, quid pro quo sexual harassment, and hostile environment harassment, 26 2-2 The public consciousness of sexual harassment and specific sexually harassing behaviors, 32 3-1  Percentage of types of sexual harassment experiences among female university employees, 57 3-2 Faculty/staff-on-student sexual harassment incidence rates for female students by type/level of student and by type of sexual harassment (Penn State University System), 60 3-3 Faculty/staff-on-student sexual harassment incidence rates for female students, by student major and by type of sexual harassment (University of Texas System), 60 4-1 Visual Representation of Antecedents and Outcomes from Sexual Harassment, 68 xix PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

xx BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES D-1 Faculty/staff sexual harassment incidence for female students by student major (UT Data), 276 D-2 Faculty/staff sexual harassment incidence for female students by student major (Penn State Data), 277 D-3 Faculty/staff sexual harassment incidence for male students by student major (UT Data), 278 D-4 Faculty/staff sexual harassment incidence for male students by student major (Penn State Data), 278 D-5 through D-7 Health and safety outcomes by student major and faculty/ staff sexual harassment status, 280 D-8 Academic engagement for female engineering majors as a function of faculty/staff sexual harassment experience, 281 D-9 Academic engagement for female medical students as a function of faculty/staff sexual harassment experience, 281 D-10 Academic engagement for female science majors as a function of faculty/ staff sexual harassment experience, 282 D-11 Academic engagement for female non-STEM majors as a function of faculty/staff sexual harassment experience, 283 D-12 Rates of faculty/staff sexual harassment across all academic majors (only female students), 285 D-13 Sexual harassment rates among female STEM Majors by dichotomous race/ethnicity, 285 D-14 Perceptions of campus safety among female STEM students by dichotomous race/ethnicity, 286 TABLES 2-1 Rate of active duty military women experiencing sexually harassing behaviors at least once in the last 12 months as measured in 2000, 2006, 2010, 2012, 41 2-2 Rate of active duty military women and men experiencing sexually harassing behaviors at least once in the last 12 months, 42 D-1 Overall faculty/staff sexual harassment incidence by gender identity (% of row total), 275 D-2 Overall faculty/staff sexual harassment incidence by student status (% of row total), 275 D-3 Cell sizes for each racial/ethnic categorization by academic major (only female students), 284 PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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Over the last few decades, research, activity, and funding has been devoted to improving the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine. In recent years the diversity of those participating in these fields, particularly the participation of women, has improved and there are significantly more women entering careers and studying science, engineering, and medicine than ever before. However, as women increasingly enter these fields they face biases and barriers and it is not surprising that sexual harassment is one of these barriers.

Over thirty years the incidence of sexual harassment in different industries has held steady, yet now more women are in the workforce and in academia, and in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine (as students and faculty) and so more women are experiencing sexual harassment as they work and learn. Over the last several years, revelations of the sexual harassment experienced by women in the workplace and in academic settings have raised urgent questions about the specific impact of this discriminatory behavior on women and the extent to which it is limiting their careers.

Sexual Harassment of Women explores the influence of sexual harassment in academia on the career advancement of women in the scientific, technical, and medical workforce. This report reviews the research on the extent to which women in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine are victimized by sexual harassment and examines the existing information on the extent to which sexual harassment in academia negatively impacts the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women pursuing scientific, engineering, technical, and medical careers. It also identifies and analyzes the policies, strategies and practices that have been the most successful in preventing and addressing sexual harassment in these settings.

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