CONSIDERATIONS FOR UNMANNED
AERIAL SYSTEM INTEGRATION INTO
THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM
Norman Haller, Rapporteur
Board on Human-Systems Integration
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (#10003770). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-47145-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-47145-1
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25009
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25009.
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STEERING COMMITTEE ON HUMAN-AUTOMATION INTERACTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM INTEGRATION: A WORKSHOP
NANCY T. TIPPINS (Chair), CEB Valtera, Greenville, SC
DAVID R. ARTERBURN, Rotorcraft Systems Engineering and Simulation Center, University of Alabama, Huntsville
ELLEN J. BASS, College of Computing and Informatics, Drexel University
JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
MARY L. CUMMINGS, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University
DOUG DAVIS, Global UAS Strategic Initiatives, Northrop Corporation, Melbourne, FL
MICA R. ENDSLEY, SA Technologies, Mesa, AZ
R. JOHN HANSMAN, JR., Division of Humans and Automation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
CHRISTOPHER MILLER, Smart Information Flow Technologies, Minneapolis, MN
JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, Wyndrose Technical Group, Severna Park, MD
DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Study Director
ALAN ANGLEMAN, Senior Program Officer
KELLY ARRINGTON, Senior Program Assistant
BOARD ON HUMAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION
PASCALE CARAYON (Chair), College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison
JAMES BAGIAN (NAE/NAM), Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
ELLEN BASS, College of Computing and Informatics, Drexel University
DIANA BURLEY, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University
SARA J. CZAJA, Center on Aging, University of Miami
BARBARA DOSHER, School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine
FRANCIS (FRANK) T. DURSO, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology
ANDREW S. IMADA, A.S. Imada and Associates, Carmichael, CA
EDMOND ISRAELSKI, AbbVie, North Chicago, IL
NAJMEDIN MESHKATI, Sonny Astani Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Daniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, USC Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles
FREDERICK OSWALD, Department of Psychology, Rice University
KARL S. PISTER, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley
DAVID REMPEL, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
EMILIE ROTH, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Stanford, CA
WILLIAM J. STRICKLAND, HumRRO, Alexandria, VA
MATTHEW WEINGER, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
TOBY WARDEN, Board Director
AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD
ALAN H. EPSTEIN (Chair), Technology and Environment, Pratt & Whitney
ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL (Vice Chair), School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University
ARNOLD D. ALDRICH, Aerospace Consultant, Vienna, VA
BRIAN M. ARGROW, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder
STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering, Scottsdale, AZ
MEYER J. BENZAKEIN, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University
BRIAN J. CANTWELL, School of Engineering, Stanford University
EILEEN M. COLLINS, Space Presentations, LLC, San Antonio, TX
MICHAEL P. DELANEY, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Seattle, WA
KAREN FEIGH, College of Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
NICHOLAS D. LAPPOS, Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company, Stratford, CT
MARK J. LEWIS, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute, Washington, DC
VALERIE MANNING, Airbus, Toulouse, France
RICHARD MCKINNEY, RWMcKinney, LLC, Alexandria, VA
PARVIZ MOIN, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University
JOHN M. OLSON, Polaris Industries
ROBIE I. SAMANTA ROY, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD
AGAM N. SINHA, ANS Aviation International, LLC, Fairfax, VA
ALAN M. TITLE, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center
DAVID M. VAN WIE, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
IAN WAITZ, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
SHERRIE L. ZACHARIUS, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA
MICHAEL MOLONEY, Board Director
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Prior to 2012, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology had been primarily used by the military and hobbyists, but it has more recently transitioned to broader application, including commercial and scientific applications, as well as to expanded military use. These new uses encroach on existing structures for managing the nation’s airspace and present significant challenges to ensure that UASs are coordinated safely and suitably with existing manned aerial and air traffic management systems, particularly with the National Airspace System (NAS). Of particular concern is the interaction among human pilots, operators, or controllers and increasingly automated systems. Enhanced understanding of these interactions is essential to avoid unintended consequences, especially as new technologies emerge.
There are multiple projects, entities, and stakeholders examining the integration of UASs into the NAS. Although there is some coordination among the actors, for the most part, there is still a lack of clarity as to whether and how a comprehensive approach to ensure safe integration across a diverse and evolving landscape exists or would be developed. The workshop documented here was designed to identify the key issues and have experts discuss the human factors research needed to have a smooth transition of UASs into the NAS.
I wish to express my deep appreciation to the members of the steering committee for their diligent and dedicated contributions to developing and participating in the workshop in an expedited time frame. The diverse expertise and experience offered by the members were indispensable to the formulation of the individual sessions of the workshop as each session was designed and moderated by a steering committee member. I also wish to thank, on behalf of the entire committee, the staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, whose expertise and skill were absolutely essential to our meeting the charge from our sponsor.
This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Maria Picardi Kuffner, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Emilie M. Roth, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Stanford, California; David Woods, Department of Integrated Systems Engineering, Ohio State University. Although the reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by
William Strickland, HumRRO, and Chris Hendrickson, Carnegie Mellon University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.
Nancy Tippins, Chair
Steering Committee on Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration: A Workshop
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