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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

HUMAN-AUTOMATION INTERACTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM INTEGRATION INTO THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Norman Haller, Rapporteur Board on Human Systems-Integration Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (#10003770). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25009 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

STEERING COMMITTEE ON HUMAN-AUTOMATION INTERACTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM INTEGRATION: A WORKSHOP NANCY T. TIPPINS (Chair), CEB Valtera, Greenville, South Carolina DAVID R. ARTERBURN, Rotorcraft Systems Engineering and Simulation Center, University of Alabama, Huntsville ELLEN J. BASS, College of Computing and Informatics, Drexel University JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology MARY L. CUMMINGS, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University DOUG DAVIS, Global UAS Strategic Initiatives, Northrop Corporation, Melbourne, FL MICA R. ENDSLEY, SA Technologies, Mesa, Arizona R. JOHN HANSMAN, Jr., Division of Humans and Automation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology CHRISTOPHER MILLER, Smart Information Flow Technologies, Minneapolis, Minnesota JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, Wyndrose Technical Group, Severna Park, Maryland DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Study Director KELLY ARRINGTON, Senior Program Assistant v PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

BOARD ON HUMAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION PASCALE CARAYON (Chair), College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison JAMES BAGIAN (NAE/NAM), Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ELLEN BASS, College of Computing and Informatics, Drexel University DIANA BURLEY, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University SARA J. CZAJA, Center on Aging, University of Miami BARBARA DOSHER, School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine FRANCIS (FRANK), T. DURSO, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology ANDREW S. IMADA, A.S. Imada and Associates, Carmichael, California EDMOND ISRAELSKI, AbbVie, North Chicago, Illinois NAJMEDIN MESHKATI, Sonny Astani Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Daniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, USC Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles FREDERICK OSWALD, Department of Psychology, Rice University KARL S. PISTER, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley DAVID REMPEL, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco EMILIE ROTH, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Stanford, California WILLIAM J. STRICKLAND, HumRRO, Alexandria, Virginia MATTHEW WEINGER, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University TOBY M. WARDEN, Board Director vi PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD ALAN H. EPSTEIN (Chair), Technology and Environment, Pratt & Whitney ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL (Vice Chair), School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University ARNOLD D. ALDRICH, Aerospace Consultant, Vienna, Virginia BRIAN M. ARGROW, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering, Scottsdale, Arizona MEYER J. BENZAKEIN, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University BRIAN J. CANTWELL, School of Engineering, Stanford University EILEEN M. COLLINS, Space Presentations, LLC, San Antonio, Texas MICHAEL P. DELANEY, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Seattle, Washington KAREN FEIGH, College of Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology NICHOLAS D. LAPPOS, Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company, Stratford, Connecticut MARK J. LEWIS, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute, Washington, DC VALERIE MANNING, Airbus, Toulouse, France RICHARD MCKINNEY, RWMcKinney, LLC, Alexandria, Virginia PARVIZ MOIN, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University JOHN M. OLSON, Polaris Industries ROBIE I. SAMANTA ROY, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland AGAM N. SINHA, ANS Aviation International, LLC, Fairfax, Virginia ALAN M. TITLE, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center DAVID M. VAN WIE, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory IAN WAITZ, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SHERRIE L. ZACHARIUS, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California MICHAEL MOLONEY, Board Director vii PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

vi PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Preface Prior to 2012, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) technology had been primarily used by the military and hobbyists, but it has more recently transitioned to broader application, including commercial and scientific applications, as well as to expanded military use. These new uses encroach on existing structures for managing the nation’s airspace and present significant challenges to ensure that UASs are coordinated safely and suitably with existing manned aircraft and air traffic management systems, particularly with the National Airspace System (NAS). Of particular concern is the interaction between human pilots, operators, or controllers and increasingly automated systems. Enhanced understanding of these interactions is essential to avoid unintended consequences, especially as new technologies emerge. There are multiple projects, entities, and stakeholders examining the integration of UASs into the NAS. Although there is some coordination among the actors, for the most part, there is still a lack of clarity as to whether and how a comprehensive approach to ensure safe integration across a diverse and evolving landscape exists or would be developed. The workshop documented here was designed to identify the key issues and have experts discuss the human factors research needed to have a smooth transition of UASs into the NAS. I wish to express my deep appreciation to the members of the steering committee for their diligent and dedicated contributions to developing and participating in the workshop in an expedited time frame. The diverse expertise and experience offered by the members were indispensable to the formulation of the individual sessions of the workshop as each session was designed and moderated by a steering committee member. I also wish to thank, on behalf of the entire committee, the staff of the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, whose expertise and skill were absolutely essential to our meeting the charge from our sponsor. This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Maria Picardi Kuffner, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Emilie M. Roth, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Stanford, California; David Woods, Department of Integrated ix PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

x PREFACE Systems Engineering, The Ohio State University. Although the reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by William Strickland, HumRRO, and Chris Hendrickson, Carnegie Mellon University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. Nancy Tippins, Chair Steering Committee on Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration: A Workshop PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ISSUES FOR UASs AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES 4 3 THE REALITY OF FULL GROUND-CONTROL AUTOMATION 8 4 TRANSITION PLANNING FROM OLD TO NEW GROUND-CONTROL SYSTEMS 11 5 NEAR-TERM HUMAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION CHALLENGES WITH UAS AUTOMATION 15 6 KNOWLEDGE GAPS 17 7 DoD R&D EFFORTS IN GROUND-CONTROL SYSTEMS 20 8 MAN VS. MACHINE OR MAN + MACHINE? 24 9 CONSIDERATIONS FOR A REMOTE PILOT IN COMMAND 27 10 FINAL THOUGHTS 32 APPENDIXES A Workshop Participants 37 B Workshop Agenda 40 C Biographical Sketches, Steering Committee Members and Presenters 44 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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Prior to 2012, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) technology had been primarily used by the military and hobbyists, but it has more recently transitioned to broader application, including commercial and scientific applications, as well as to expanded military use. These new uses encroach on existing structures for managing the nation’s airspace and present significant challenges to ensure that UASs are coordinated safely and suitably with existing manned aircraft and air traffic management systems, particularly with the National Airspace System (NAS). Of particular concern is the interaction between human pilots, operators, or controllers and increasingly automated systems. Enhanced understanding of these interactions is essential to avoid unintended consequences, especially as new technologies emerge. In order to explore these issues, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine organized a 2-day workshop in January 2018. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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