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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
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HUMAN-AUTOMATION INTERACTION
CONSIDERATIONS FOR UNMANNED
AERIAL SYSTEM INTEGRATION INTO
THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM

Norman Haller, Rapporteur

Board on Human-Systems Integration
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

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This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (#10003770). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-47145-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-47145-1
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25009

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25009.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

STEERING COMMITTEE ON HUMAN-AUTOMATION INTERACTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM INTEGRATION: A WORKSHOP

NANCY T. TIPPINS (Chair), CEB Valtera, Greenville, SC

DAVID R. ARTERBURN, Rotorcraft Systems Engineering and Simulation Center, University of Alabama, Huntsville

ELLEN J. BASS, College of Computing and Informatics, Drexel University

JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

MARY L. CUMMINGS, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University

DOUG DAVIS, Global UAS Strategic Initiatives, Northrop Corporation, Melbourne, FL

MICA R. ENDSLEY, SA Technologies, Mesa, AZ

R. JOHN HANSMAN, JR., Division of Humans and Automation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

CHRISTOPHER MILLER, Smart Information Flow Technologies, Minneapolis, MN

JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, Wyndrose Technical Group, Severna Park, MD

DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Study Director

ALAN ANGLEMAN, Senior Program Officer

KELLY ARRINGTON, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

BOARD ON HUMAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

PASCALE CARAYON (Chair), College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison

JAMES BAGIAN (NAE/NAM), Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

ELLEN BASS, College of Computing and Informatics, Drexel University

DIANA BURLEY, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University

SARA J. CZAJA, Center on Aging, University of Miami

BARBARA DOSHER, School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine

FRANCIS (FRANK) T. DURSO, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology

ANDREW S. IMADA, A.S. Imada and Associates, Carmichael, CA

EDMOND ISRAELSKI, AbbVie, North Chicago, IL

NAJMEDIN MESHKATI, Sonny Astani Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Daniel J. Epstein Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, USC Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

FREDERICK OSWALD, Department of Psychology, Rice University

KARL S. PISTER, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley

DAVID REMPEL, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

EMILIE ROTH, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Stanford, CA

WILLIAM J. STRICKLAND, HumRRO, Alexandria, VA

MATTHEW WEINGER, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

TOBY WARDEN, Board Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD

ALAN H. EPSTEIN (Chair), Technology and Environment, Pratt & Whitney

ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL (Vice Chair), School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University

ARNOLD D. ALDRICH, Aerospace Consultant, Vienna, VA

BRIAN M. ARGROW, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder

STEVEN J. BATTEL, Battel Engineering, Scottsdale, AZ

MEYER J. BENZAKEIN, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University

BRIAN J. CANTWELL, School of Engineering, Stanford University

EILEEN M. COLLINS, Space Presentations, LLC, San Antonio, TX

MICHAEL P. DELANEY, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Seattle, WA

KAREN FEIGH, College of Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

NICHOLAS D. LAPPOS, Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company, Stratford, CT

MARK J. LEWIS, IDA Science and Technology Policy Institute, Washington, DC

VALERIE MANNING, Airbus, Toulouse, France

RICHARD MCKINNEY, RWMcKinney, LLC, Alexandria, VA

PARVIZ MOIN, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University

JOHN M. OLSON, Polaris Industries

ROBIE I. SAMANTA ROY, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD

AGAM N. SINHA, ANS Aviation International, LLC, Fairfax, VA

ALAN M. TITLE, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center

DAVID M. VAN WIE, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

IAN WAITZ, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

SHERRIE L. ZACHARIUS, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA

MICHAEL MOLONEY, Board Director

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

Preface

Prior to 2012, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology had been primarily used by the military and hobbyists, but it has more recently transitioned to broader application, including commercial and scientific applications, as well as to expanded military use. These new uses encroach on existing structures for managing the nation’s airspace and present significant challenges to ensure that UASs are coordinated safely and suitably with existing manned aerial and air traffic management systems, particularly with the National Airspace System (NAS). Of particular concern is the interaction among human pilots, operators, or controllers and increasingly automated systems. Enhanced understanding of these interactions is essential to avoid unintended consequences, especially as new technologies emerge.

There are multiple projects, entities, and stakeholders examining the integration of UASs into the NAS. Although there is some coordination among the actors, for the most part, there is still a lack of clarity as to whether and how a comprehensive approach to ensure safe integration across a diverse and evolving landscape exists or would be developed. The workshop documented here was designed to identify the key issues and have experts discuss the human factors research needed to have a smooth transition of UASs into the NAS.

I wish to express my deep appreciation to the members of the steering committee for their diligent and dedicated contributions to developing and participating in the workshop in an expedited time frame. The diverse expertise and experience offered by the members were indispensable to the formulation of the individual sessions of the workshop as each session was designed and moderated by a steering committee member. I also wish to thank, on behalf of the entire committee, the staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, whose expertise and skill were absolutely essential to our meeting the charge from our sponsor.

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Maria Picardi Kuffner, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Emilie M. Roth, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Stanford, California; David Woods, Department of Integrated Systems Engineering, Ohio State University. Although the reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

William Strickland, HumRRO, and Chris Hendrickson, Carnegie Mellon University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.

Nancy Tippins, Chair

Steering Committee on Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration: A Workshop

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Human-Automation Interaction Considerations for Unmanned Aerial System Integration into the National Airspace System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25009.
×
Page R12
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Prior to 2012, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) technology had been primarily used by the military and hobbyists, but it has more recently transitioned to broader application, including commercial and scientific applications, as well as to expanded military use. These new uses encroach on existing structures for managing the nation’s airspace and present significant challenges to ensure that UASs are coordinated safely and suitably with existing manned aircraft and air traffic management systems, particularly with the National Airspace System (NAS). Of particular concern is the interaction between human pilots, operators, or controllers and increasingly automated systems. Enhanced understanding of these interactions is essential to avoid unintended consequences, especially as new technologies emerge. In order to explore these issues, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine organized a 2-day workshop in January 2018. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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