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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Strategies for Effective
Improvements to the
BioWatch System

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Joe Alper, Rapporteur

Planning Committee for a Workshop on Strategies
for Effective Biological Detection Systems

Board on Life Sciences

Division on Earth and Life Studies

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This project was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and Contract No. 10003359 with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-47174-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-47174-5
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25014

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25014.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
×

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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE BIOLOGICAL DETECTION SYSTEMS1

ADEL A. F. MAHMOUD (Chair), Professor in Molecular Biology and Public Policy, Princeton University

BRUCE BUDOWLE, Director, Center for Human Identification, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center

JOHN D. CLEMENTS, Professor and Chair of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine

DAVID W. CULLIN, Vice President, Research and Development, FLIR Systems

NORMAN KAHN, President and Principal, Counter-Bio LLC

GRACE KUBIN, Director, Laboratory Services Section, Texas Department of State Health Services

FRED M. ROSA, JR., Senior Advisor for Homeland Security, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory

TOM SLEZAK, Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

COLIN STIMMLER, Senior Director, Bureau of Agency Preparedness and Response, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff

JENNIFER HEIMBERG, Study Director, Board on Life Sciences

KATHERINE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer, Board on Life Sciences

SCOTT WOLLEK, Senior Program Officer, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Health and Medicine Division

ANGELA KOLESNIKOVA, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Life Sciences

Consultant

JOE ALPER, Consulting Writer

__________________

1The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Patrick Chain, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott Hughes, New York City Public Health Laboratory; Grace Kubin, Texas Department of State Health Services; M. Allen Northrup, Northrup Consulting Group; and Gerald W. Parker, Texas A&M University.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Paul Keim, Northern Arizona University and TGen. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Acknowledgments

The production of this Proceedings of a Workshop would not have been possible without the hard work and dedication of the several people and the sponsorship of the Department of Homeland Security’s Office of Health Affairs. The workshop was planned by a dedicated committee whose members provided hard work and effort toward executing the agenda. The reviewers’ thoughtful comments added further insight. Finally, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine staff involvement and support throughout ensured a smooth and swift process.

The Planning Committee wishes to express its gratitude to the following speakers, panelists, and authors of the invited papers for their interesting and thoughtful presentations and contributions: Paul Biedrzycki, C. Titus Brown, David Brown, Wayne Bryden, Chuck Burrus, Mark Buttner, George Dizikes, Henry Erlich, Asha George, Molly Isbell, Dana Kadavy, James Liljegren, Duncan MacCannell, Suzet McKinney, Toby Merlin, M. Allen Northrup, Denise Pettit, Lyle Probst, Jennifer Rakeman, Sam Reed, David Silcott, and Maureen (Mo) Sullivan.

The Planning Committee would like to also extend its thanks to BioWatch leadership and staff including Michael V. Walter, Mark Scheckelhoff, and Emily Gabriel.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

ANL Argonne National Laboratory
APDS Autonomous Pathogen Detection System
ASPR Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response
BAC BioWatch Advisory Committee
BAR BioWatch Actionable Result
BARDA Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority
BASIS Biological Aerosol Sentry and Information System
BDS Biological Detection System
BGM Argonne National Laboratory Below Ground Model
BLaDE BioWatch Laboratory Data Entry
BWNCC BioWatch National Conference Call
CAR corrective action report
CD communicable disease
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CLIA Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments
CMOS complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
CONOP concept of operations
CRI Cities Readiness Initiative
CRP Critical Reagents Program
CST Civil Support Team
DBT design-basis threat
ddPCR droplet digital polymerase chain reaction
DHS Department of Homeland Security
DoD Department of Defense
EH environmental health
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
ESI electrospray ionization
FDA Food and Drug Administration
HMAS highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing
HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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IED improvised explosive device
LAMP loop-mediated isothermal amplification
LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory
LHD local health department
LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
LRN Laboratory Response Network
MALDI matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
MTA Metropolitan Transportation Authority
NBIC National Biosurveillance Integration Center
NGS next-generation sequencing
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PHEP Public Health Emergency Preparedness
QA quality assurance
QC quality control
QUIC Quick Urban and Industrial Complex model
rtPCR real-time polymerase chain reaction
S&T DHS Science and Technology Directorate
SBS sequencing by synthesis
SMRT single-molecule real time
SNP single nucleotide polymorphism
SNS Strategic National Stockpile
SOP standard operating procedure
SPAMS single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry
TOF time of flight
TPD threshold of probable detection
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Strategies for Effective Improvements to the BioWatch System: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25014.
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BioWatch is the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) system for detecting an aerosolized biological attack using collectors that are positioned strategically across the country to continuously monitor the air for biological threats. As currently deployed, BioWatch collectors draw air through filters that field technicians collect daily and transport to laboratories, where professional technicians analyze the material collected on the filter for evidence of biological threats.

As part of the BioWatch program’s efforts to enhance its effectiveness and capabilities, particularly with regard to detecting biological threats in challenging indoor environments, DHS requested the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hold a workshop to explore alternative and effective biodetection systems for aerosolized biological agents that would meet BioWatch’s technical and operational requirements, integrate into the existing system architecture and public health infrastructure, and be deployable by 2027. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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