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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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GLOBAL
HARMONIZATION
OF
METHODOLOGICAL
APPROACHES
TO
NUTRIENT INTAKE
RECOMMENDATIONS

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Leslie Pray and Ann L. Yaktine, Rapporteurs

Food and Nutrition Board

Health and Medicine Division

images

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global harmonization of methodological approaches to nutrient intake recommendations: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25023.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON THE GLOBAL HARMONIZATION OF METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO NUTRIENT INTAKE RECOMMENDATIONS1

STEPHANIE ATKINSON (Chair), Professor and Nutrition Clinician-Scientist, Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University

ROSALIND GIBSON, Professor Emerita, Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago

ANURA KURPAD, Professor and Head, Department of Physiology and Nutrition, St. John’s Medical College

SUZANNE MURPHY, Professor Emerita and Researcher, Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center

JOHN MUYONGA, Professor, Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Makerere University

HEE YOUNG PAIK, Director, Center for Gendered Innovations in Science and Technology Research, Korea Federation of Women’s Science and Technology Associations

ANN PRENTICE, Director and Head, Nutrition and Bone Health Research, Medical Research Council Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, University of Cambridge

STANLEY ZLOTKIN, Professor, Pediatrics and Nutritional Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto

Health and Medicine Division Staff

ANN L. YAKTINE, Study Director

AMANDA NGUYEN, Associate Program Officer

MEREDITH YOUNG, Senior Program Assistant

ANN L. YAKTINE, Director, Food and Nutrition Board

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

CELINE DUMAS, European Food Safety Authority

VALERIE FRIESEN, Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition

ALICE LICHTENSTEIN, Jean Mayer-U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

SIMIN MEYDANI, Jean Mayer-USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by DIANE BIRT, Iowa State University. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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3-1 Evidence pyramid describing quality of evidence and risk of bias associated with different types of studies

3-2 Risk of inadequacy and risk of adverse effects as a function of observed level of nutrient intake

3-3 Differences in the risks of chronic diseases versus toxicity with increasing nutrient intake levels

5-1 A flow chart of events that occur during a study, with the seven different types of biases that can occur along the way

5-2 The nutrition-specific quality assessment instrument (QAI) developed by Wells and colleagues for Health Canada with the same internal validity checklist as in the original SIGN 50 QAI, plus the newly developed nutrition-specific section and a revised overall assessment section

5-3 Generic analytic framework for a systematic review of studies on the associations between a nutrient and health outcomes

5-4 Analytic framework for vitamin D and/or calcium and associated health outcomes

5-5 Analytic framework for vitamin D and/or calcium and associated safety-related (adverse) outcomes

5-6 Population distribution versus intake for a hypothetical nutrient

5-7 Risk–benefit curve showing risk of effects associated with deficient intake, risk of adverse effects associated with excessive intake, and the lack of risk associated with intake at the safe upper limit

6-1 Maps of lactose tolerance phenotype frequencies and predicted lactose tolerance phenotype frequencies based on lactose tolerance-associated allele frequencies

6-2 The Bayesian model used by WHO (2015a) to develop its new guidelines for red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations for women of reproductive age

6-3 Dose–response curve computed from the Bayesian model used by WHO (2015a), overlaid with clinical data from Daly et al. (1995)

TABLE

5-1 Predicted Public Health Burden (DALYs) Associated with Different Levels of Flour Folic Acid Fortification

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

ADI acceptable daily intake
AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
AI adequate intake
AMDR acceptable macronutrient distribution range
ANR average nutrient requirement
BMI body mass index
BMR basal metabolic rate
CACFP Child and Adult Care Food Program
CCHS Canadian Community Health Survey
CNV copy number variant
CV coefficient of variation
DALY disability-adjusted life year
DEXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
DFE dietary folate equivalent
DRI Dietary Reference Intake
DRV dietary reference value
EAR estimated average requirement
EFSA European Food Safety Authority
EPC Evidence-based Practice Center
EU European Union
EURRECA European Micronutrient Recommendations Aligned
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FNB Food and Nutrition Board
GEMS Global Environment Monitoring System
GIFT Global Individual Food consumption data Tool
GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation
HMD Health and Medicine Division
ICN2 Second International Conference on Nutrition
ILSI International Life Sciences Institute
INFOODS International Network of Food Data Systems
INL individual nutrient level
IOM Institute of Medicine
IUNS International Union of Nutritional Sciences
IZiNCG International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group
JAMA Journal of the American Medical Association
JPI Joint Programming Initiative
KNS Korean Nutrition Society
KRDA Korean recommended dietary allowance
LDL low-density lipoprotein
LOAEL lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level
LRNI lower reference nutrient intake
NFCS Nationwide Food Consumption Survey
NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council
NIV nutrient intake value
NOAEL no-observed-adverse-effect-level
NOFA nutrients and other food substances
NRV nutrient reference value
PICOS population, interventions/exposures, comparators, and outcomes of interest
PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid
QAI quality assessment instrument
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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RBC red blood cell
RCT randomized controlled trial
RDA recommended dietary allowance
RIVM Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
RNI reference nutrient intake
SCF Scientific Committee on Food
SNAP Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
SNP single nucleotide polymorphism
SRDR Systematic Review Data Repository
UK United Kingdom
UL tolerable upper intake level
UN United Nations
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
UNL upper nutrient level
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
UV ultraviolet
WHO World Health Organization
WIC Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25023.
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The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a public workshop in September 2017 to explore the evidence for achieving global harmonization of methodological approaches to establishing nutrient intake recommendations. Participants reviewed current nutrient intake recommendations, discussed the feasibility of harmonizing approaches to setting such recommendations globally, examined the development of principles by which they may be applied in diverse contexts that relate to individuals or populations, or regulatory purposes, and examined perceptions and acceptance of nutrient intake recommendations by different stakeholders. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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