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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Statement of Task." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25032.
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Page 135
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Statement of Task." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25032.
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Page 136
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Statement of Task." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25032.
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Page 137

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A Statement of Task Upon completion of the initial RCA Bolt Workshop, a follow-up study that builds upon the workshop’s presentations and discussions will be conducted. The study will develop useful options for consideration by industry and BSEE on all aspects of connector manufacture and use in an offshore environment after further assessment and information collection, the study should address the following is- sue under Tasks 1-8. Task 1: Assess the critical drill-through equipment fastener systems and the ap- propriateness of materials and coatings selected for incorporation into fasteners, for optimal performance for subsea environment operating conditions. The assessment should address the following questions and issues: Are existing industry best practices and BSEE regulations adequate enough to ensure that fasteners will perform satisfactorily in the subsea conditions under which they are expected to be used? What additional steps should be taken to improve the develop- ment and implementation of best practices and regulations governing fastener performance for critical drill-through equipment for subsea applications? What are the best techniques and practices to address the design, load, fatigue loading, material properties (YS, UTS, elongation, hard- ness) requirements, coating selection, cathodic protection, QA/QC, quality management systems (QMS) oversight of subcontracted vendor 135

136 H i g h - P e r f o r m a n c e B o lt i n g Te c h n o l o g y manufacturing process issues (procurement-forging, manufacturing, heat treatment, coating processes, etc.), fastener failure type and failure reporting, and failure analysis techniques for use in managing fastener use and quality? Options for optimal material specifications for inclusion in relevant industry standards for future use and implementation of fasteners used for subsea oil and gas applications. Identification of best practices from other industries like refinery, both onshore and offshore, aerospace, aviation, nuclear industry, mili- tary, naval (submarine and ship), pipeline, and automotive. Risk Assessment timelines and protocols for replacing existing in- service sub-sea fasteners (e.g. replace all offshore bolts of concern based on risk, age, etc.). Data collection needs: who collects the failure data; when is the fail- ure data collected; when, to whom and how is the failure data reported? Task 2: Design issues and human-systems interaction factors. This analysis will not be limited to the technical components but will also encompass the entire system and bolt lifecycle (design, procure- ment, manufacturing, installation, maintenance, commissioning, and operation), including the human components. Specific emphasis will be placed on the management of the manufacturing process from the first tier OEM down through the second, third, fourth, etc., sub tier sub-contractors. Task 3: Options on improving safety of offshore drilling and pipeline operations as related to the use of fasteners for critical drill through equipment components like the LMRP (connector) and pipeline fasteners. Identify options for reducing or eliminating the identified gaps for fastener manufacture, and provide valuable insight on how/if alternative fastener designs are capable of improving safety of offshore drilling and pipeline operations. Options to include: Options on the methodology for the selection for material proper- ties (such as hardness, yield, UTS, etc.), and other critical parameters identified by the industry standards or codes, in accordance with the subsea bolt application and operating environment; and Options encompassing the use of both domestic and international standards and regulations that are in place today on fasteners to BSEE on how to proceed or how the existing industry standards should be modified to address project findings, or how BSEE should structure a 30 CFR 250 regulation to require these conditions should be met.

Appendix A 137 Task 4: Evaluation of the performance of fastener systems currently in use in- cluding the process of manufacturing (e.g. smelting, casting, drawing, heat treatment, coatings, mechanical/material properties, performance properties-shear stress, fatigue life, etc.), corrosion protection (cathodic protection) installation (e.g., torqueing), maintenance and inspection processes associated with fastener systems. Task 5: The subsea environmental effects (seawater salinity along with high pressure/high temperature in presence of CO2, Cl- or H2S,) on the me- chanical properties of bolts and corrosion resistance. Task 6: The impact of cathodic protection systems on fastener performance in a subsea environment. Task 7: Identification of the similarities and differences in industry standards related to the design, material specification for strength, hardness, coat- ings, corrosion resistance performance in atmospheric as well as subsea application conditions, cathodic protection, performance and mainte- nance requirements as related to fastener systems worldwide. Task 8: Evaluation of alternative fastener designs used globally by the oil and gas and pipeline industry (OCS, other offshore areas, onshore), refiner- ies, aerospace, aviation, nuclear, Naval (submarine, ship), automotive, and/or other industries, etc. Identification of ideas and concepts taken from industries outside of oil and gas which can be integrated into the offshore oil and gas community to effect improvements on safety and environmental protection.

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Commercially significant amounts of crude oil and natural gas lie under the continental shelf of the United States. Advances in locating deposits, and improvements in drilling and recovery technology, have made it technically and economically feasible to extract these resources under harsh conditions. But extracting these offshore petroleum resources involves the possibility, however remote, of oil spills, with resulting damage to the ocean and the coastline ecosystems and risks to life and limb of those performing the extraction. The environmental consequences of an oil spill can be more severe underwater than on land because sea currents can quickly disperse the oil over a large area and, thus, cleanup can be problematic.

Bolted connections are an integral feature of deep-water well operations. High-Performance Bolting Technology for Offshore Oil and Natural Gas Operations summarizes strategies for improving the reliability of fasteners used in offshore oil exploration equipment, as well as best practices from other industrial sectors. It focuses on critical bolting—bolts, studs, nuts, and fasteners used on critical connections.

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