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Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century (2018)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century Alan Leshner and Layne Scherer, Editors Committee on Revitalizing Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century Board on Higher Education and Workforce Policy and Global Affairs A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Burroughs Wellcome Fund (103932-4031), the Institute of Education Sciences (R305U160001), the National Science Foundation (1642408), and the Spencer Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25038 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25038. PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

COMMITTEE ON REVITALIZING GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Members ALAN LESHNER (Chair) [NAM], Chief Executive Officer, Emeritus, American Association for the Advancement of Science SHERILYNN BLACK, Assistant Professor of the Practice, Medical Education; Associate Vice Provost for Faculty Advancement; and Co-Principal Investigator, Duke University BioCoRE Program, Duke University MARY SUE COLEMAN [NAM], President, Association of American Universities JAIME CURTIS-FISK, Scientist and STEM Education Advocate, Dow Chemical Company KENNETH GIBBS, JR., Program Director, National Institute of General Medical Sciences MAUREEN GRASSO, Professor of Textile Sciences and Former Graduate School Dean, North Carolina State University SALLY MASON, President Emerita, University of Iowa MARY MAXON, Associate Laboratory Director for Biosciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory SUZANNE ORTEGA, President, Council of Graduate Schools CHRISTINE ORTIZ, Morris Cohen Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Founder, Station1 MELANIE ROBERTS, Director of State and Regional Affairs, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HENRY SAUERMANN, Associate Professor of Strategy and Peter Pühringer Chair in Entrepreneurship, European School of Management and Technology, Berlin; Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research BARBARA ANNA SCHAAL [NAS], Dean of Arts and Sciences and Professor, Washington University in St. Louis SUBHASH SINGHAL [NAE], Battelle Fellow and Fuel Cells Director, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory KATE STOLL, Senior Policy Advisor, MIT Washington Office JAMES M. TIEN [NAE], Distinguished Professor and Dean Emeritus, University of Miami College of Engineering KEITH R. YAMAMOTO [NAM, NAS], Vice Chancellor for Science Policy and Strategy, Director of Precision Medicine, and, Professor of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco Study Staff LAYNE SCHERER, Study Director AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Senior Program Assistant TOM ARRISON, Program Director, Policy and Global Affairs ALLISON L. BERGER, Senior Program Assistant JAIME COLMAN, Senior Program Assistant (through November 2017) v PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

ADRIANA NAVIA COUREMBIS, Financial Officer MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce ELIZABETH GARBEE, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow, Board on Higher Education and Workforce (January to April 2018) YASMEEN HUSSAIN, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow and Associate Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce (January to July 2017) JAY LABOV, Senior Advisor for Education and Communication FREDERIC LESTINA, Senior Program Assistant BARBARA NATALIZIO, Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce IRENE NGUN, Research Associate THOMAS RUDIN, Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce Consultants JOSEPH ALPER, Writer MARGARET BLUME-KOHOUT, Visiting Professor in Economics, Colgate University JENNIFER LEBRÓN, Doctoral Student, Higher Education and International Education, George Mason University JESSICA ROBLES, Senior Research Associate, Research Triangle International ROBIN WISNIEWSKI, Director of Education Systems Improvement, Research Triangle International vi PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE Members RICHARD K. MILLER, Chair [NAE], President, Olin College of Engineering LAWRENCE D. BOBO [NAS], W.E.B. Du Bois Professor of the Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, Harvard University ANGELA BYARS-WINSTON, Professor of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison JAIME CURTIS-FISK, Scientist and STEM Education Advocate, Dow Chemical Company APRILLE ERICSSON, Capture-Mission Manager, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center RICHARD FREEMAN, Herbert Ascherman Professor of Economics, Harvard University PAUL J. LEBLANC, President, Southern New Hampshire University SALLY F. MASON, President Emerita, University of Iowa FRANCISCO RODRIGUEZ, Chancellor, Los Angeles Community College District SUBHASH SINGHAL [NAE], Battelle Fellow Emeritus, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory KUMBLE R. SUBBASWAMY, Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Amherst SHELLEY WESTMAN, Senior Vice President, Alliances & Field Operations, Protegrity MARY WOOLLEY [NAM], President and CEO, Research! America Board Staff AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Senior Program Assistant ASHLEY BEAR, Program Officer LIDA BENINSON, Program Officer ALLISON BERGER, Senior Program Assistant JAIME COLMAN, Senior Program Assistant (Until December, 2017) MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Program Officer YASMEEN HUSSAIN, Associate Program Officer (Until July 2017) LEIGH JACKSON, Senior Program Officer FREDRICK LESTINA, Senior Program Assistant BARBARA NATILIZIO, Associate Program Officer IRENE NGUN, Research Associate LAYNE SCHERER, Program Officer THOMAS RUDIN, Director vii PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

Acknowledgments The Committee on Revitalizing Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century would like to acknowledge and thank the many people who made this study possible. First, we would like to acknowledge the support of the standing National Academies Board on Higher Education and Workforce (BHEW), which offered oversight for this study. Second, we would like to acknowledge that this report was informed by the efforts of many people who shared their data, insights, ideas, enthusiasm, and expertise with the committee. We would especially like to thank the following people (in alphabetical order), who presented at the open sessions of the committee’s meetings: DAVID ASAI, Howard Hughes Medical Institute ELIZABETH BACA, California Governor's Office of Planning and Research PATRICK BRENNWALD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill THOMAS BROCK, National Center for Education Research AMY CHANG, American Society for Microbiology DONA CHIKARAISHI, Duke University (Emerita) EARNESTINE PSALMONDS EASTER, National Science Foundation DAVID FELDON, Utah State University JOAN FERRINI-MUNDY, National Science Foundation CHRIS GOLDE, Stanford University CHRISTINE GRANT, North Carolina State University JOSEPH GRAVES, North Carolina A&T University CLAUDIA GUNSCH, Duke University DAVE HARWELL, American Geophysical Union SAMANTHA HINDLE, University of California, San Francisco THEODORE HODAPP, American Physical Society STEVEN HUNTER, IBM Fellow at North Carolina State University YASMEEN HUSSAIN, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine DANA (KEOKI) JACKSON, Lockheed Martin NIMMI KANNANKUTTY, National Science Foundation JONATHAN KERSHAW, Purdue University TRISH LABOSKY, National Institutes of Health JULIA LANE, New York University MICHAEL LIPPS, LexisNexis SEAN MCCONNELL, University of Chicago VICTORIA MCGOVERN, Burroughs Wellcome Fund THOMAS MILLER, North Carolina State University BARBARA NATALIZIO, AAAS Fellow, National Science Foundation HIRONAO OKAHANA, Council of Graduate Schools JASON OWEN-SMITH, Institute for Research on Innovation in Science viii PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

MARINA RAMON, Cabrillo College MICHAEL RICHEY, The Boeing Company NANCY SCHWARTZ, University of Chicago DAVID SHAFER, North Carolina State University BASSAM SHAKHASHIRI, University of Wisconsin–Madison DEBRA STEWART, NORC LINDA STRAUSBAUGH, Professional Science Master's Association LE TANG, ABB CORY VALENTE, The Dow Chemical Company KIMBERLY WEEMS, North Carolina Central University BRUCE WEINBERG, Ohio State University AYANNA BOYD WILLIAMS, North Carolina A&T University The committee would like to thank the sponsors that made this study possible: the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Institute of Education Sciences, the National Science Foundation, and the Spencer Foundation. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to the generous hosts for the focus groups conducted by Research Triangle International: the American Indian Science and Engineering Society, Florida A&M University, South Dakota State University, Texas A&M University Corpus Christi, Texas A&M University Kingsville, and University of Northern Colorado. Additionally, we would like to thank all of the current and former participants and directors of the Institute of Education Sciences’ Predoctoral Interdisciplinary Research Training Program who contributed their responses to our researcher, Ms. Jennifer Lebrón. The committee would also like to thank all of those who took time to provide valuable feedback to the project during the information-gathering period. This includes individuals who attended conference sessions or meetings on the topic, who hosted us at their institutions, or those who responded to the committee’s “Discussion Document and Call for Community Input.” We would like to send our thanks to the hosts of our two regional meetings at North Carolina State University and the University of California, San Francisco. The committee would like to acknowledge the work of the consultants who have contributed to the report: Dr. Margaret Blume-Kohout, Ms. Jennifer Lebrón, Dr. Jessica Robles, and Dr. Robin Wisniewski. The committee would also like to thank Daniel Bearss, Senior Researcher at the National Academies, for his fact-checking and research assistance. We would like to send our deepest thanks to our report writer, Joseph Alper, for his tremendous work on this report. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to ix PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Dianne Chong, Boeing Research and Technology (Retired); Jingsheng Cong, University of California, Los Angeles; Peter Fiske, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Chris Golde, Stanford University; Beverly Hartline, Montana Tech; Kasia Grzebyk, University of North Carolina; Jonathan Kershaw, Purdue University; Philip Kutzko, University of Iowa; Deb Niemeier, University of California, Davis; Jennifer Pearl, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Julie Posselt, University of Southern California; Vassie Ware, Lehigh University; Hugh Welsh, DSM; and Carl Wieman, University of Colorado at Boulder. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Dowling, Harvard University, and Catherine Kling, Iowa State University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Finally, we thank the staff of this project for their valuable leadership, input, and support. Specifically, we would like to thank Program Officer and Study Director, Layne Scherer; BHEW Director, Tom Rudin; Program Director, Tom Arrison; Senior Advisor, Jay Labov; Program Officer, Barbara Natalizio; Program Officer, Maria Dahlberg; Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Fellow and Associate Program Officer, Yasmeen Hussain; Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Fellow, Elizabeth Garbee; Research Associate, Irene Ngun; Senior Program Assistant, Austen Applegate; Senior Program Assistant, Allison Berger; Senior Program Assistant, Jaime Colman; and Senior Program Assistant, Frederic Lestina. x PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

Contents Abbreviations and Acronyms .....................................................................................................xv SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................1 1 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................13 The Role of Graduate STEM Education ....................................................................................14 Catalyzing Cultural Change in Graduate STEM Education .......................................................15 Background of the Report ..........................................................................................................19 Structure of the Report ...............................................................................................................22 References ..................................................................................................................................23 2 TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES ........................................................................................................................................................25 Enrollment, Degrees, and Trends in U.S. Graduate STEM Education .....................................26 Data and Trends by Gender ........................................................................................................29 Data and Trends by Race and Ethnicity .....................................................................................32 Data and Trends by Citizenship .................................................................................................47 Data and Trends by Disability Status .........................................................................................51 References ..................................................................................................................................53 3 CROSSCUTTING THEMES IN GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION ...............................55 Adjusting Faculty Rewards and Incentives to Improve Graduate STEM Education ................56 Increasing Data Collection, Research, and Transparency about Graduate STEM Education Outcomes ....................................................................................................................................58 Enhancing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion...............................................................................63 Responding to the Dynamic Nature of 21st-Century STEM .....................................................67 Optimizing the Graduate Student Experience ............................................................................71 References ..................................................................................................................................74 4 THE MASTER’S DEGREE.....................................................................................................81 Core Educational Elements of Master’s Degrees .......................................................................81 Career Outcomes of STEM Master’s Degree Holders ...............................................................84 Flexible and Innovative Programs: Certificates and Microcredentials ......................................88 References ..................................................................................................................................92 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

5 THE DOCTORAL DEGREE ..................................................................................................95 Core Educational Elements of the Ph.D. Degree .......................................................................95 Career Exploration and Preparation ...........................................................................................97 Doctoral Curriculum, Coursework, and the Dissertation .........................................................102 Additional Factors Requiring Evolution of the System ...........................................................104 References ................................................................................................................................109 6 A CALL FOR SYSTEMIC CHANGE ..................................................................................113 An Ideal Graduate STEM Education........................................................................................114 Federal and State Government Agencies .................................................................................116 Private Foundations and Other Nongovernmental Organizations............................................117 Institutions of Higher Education ..............................................................................................117 Graduate Schools, Departments, and Programs .......................................................................118 Faculty Members ......................................................................................................................119 Professional Societies ...............................................................................................................120 Employers in Industry, Government, and Other Organizations ..............................................121 Graduate Students ....................................................................................................................121 APPENDIXES ............................................................................................................................123 Appendix A: Glossary ..............................................................................................................125 Appendix B: Discussion Document and Call for Community Input .......................................129 Appendix C: Committee Biographies ......................................................................................135 Appendix D: Staff Biographies ................................................................................................145 Appendix E: Open Meeting Agendas .....................................................................................1149 xii PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

Tables and Figures TABLES 2-1 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines in 2000 and 2015 .....................................................................................................................................28 2-2 Comparison of Master’s Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines in 2000 and 2015, by Gender ........................................................................................................................................31 2-3 Comparison of Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines in 2000 and 2015, by Gender ........................................................................................................................................31 2-4 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by American Indian or Alaska Native Students, in 2000 and 2015 ................................................38 2-5 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Asian, Pacific Islander, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander Students, in 2000, 2010, and 2015 ....................................................................................................................................................39 2-6 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Black or African American Students, in 2000 and 2015 ......................................................................40 2-7 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Hispanic or Latino/a Students, in 2000 and 2015 ......................................................................41 2-8 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Students Identifying Two or More Races, in 2000 and 2015.....................................................42 2-9 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Students Identifying Other or Unknown Race and Ethnicity, in 2000 and 2015 .......................43 2-10 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by White Students, in 2000 and 2015 ........................................................................................................44 2-11 Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded to U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents, by Sex, Race, Ethnicity, and Broad field category in 2015 ............................................................46 2-12 Comparison of Master’s Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Citizenship Status, in 2000 and 2015 ............................................................................................................50 2-13 Comparison of Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Citizenship Status, in 2000 and 2015 ........................................................................................................................50 4-1 Percent Distribution of STEM Master’s Degree Holders in Broad Employment Sectors, by Field, 2015 .............................................................................................................................85 4-2 Selected STEM Occupations in Which Workers with a Master’s Degree Earned a Premium Over Workers with a Bachelor’s Degree, 2013 ..........................................................86 5-1 Tenure Status of STEM Doctorate Holders Employed in Academia, by Age: 1995 and 2015 ............................................................................................................................................98 5-2 Employment Sector of STEM Doctoral Degree Holders, by Field of Highest Degree, 2015 ..........................................................................................................................................100 FIGURES xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

2-1 Graduate degrees awarded in STEM fields, by degree level, 2000-2015 selected years ..27 2-2 Graduate degrees awarded in STEM fields, by degree level and gender, 2000-2015, selected years ..............................................................................................................................30 2-3 Proportion of U.S. resident population, by race and or ethnicity, across age groups, in 2014 ............................................................................................................................................33 2-4 Master’s degrees awarded in STEM fields, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2015, selected years ...........................................................................................................................................35 2-5 Detail of master’s degrees awarded in STEM fields, for racial and ethnic minorities, 2000-2015, selected years ..........................................................................................................36 2-6 Doctoral degrees awarded in STEM fields, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2015, selected years ...........................................................................................................................................37 2-7 Detail of doctoral degrees awarded in STEM fields, for racial and ethnic minorities, 2000-2015, selected years ..........................................................................................................37 2-8 Graduate degrees awarded in STEM fields, by citizenship status, 2000-2015 ..................48 3-1 Knowledge-doubling curve; “Internet of Things” or IoT Tipping Point refers to the anticipated acceleration of knowledge associated with widespread growth of the IoT .............69 4-1 Median salaries for STEM highest degree holders, by level of and years since highest degree, 2015 ...............................................................................................................................87 5-1 STEM doctorate holders employed in academia, by percentage of degree holders per position type: 1975–2015 ...........................................................................................................99 xiv PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

Abbreviations and Acronyms AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science AAU Association of American Universities AGEP Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate AIAN American Indian and Alaska Native APINH Asian, Pacific Islander, Native Hawaiian, and Other Pacific Islander BEST Broadening Experiences in Scientific Training program BHEW Board on Higher Education and Workforce BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics CGS Council of Graduate Schools COSEMPUP Committee on Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Policy ECDS Early Career Doctorates Survey GRE Graduate Record Examinations GSS Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering GUIRR Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable IES Institute of Education Sciences IGERT Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship IIE Institute of International Education IRIS Institute for Research on Innovation and Science LSAMP Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation program MARCU- Maximizing Access to Research Careers Undergraduate Student Training in STAR Academic Research MOOC Massive open online course NCES National Center for Education Statistics NCSES National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics NIGMS National Institute of General Medical Sciences NIH National Institutes of Health NRSA National Research Service Award NSCG National Survey of College Graduates NSF National Science Foundation NSRCG National Survey of Recent College Graduates OPT Optional Practical Training Extension PREP Postbaccalaureate Research Education Program PSM Professional Science Master's (degree) RTI Research Triangle International S&E science and engineering SDR Survey of Doctorate Recipients SED Survey of Earned Doctorates SEI Science and Engineering Indicators STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics xv PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

TAC Teacher Advisory Council URM underrepresented minority USCIS U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services xvi PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNEDITED PROOFS

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The U.S. system of graduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has served the nation and its science and engineering enterprise extremely well. Over the course of their education, graduate students become involved in advancing the frontiers of discovery, as well as in making significant contributions to the growth of the U.S. economy, its national security, and the health and well-being of its people. However, continuous, dramatic innovations in research methods and technologies, changes in the nature and availability of work, shifts in demographics, and expansions in the scope of occupations needing STEM expertise raise questions about how well the current STEM graduate education system is meeting the full array of 21st century needs. Indeed, recent surveys of employers and graduates and studies of graduate education suggest that many graduate programs do not adequately prepare students to translate their knowledge into impact in multiple careers.

Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century examines the current state of U.S. graduate STEM education. This report explores how the system might best respond to ongoing developments in the conduct of research on evidence-based teaching practices and in the needs and interests of its students and the broader society it seeks to serve. This will be an essential resource for the primary stakeholders in the U.S. STEM enterprise, including federal and state policymakers, public and private funders, institutions of higher education, their administrators and faculty, leaders in business and industry, and the students the system is intended to educate.

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