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Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century (2018)

Chapter: 2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States

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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 32
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
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Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 35
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 36
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 37
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 38
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 39
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 40
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 41
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 42
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 43
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 44
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 45
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 48
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25038.
×
Page 54

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2 Trends in Graduate STEM Degrees Earned in the United States The committee’s vision for STEM graduate education in the 21st century builds on the strengths of the current system. This system has consistently produced both master’s and Ph.D. graduates who leave their graduate universities with a deep understanding of their disciplines’ content areas and who have learned the practical skills and sophisticated analytical methods needed to conduct research, and it remains the largest destination for graduate education in the world (OECD, 2017). However, as the committee looks to the future needs of graduate students, the science and engineering enterprises, the U.S. economy, and society at large, there are aspects of the current graduate STEM education system that need to change to better serve all four. This is particularly true when one considers the following: • The pool of potential STEM graduate students is increasingly diverse, and research disciplines and institutions are striving—though many continue to struggle—to be more inclusive and equitable, in terms of both representation and institutional climate. Progress in increasing diversity and improving the success of all students, notably students from groups historically underrepresented in STEM, is needed to produce the talent pool that drives the discovery of knowledge and the application of that knowledge in all sectors of life. • The nature of STEM research and other kinds of work, driven by developments such as “big data” and artificial intelligence, is changing and becoming evermore technology enabled, multidisciplinary, collaborative, and international. • Increasing numbers of graduates are likely to have multiple jobs over the course of their careers and work in a range of sectors. • STEM graduate degrees holders are increasingly in demand in traditionally non- STEM fields, such as policy, law, media and communications, nonprofits, and government (AAAS, 2009; NSB, 2018c). The subsequent chapters of this report focus on these issues. To provide a basis for those discussions, this chapter focuses on the current state of graduate STEM education and important trends in student characteristics of gender, race and ethnicity, and citizenship. Unless otherwise 25 PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

26 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY specified, numbers will include both master’s and doctoral students. Additional information on issues and trends specific to master’s or doctoral education, such as career outcomes, appear in Chapters 4 and 5, respectively. Note that the broad umbrella term “STEM” comprises many individual disciplines that can vary substantially, and the majority of the report reflects the Statement of Task and focuses on STEM broadly defined. However, to help establish a better understanding of the graduate education system, this chapter does provide data presented by broad discipline (agricultural sciences; biological sciences; earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences; computer sciences; mathematics and statistics; chemistry; physics; social and behavioral sciences; and medical and other health sciences). A review of data collection mechanisms and initiatives appears in Chapter 3 as a crosscutting issue. ENROLLMENT, DEGREES, AND TRENDS IN U.S. GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION The number of students enrolled in graduate STEM education system has grown steadily, increasing from 303,000 in 1975 (NCSES, 2004) to nearly 668,000 students in 2015 (NSB, 2018c). According to the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES), as stated in Science and Engineering Indicators (SEI) 2018, “Most of the growth in this period [in graduate STEM enrollment] occurred in the 2000s, with stable enrollment between 2008 and 2013 and resumed growth in 2014 and 2015” (NSB, 2018h 1). The number of degrees awarded over the 2000-2015 period has also grown substantially. In 2015, approximately 225,500 graduate STEM degrees were awarded, with 181,000 at the master’s level (NSB, 2018d) and 44,500 at the doctoral level (NSB, 2018f; 2 see also Figure 2-1 and Table 2-1). 1 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science-and- engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states (accessed March 12, 2018). 2 These figures remove the enrollment from Medical and Other Health Sciences from the S&E total. 3 The National Science Foundation sues the term S&E (science and engineering to denote STEM fields. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 27 200,000 180,000 Number of Degrees Awarded 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year Master's Doctoral FIGURE 2-1 Graduate degrees awarded in STEM fields, by degree level, 2000-2015 selected years. SOURCES: NSB, 2018d, f. Overall, the total number of degrees awarded in STEM fields increased at every level between 2000 and 2015. The number of master’s degrees has shown the largest growth, increasing by nearly 88 percent over the 15-year period. In comparison, the number of doctoral STEM degrees increased by 60 percent (NSB, 2018b). Regarding proportion of STEM degrees awarded compared to non-STEM degrees, STEM master’s degrees accounted for 24.7 percent of all master’s degrees awarded in 2015 (NSB, 2018d), while at the doctoral level, STEM degrees accounted for 64.4 percent of all Ph.D.’s awarded in 2015 (NSB, 2018f). While looking at graduate STEM education as a whole can give a broad perspective of the enterprise, reviewing the data at the discipline level can add nuance to the understanding. According to SEI 2018: The highest enrollment growth was recorded in computer sciences, mathematics and statistics, medical sciences, and engineering. Most other S&E 3 fields also had substantial growth. Enrollment in the social sciences grew from 83,000 in 2000 to 111,000 in 2011, then declined to 103,000 by 2015. Enrollment in computer sciences had increased gradually or remained stable through 2012, then accelerated from 52,000 to more than 86,000 in only 3 years. Temporary visa students accounted for most of this growth. Along the same lines, the number of first-time, full-time graduate students in computer sciences, an indicator of developing trends, nearly doubled in the last 3 years. (NSB, 2018h 4,5) 4 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science-and- engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states (accessed March 12, 2018). 5 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science-and- engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states (accessed March 12, 2018). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

28 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY The selection above highlights the magnitude of change that can occur within each discipline. Additional focus on graduate education trends by citizenship appears below in the section on Current State of Graduate STEM Education by Citizenship. TABLE 2-1 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines in 2000 and 2015 Master’s Doctorala Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 96,230 180,955 84,725 88.0 27,862 44,521 16,659 59.8 Engineering 25,738 49,207 23,469 91.2 5,384 10,406 5,022 93.3 Science 70,492 131,748 61,256 86.9 22,478 34,115 11,637 51.8 Agricultural sciences 3,858 5,792 1,934 50.1 984 1,381 397 40.3 Biological sciences 6,329 14,370 8,041 127.1 4,992 7,890 2,898 58.1 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 1,345 2,212 867 64.5 579 827 248 42.8 Computer sciences 14,986 31,552 16,566 110.5 777 1,951 1,174 151.1 Mathematics and statistics 3,295 8,269 4,974 151.0 1,081 1,802 721 66.7 Chemistry 1,909 2,491 582 30.5 2,090 2,906 816 39.0 Physics 1,244 1,934 690 55.5 1,208 1,840 632 52.3 Social and behavioral sciences 37,166 64,809 27,643 74.4 8,182 9,950 1,768 21.6 Medical and other health sciences – – – – 2,439 5,343 2,904 119.1 a The fields for doctoral, which include medical and other health sciences, reflect degrees in the category with doctor’s-research/scholarship. These do not include medical or health degrees in the doctor’s- professional practice category. The National Center for Science and Engineering does not include the master’s degrees in this category in the Science and Engineering Indicators, and they do not appear in this report. SOURCES: NSB, 2018d, f. To show the trends in each discipline, Table 2-1 also includes the percent change within each discipline between 2000 and 2015. While all STEM disciplines listed in Table 2-1 have experienced growth at the master’s and Ph.D. level, the degree to which the fields have increased varies considerably. Following the trends in enrollment, the degrees awarded in computer science at the master’s and doctoral level show some of the highest levels of increase, at 110.5 percent and 151.1 percent, respectively. Other categories that saw a doubling in degrees awarded from 2000 to 2015 include master’s degrees in biological sciences (127.1 percent) and mathematics and statistics (151.0 percent) and doctoral degrees in medical and other health sciences (119.1 percent). Engineering experienced relatively high and similar levels of growth in both master’s (91.2 percent) and doctoral (93.3 percent) degrees. At the other end of the spectrum, chemistry experienced the lowest overall growth at 30.5 percent for master’s and 39.0 percent for doctoral degrees, followed by agricultural sciences at 50.1 percent for master’s degrees and 40.3 percent for Ph.D.’s. The social and behavioral sciences saw the lowest level of PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 29 growth at the doctoral level, with a 21.6 percent increase, although the number of master’s degrees increased by 74.4 percent. DATA AND TRENDS BY GENDER From 2000 to 2015, annual degree attainment for both genders increased at the master’s and doctoral levels (NBS, 2018d,f; Figure 2-2). For women, the number of STEM master’s degrees increased from 41,700 in 2000 to 81,700 in 2015, while the number of doctoral degrees rose from 9,300 to 16,300 (Tables 2-2 and 2-3; NSB, 2018d,f). Men earned a larger number of degrees overall, increasing at the master’s level from 54,600 in 2000 to 92,000 in 2015 and at the doctoral level from 16,100 to 22,900 (NSB, 2018d,f). For context, at the bachelor’s degree level, women earned 201,000 STEM degrees in 2000 and 322,900 degrees in 2015, while men earned 197,700 and 327,100 degrees, respectively. At the undergraduate level, the differences in degree attainment by gender have declined. In the 2000 to 2013 period, women earned more degrees than men, while in 2014 and 2015 men earned less than 1 percent more bachelor’s degrees than women (NSB, 2018b). While men earned more STEM graduate degrees, the rate at which women earned graduate STEM degrees has increased more from 2000 to 2015 (Tables 2-2 and 2-3). For master’s degrees, women earned 96 percent more degrees in 2015 than in 2000, while men earned 82 percent more. At the doctoral level, women earned 74 percent more degrees in 2015 than 2000, while men earned 43 percent more (NSB, 2018d,f). The increase in degrees earned at the undergraduate level shows a different trend, reflecting that women and men earned bachelor’s degrees in STEM at similar levels from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2015, the number of women and men earning bachelor’s degrees increased by 61 percent and 66 percent, respectively (NSB, 2018b). The comparison between women and men in terms annual degrees awarded varied significantly between disciplines (Tables 2-2 and 2-3). One of the starkest differences in the number of degrees awarded was in engineering versus the sciences. At both levels of graduate education, men earned more degrees in engineering than women, and women earned more degrees in the sciences than men in 2015 (NSB, 2018d,f). In 2000, men also earned more degrees in engineering than women at both levels; however, in the sciences, women earned more master’s degrees than men, though men earned more doctoral degrees. In particular, looking at the largest fields at the doctoral level, women’s growth in the biological sciences more than doubled that of men, as they earned 2,000 more degrees in 2015 than in 2000 while men earned 920 more (NSB, 2018d,f). In terms of growth, as measured by the increase in annual degrees awarded, the trends at the broader STEM level generally apply to growth at the master’s and doctoral levels within each STEM discipline (Tables 2-2 and 2-3). Except for master’s degrees in computer sciences and mathematics and statistics, the increase in annual degrees awarded to women was greater than the increase for men between 2000 and 2015. As noted previously for engineering, men earned more degrees per year than women did, but women have seen greater annual percentage increases. The number of engineering master’s and doctoral degrees that women earned annually increased by 130 and 190 percent, respectively, from 2000 to 2015, while those earned by men increased by 81 percent and 75 percent, respectively. Similarly, women saw greater percentage PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

30 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY increases than men in both master’s and doctoral degrees awarded between 2000 and 2015—91 percent versus 82 percent for master’s degrees and 74 percent versus 31 percent for doctoral degrees. In additional to the growth in the biological sciences, women have earned more degrees than men and had a greater increase in growth in the social and behavioral sciences at both the master’s and doctoral levels. Although women have earned fewer degrees in the computer sciences and mathematics and statistics than men, the annual numbers of degrees awarded to women in those fields at both degree levels increased by at least 84 percent between 2000 and 2015 (NBS, 2018d,f). 120,000 100,000 Number of Degrees Awarded 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year Master's (F) Master's (M) Doctoral (F) Doctoral (M) FIGURE 2-2 Graduate degrees awarded in STEM fields, by degree level and gender, 2000- 2015, selected years. SOURCES: NSB, 2018d, f. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 31 TABLE 2-2 Comparison of Master’s Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines in 2000 and 2015, by Gender Master's Degrees Earned by Women Master's Degrees Earned by Men Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 41,670 81,673 40,003 96.0 54,560 99,282 44,722 82.0 Engineering 5,342 12,282 6,940 129.9 20,396 36,925 16,529 81.0 Science 36,328 69,391 33,063 91.0 34,164 62,357 28,193 82.5 Agricultural sciences 1,819 3,228 1,409 77.5 2,039 2,564 525 25.7 Biological sciences 3,513 8,326 4,813 137.0 2,816 6,044 3,228 114.6 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 513 955 442 86.2 832 1,257 425 51.1 Computer sciences 5,003 9,607 4,604 92.0 9,983 21,945 11,962 119.8 Mathematics and statistics 1,498 3,380 1,882 125.6 1,797 4,889 3,092 172.1 Chemistry 823 1,109 286 34.8 1,086 1,382 296 27.3 Physics 244 436 192 78.7 1,000 1,498 498 49.8 Social and behavioral sciences 22,767 42,217 19,450 85.4 14,399 22,592 8,193 56.9 SOURCES: NBS, 2018d, f. TABLE 2-3 Comparison of Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines in 2000 and 2015, by Gender Doctoral Degrees Earned by Women Doctoral Degrees Earned by Men Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 10,838 20,150 9,312 85.9 17,024 24,371 7,347 43.2 Engineering 835 2,426 1,591 190.5 4,549 7,980 3,431 75.4 Science 9,329 16,264 6,935 74.3 12,475 16,391 3,916 31.4 Agricultural sciences 321 665 344 107.2 663 716 53 8.0 Biological sciences 2,202 4,179 1,977 89.8 2,790 3,711 921 33.0 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 166 359 193 116.3 413 468 55 13.3 Computer sciences 131 439 308 235.1 646 1,512 866 134.1 Mathematics and statistics 274 503 229 83.6 807 1,299 492 61.0 Chemistry 664 1,206 542 81.6 1,426 1,700 274 19.2 Physics 158 367 209 132.3 1,050 1,473 423 40.3 Social and behavioral sciences 4,540 6,046 1,506 33.2 3,642 3,904 262 7.2 Medical and other health sciences 1,509 3,886 2,377 157.5 930 1,457 527 56.7 SOURCES: NBS, 2018d, f. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

32 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY DATA AND TRENDS BY RACE AND ETHNICITY The greatest benefit to U.S. society will only come when students from all segments of U.S. society and backgrounds succeed in graduate school through a supportive atmosphere that begins to reverse a long history of underrepresentation and exclusion across many STEM and non-STEM fields alike. NCSES data show that the makeup of the student population in STEM graduate programs does not reflect the diversity of the United States. 6 The demographic composition of the U.S. resident population is shifting, as noted in Figure 2-3, with the percentage of individuals identifying as white falling from nearly 70 percent in the 24 to 65 age group to slightly above 50 percent for those under age 18. In contrast, the proportion of individuals identifying as Hispanic or Latino/a, belonging to two or more racial groups (non- Hispanic), or as American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN) increases steadily as the age of the group declines. For blacks or African Americans, the proportion increases in the 18- to 24-year- old group, and while the proportion decreases for those under age 18, it remains higher than the proportion of the oldest age group. Overall, these shifts in the composition of younger U.S. residents mean that the pool of potential graduate students will change as well. 6 This report uses the racial and ethnic group categories as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget and adopted by the National Science Foundation (NCSES, 2017b). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 33 Percent of total population within age group 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Two or more American Indian Black or African Asian, Native Hispanic or Latino White races, not or Alaska Native American Hawaiian, or Hispanic Other Pacific Islander Race or ethnicity Under 18 years 18-24 years 24-65 years FIGURE 2-3 Proportion of U.S. resident population, by race and or ethnicity, across age groups, in 2014. Note: Hispanic may be of any race. While additional figures in this chapter include the category “Other or unknown race and ethnicity,” the data made available in the source material did not include this category. For consistency with the other figures in this report, the category “Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander” combines the categories of “Asian” and “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.” The field used in Figure 2-3 and for subsequent figures reference categories that shifted over time. Two or more races were not collected until 2011. SOURCE: NCSES, 2017. The way in which federal agencies have collected information on race and ethnicity has also changed between 2000 and 2015: Beginning in 2011, some students may be classified as multiracial who in the past may have been reported as American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian and Pacific Islander, black, Hispanic, or white. The number of students with a multiracial identity accounted for about 500 doctoral degree awards in 2015. (NSB, 2018h 7) Figures 2-4, 2-5, 2-6, and 2-7 include the two or more races category beginning in 2015. Although the number of degrees awarded to this group in 2015 was not insignificant (3,105 at the master’s and 505 at the doctoral level), the NCSES states that the addition of the category did 7 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science-and- engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states#s-e-doctoral-degrees (accessed March 16, 2018). 8 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in- science-and-engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states#s-e-doctoral-degrees (accessed March 16, 2018). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

34 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY not likely have a major impact on the trends in race and ethnicity regarding how those data had been collected prior to 2011 (NSB, 2018h 8). Historically underrepresented racial and ethnic groups who hold master’s degrees significantly outnumber those with Ph.D.’s in STEM fields, but witness similar kinds of trends in terms of gender and racial/ethnic representation. NCSES notes that at the master’s level, the proportion of STEM degrees earned by students from historically underrepresented racial and ethnic groups increased from 14 percent to 21 percent in 2000 to 2015 (NSB, 2018h 9), with Hispanic and Latino/a students showing the largest growth at nearly 202 percent. AIAN students, on the other hand, experienced the slowest rate of growth at the master’s level overall, at close to 43 percent. 8 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science-and- engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states#s-e-doctoral-degrees (accessed March 16, 2018). 9 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science- andengineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states#s-e-master-s-degrees (accessed March 16, 2018). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 35 Number of Degrees Awarded 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year Two or more races** Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander* Asian* Asian or Pacific Islander* American Indian or Alaska Native Other or unknown race and ethnicity Black or African American Hispanic or Latino White FIGURE 2-4 Master’s degrees awarded in STEM fields, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2015, selected years. Notes: Asian or Pacific Islander was a category from 2000 to 2010. Starting in 2011, the two categories split into Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. SOURCE: NBS, 2018e. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

36 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Number of Degrees Awarded 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year Two or more races** Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander* Asian* Asian or Pacific Islander* American Indian or Alaska Native Other or unknown race and ethnicity Black or African American Hispanic or Latino FIGURE 2-5 Detail of master’s degrees awarded in STEM fields, for racial and ethnic minorities, 2000-2015, selected years. SOURCE: NSB, 2018e. At the doctoral level, the number of degrees earned by all racial and ethnic groups grew between 2000 and 2015. One of the most historically well-represented groups, white students, had the lowest increase in annual degrees earned between 2000 and 2015, at 32 percent. Trends for Asian students, another historically well-represented group, are more challenging to isolate due to the data collection practices mentioned previously; however, given the relatively small number of students in 2015 who identified as Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Figures 2-5 and 2-6 show a general increasing trend for Asian students. Hispanic or Latino/a students, in comparison, had the greatest increase in that time period at 160 percent. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 37 20,000 Number of Degrees Awarded 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year Two or more races* Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander** Asian** Asian or Pacific Islander** American Indian or Alaska Native Other or unknown race and ethnicity Black or African American Hispanic or Latino White FIGURE 2-6 Doctoral degrees awarded in STEM fields, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2015, selected years. SOURCE: NSB, 2018g. 3,000 Number of Degrees Awarded 2,000 1,000 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Two or more races* Year Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander** Asian** Asian or Pacific Islander** American Indian or Alaska Native Other or unknown race and ethnicity Black or African American Hispanic or Latino FIGURE 2-7 Detail of doctoral degrees awarded in STEM fields, for racial and ethnic minorities, 2000-2015, selected years. SOURCE: NSB, 2018g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

38 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY While the view of STEM degrees earned by each racial and ethnic group provides a broad understanding of degrees earned annually, the trends within group at the disciplinary level can identify fields that have experienced increases in representation at the graduate level. In the following analyses by racial or ethnic group, note that in the event of a low base number, the percentage change between 2000 and 2015 in degrees earned per year is more significant. From 2000 to 2015, AIAN students saw the most growth in agricultural sciences at the master’s level at nearly 74 percent, while the number of AIAN master’s students in engineering, chemistry, and earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences, experienced a sharp decrease at −7.8, −20, and −33.3 percent, respectively, and no growth in mathematics and statistics (Table 2-4). For STEM doctoral degrees, where the annual number of degrees awarded remains small in relation to the total number of degrees awarded to all racial and ethnic groups and subject to sharper percentage changes, the largest growth for AIAN students was in the agricultural sciences, with a 300 percent increase, but there was no growth in computer sciences and a decrease in the number of AIAN doctoral students in earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences, mathematics and statistics, and chemistry at −50, −50, and −28.6 percent, respectively. TABLE 2-4 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by American Indian or Alaska Native Students in 2000 and 2015 Master's Degrees Earned by American Indian Doctoral Degrees Earned by American or Alaska Native Students Indian or Alaska Native Students Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 383 548 165 43.1 82 137 55 67.1 Engineering 64 59 −5 −7.8 5 12 7 140.0 Science 319 489 170 53.3 77 125 48 62.3 Agricultural sciences 23 40 17 73.9 2 8 6 300.0 Biological sciences 26 43 17 65.4 8 24 16 200.0 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 9 6 −3 −33.3 6 3 −3 −50.0 Computer sciences 32 53 21 65.6 0 4 4 0.0 Mathematics and statistics 9 9 0 0.0 2 1 −1 −50.0 Chemistry 5 4 −1 −20.0 7 5 −2 −28.6 Physics 3 3 0 0.0 0 5 5 0.0 Social and behavioral sciences 211 331 120 56.9 43 54 11 25.6 Medical and other health sciences – – – – 8 20 12 150.0 SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 39 For Asian, Pacific Islander, or Native Hawaiian students, because of the changes in the data collection process, the trends between the two groups over the 2000 to 2015 time period are harder to discern. In Table 2-5, the master’s and doctoral degrees awarded for Asian or Pacific Islander appear as a comparison between 2000 and 2010. Starting in 2011, NCSES changed the categories, offering students the opportunity to identify as Asian or as Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Going forward, the division will allow researchers to differentiate the trends between Asian students, who have historically been well represented, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students, which have been less well represented in graduate STEM education. To align with the other tables, the degrees awarded in 2015 for these groups are noted. In the 2000 to 2010 period, master’s and doctoral degrees awarded to Asian or Pacific Islander students increased in almost every field, except for doctoral degrees in earth, atmospheric, and oceanic studies (which remained flat) and notably, master’s degrees which decreased from 2,068 to 1,470. TABLE 2-5 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Asian, Pacific Islander, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander Students, in 2000, 2010, and 2015 Master’s Degrees Doctoral Degrees Native Hawaiian Asian or or Other Asian or Pacific Pacific Pacific Native Hawaiian or Islander Asian Islander Islander Asian Other Pacific Islander Field 2000 2010 2015 2015 2000 2010 2015 2015 S&E 7,032 9,959 10,976 269 1,518 2,325 2,669 34 Engineering 2380 3,736 3,469 35 380 517 664 1 Science 4,652 6,223 7,507 234 1,334 1,808 2,005 33 Agricultural sciences 94 165 166 12 26 32 35 1 Biological sciences 595 1,245 1,723 20 429 650 667 8 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 22 45 53 2 15 15 17 1 Computer sciences 2,068 1,470 2,174 38 56 124 112 0 Mathematics and statistics 180 459 553 4 71 84 80 2 Chemistry 172 186 183 1 124 151 174 3 Physics 53 93 73 1 52 60 73 2 Social and behavioral sciences 1,453 2,548 2,566 156 355 415 484 8 Medical and other health sciences – – – – 196 271 354 8 SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

40 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY For black and African American students, there has been growth in almost every field at both degree levels, aside from physics; however, the small base number renders the percentage change prone to dramatic swings (Table 2-6). For instance, the field that saw the most growth at the master’s level was earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences, with a nearly 550 percent growth from 2000 to 2015, resulting from an increase from 7 to 45 degrees awarded per year. In a more robust field, engineering master’s degrees doubled over the 15-year period. Also notable was the 23 percent drop in master’s degrees conferred among this group for physics. For black and African American students, overall growth in STEM doctoral degrees at 126 percent exceeded that of engineering at 81 percent, while the number of computer science doctoral degrees and in the medical and other health sciences awarded to black and African American students increased by 280 percent and 420 percent, respectively, from 2000 to 2015. Black and African American students earned 5 percent fewer doctoral degrees in physics over this period. TABLE 2-6 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM disciplines, by Black or African American Students, in 2000 and 2015 Master's Degrees Earned by Black or Doctoral Degrees Earned by Black or African African American Students American Students Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 5,563 13,239 7,676 138.0 821 1,855 1,034 125.9 Engineering 658 1,323 665 101.1 91 165 74 81.3 Science 4,905 11,916 7,011 142.9 730 1,690 960 131.5 Agricultural sciences 84 189 105 125.0 20 31 11 55.0 Biological sciences 223 847 624 279.8 106 219 113 106.6 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 7 45 38 542.9 3 11 8 266.7 Computer sciences 650 1,913 1,263 194.3 15 57 42 280.0 Mathematics and statistics 98 204 106 108.2 13 20 7 53.8 Chemistry 65 97 32 49.2 45 88 43 95.6 Physics 44 34 -10 -22.7 19 18 -1 -5.3 Social and behavioral sciences 3,726 8,579 4,853 130.2 414 757 343 82.9 Medical and other health sciences – – – – 94 488 394 419.1 SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 41 Hispanic and Latino/a students earning engineering master’s degrees increased at a slower rate than their rate for STEM master’s overall, but still with significant gains at 169 percent change over 15 years (Table 2-7). Strikingly, every discipline at the master’s level for this group saw more than 100 percent change during this time. Hispanic and Latino/a doctoral students earned degrees in engineering and earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences at nearly twice their rate of STEM overall, nearly 233 and 245 percent change compared to 160 percent. Additionally, medical and health sciences grew by 400 percent. The only discipline with less than 100 percent growth at the doctoral level for Hispanic and Latino/a students was the social and behavioral sciences, at almost 95 percent. TABLE 2-7 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Hispanic or Latino/a Students, in 2000 and 2015 Master's Degrees Earned by Hispanic or Doctoral Degrees Earned by Hispanic or Latino/a Students Latino/a Students Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 3,762 11,392 7,630 202.8 775 2,019 1,244 160.5 Engineering 852 2,290 1,438 168.8 86 286 200 232.6 Science 2,910 9,102 6,192 212.8 689 1,733 1,044 151.5 Agricultural sciences 133 314 181 136.1 13 47 34 261.5 Biological sciences 268 916 648 241.8 149 425 276 185.2 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 30 104 74 246.7 9 31 22 244.4 Computer sciences 308 1,056 748 242.9 13 42 29 223.1 Mathematics and statistics 100 298 198 198.0 12 35 23 191.7 Chemistry 56 123 67 119.6 45 100 55 122.2 Physics 34 100 66 194.1 19 44 25 131.6 Social and behavioral sciences 1,975 6,182 4,207 213.0 370 719 349 94.3 Medical and other health sciences - - - - 56 280 224 400.0 SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

42 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY For the relatively small number of students identifying as two or more races, the largest percentage change at the master’s level over the 2000-2015 period occurred in earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences at nearly 270 percent (Table 2-8). At the Ph.D. level, the increase in number of students of two or more races earning Ph.D.’s in engineering exceeded that of STEM overall, 172 percent compared to 148.5 percent. TABLE 2-8 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Students Identifying with Two or More Races, in 2000 and 2015 Master's Degrees Earned by Students Doctoral Degrees Earned by Students Identifying Two or More Races Identifying Two or More Races Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 1,335 3,105 1,770 132.6 202 502 300 148.5 Engineering 296 585 289 97.6 32 87 55 171.9 Science 1,039 2,520 1,481 142.5 170 415 245 144.1 Agricultural sciences 48 128 80 166.7 5 14 9 180.0 Biological sciences 110 332 222 201.8 44 110 66 150.0 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 9 33 24 266.7 1 8 7 700.0 Computer sciences 107 345 238 222.4 3 16 13 433.3 Mathematics and statistics 34 101 67 197.1 2 8 6 300.0 Chemistry 17 50 33 194.1 14 32 18 128.6 Physics 9 29 20 222.2 9 10 1 11.1 Social and behavioral sciences 698 1,495 797 114.2 69 145 76 110.1 Medical and other health sciences – – – – 20 68 48 240.0 SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 43 For students of other or unknown race, the greatest growth at the master’s level occurred in the biological sciences, with just over a 200 percent increase, while the smallest increase occurred in chemistry, at just over a 20 percent increase (Table 2-9). At the doctoral level, students of other or unknown race increased the number of medical and other health sciences and agricultural sciences Ph.D.’s they earned by 415 percent and 259 percent, respectively, nearly double that of the 133 percent increase in all STEM Ph.D.’s they earned. TABLE 2-9 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Students Identifying Other or Unknown Race and Ethnicity, in 2000 and 2015 Master's Degrees Earned by Students Doctoral Degrees Earned by Students Identifying Other or Unknown Race and Identifying Other or Unknown Race and Ethnicity Ethnicity Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 4,545 9,833 5,288 116.3 1,034 2,408 1,374 132.9 Engineering 940 1,723 783 83.3 146 382 236 161.6 Science 3,605 8,110 4,505 125.0 888 2,026 1,138 128.2 Agricultural sciences 144 290 146 101.4 22 79 57 259.1 Biological sciences 284 853 569 200.4 187 381 194 103.7 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 46 109 63 137.0 32 51 19 59.4 Computer sciences 663 1,397 734 110.7 29 98 69 237.9 Mathematics and statistics 142 278 136 95.8 33 78 45 136.4 Chemistry 82 99 17 20.7 85 142 57 67.1 Physics 42 101 59 140.5 57 102 45 78.9 Social and behavioral sciences 2,190 4,963 2,773 126.6 378 782 404 106.9 Medical and other health sciences – – – – 57 294 237 415.8 SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

44 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY From 2000 to 2015, the number of master’s degrees in engineering conferred to white students rose by nearly 40 percent, just shy of growth among that population for STEM master’s degrees overall at 45 percent change (Table 2-10). With a 75 percent increase, the biological sciences saw the largest growth in master’s degrees awarded to white students. At the doctoral level, the medical and other health sciences experienced the large growth—an almost 105 percent increase—while physics and biological sciences kept pace with overall STEM growth at 38 percent and almost 37 percent, respectively, and the social and behavioral sciences saw a slight decrease with a −4 percent change. TABLE 2-10 Comparison of Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by White Students, in 2000 and 2015 Master's Degrees Earned by White Students Doctoral Degrees Earned by White Students Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 50,130 72,869 22,739 45.4 14,975 19,714 4,739 31.6 Engineering 11,020 15,263 4,243 38.5 1,948 3,023 1,075 55.2 Science 39,110 57,606 18,496 47.3 13,027 16,691 3,664 28.1 Agricultural sciences 2,864 3,860 996 34.8 470 673 203 43.2 Biological sciences 4,183 7,309 3,126 74.7 2,845 3,886 1,041 36.6 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 1,036 1,512 476 45.9 344 444 100 29.1 Computer sciences 4,641 7,223 2,582 55.6 289 535 246 85.1 Mathematics and statistics 1,655 2,730 1,075 65.0 457 676 219 47.9 Chemistry 930 1,058 128 13.8 1,030 1,243 213 20.7 Physics 585 903 318 54.4 561 774 213 38.0 Social and behavioral sciences 22,956 32,825 9,869 43.0 5,406 5,190 −216 −4.0 Medical and other health sciences – – – – 1,544 3,155 1,611 104.3 SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 45 Reviews of data and trends by gender or by race and ethnicity can highlight important issues; however, the segmentation solely in those major categories can obscure trends at the intersection of gender and race and ethnicity. Identifying trends not just across disciplines, but also within specific groups, provides a much more thorough perspective on the state of representation in STEM higher education as a whole. According to the SEI 2018: In 2015, women earned more than half of the master’s degrees awarded to their respective racial or ethnic group in the social and behavioral sciences and in non-S&E fields but less than half of those in the natural sciences and engineering. Between 2000 and 2015, the proportion of natural sciences and engineering master’s degrees awarded to women rose among American Indians or Alaska Natives, declined among blacks, and remained relatively stable among Hispanics. (NSB, 2018h 10) Additionally, In 2015, women earned half or more of the doctoral degrees awarded to their respective racial or ethnic groups in the natural sciences, the social and behavioral sciences, and in non-S&E fields. Since 2000, the proportion of women earning doctorates increased in the natural sciences, social and behavioral sciences, and engineering in all racial and ethnic groups except for American Indians or Alaska Natives. (NSB, 2018h 11) These data do not account for trends over time, but rather present a snapshot of the system in 2015. One finding from these trends is that engineering students at both the master’s and doctoral levels and across all racial and ethnic groups are predominantly men (Table 2-11). The natural sciences follow this trend as well, though the difference between the percentage of male and female students is smaller than that within engineering. In the social and behavioral sciences, on the other hand, students at both the master’s and doctoral levels are predominantly female. In engineering, for all groups and at both the master’s and doctoral levels, men earned more degrees in engineering than women, and the total number of women earning those degrees represent roughly a third or less of the total students across all racial and ethnic groups. In the natural sciences, the numbers are slightly more balanced, and in social and behavioral science, the situation is reversed, with women in all groups earning at least two-thirds of the degrees at both the master’s and doctoral levels. Overall, black and African American students account for the greatest proportional difference within groups between genders among all racial and ethnic groups, most notably in natural sciences and social and behavioral sciences. Interestingly, white women have the lowest share of engineering master’s and doctoral degrees compared to other gender splits among the other racial and ethnic groups. 10 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science-and- engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states (accessed March 16, 2018). The natural sciences include agricultural sciences, biological sciences, and earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences. At the doctoral level, medical sciences and other health sciences are included under natural sciences and consequently under S&E because at this level, these degrees are research degrees. 11 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science-and- engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states (accessed March 16, 2018). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

46 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY TABLE 2-11 Master’s and Doctoral Degrees Awarded to U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents, by Sex, Race, Ethnicity, and Broad Field Category in 2015 Master’s Degrees Race or ethnicity All Female Male Percent Female Percent Male American Indian or Alaska Native S&E 548 311 237 56.8 43.2 Engineering 59 18 41 30.5 69.5 Natural sciences 158 71 87 44.9 55.1 Social and behavioral sciences 331 222 109 67.1 32.9 Black or African American S&E 13,239 8,415 4,824 63.6 36.4 Engineering 1,323 370 953 28.0 72.0 Natural sciences 3,337 1,538 1,799 46.1 53.9 Social and behavioral sciences 8,579 6,507 2,072 75.8 24.2 Hispanic or Latino/a S&E 11,392 6,008 5,384 52.7 47.3 Engineering 2,290 555 1,735 24.2 75.8 Natural sciences 2,920 1,238 1,682 42.4 57.6 Social and behavioral sciences 6,182 4,215 1,967 68.2 31.8 White S&E 72,869 34,368 38,501 47.2 52.8 Engineering 15,263 3,275 11,988 21.5 78.5 Natural sciences 24,781 10,267 14,514 41.4 58.6 Social and behavioral sciences 32,825 20,826 11,999 63.4 36.6 Asian or Pacific Islander S&E 11,245 4,968 6,277 44.2 55.8 Engineering 3,504 1,031 2,473 29.4 70.6 Natural sciences 5,019 2,183 2,836 43.5 56.5 Social and behavioral sciences 2,722 1,754 968 64.4 35.6 Other or unknown race and ethnicity S&E 12,938 6,661 6,277 51.5 48.5 Engineering 2,308 536 1,772 23.2 76.8 Natural sciences 4,172 1,750 2,422 41.9 58.1 Social and behavioral sciences 6,458 4,375 2,083 67.7 32.3 Doctoral Degrees Race or ethnicity All Female Male Percent Female Percent Male American Indian or Alaska Native S&E 131 78 53 59.5 40.5 Engineering 12 4 8 33.3 66.7 Natural sciences 65 34 31 52.3 47.7 Social and behavioral sciences 54 40 14 74.1 25.9 Black or African American S&E 1,593 1,186 618 74.5 38.8 Engineering 165 55 110 33.3 66.7 Natural sciences 671 422 249 62.9 37.1 Social and behavioral sciences 757 549 208 72.5 27.5 Hispanic or Latino S&E 1,869 1,005 864 53.8 46.2 PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 47 Master’s Degrees Race or ethnicity All Female Male Percent Female Percent Male Engineering 286 72 214 25.2 74.8 Natural sciences 864 441 423 51.0 49.0 Social and behavioral sciences 719 492 227 68.4 31.6 White S&E 18,544 8,828 9,716 47.6 52.4 Engineering 3,023 707 2,316 23.4 76.6 Natural sciences 10,331 4,908 5,423 47.5 52.5 Social and behavioral sciences 5,190 3,213 1,977 61.9 38.1 Asian or Pacific Islander S&E 2,495 1,256 1,239 50.3 49.7 Engineering 665 205 460 30.8 69.2 Natural sciences 1,338 713 625 53.3 46.7 Social and behavioral sciences 492 338 154 68.7 31.3 Other or unknown race and ethnicity S&E 2,757 1,337 1,420 48.5 51.5 Engineering 469 121 348 25.8 74.2 Natural sciences 1,361 743 771 54.6 56.6 Social and behavioral sciences 927 589 338 63.5 36.5 NOTE: At the doctoral level, medical sciences and other health sciences are not included under natural sciences and consequently under S&E. While previous tables and figures have separated Asian or Pacific Islander in 2015, the source data for this table provided a single category for this tabulation. SOURCE: Adapted from NSB (2018a) and WebCASPAR. DATA AND TRENDS BY CITIZENSHIP Another critical component of graduate student demographics is the increasing proportion of international students in the STEM graduate student population. Individuals who do not hold U.S. citizenships or permanent residence and who pursue higher education in the United States do so under a special class of nonimmigrant visa, category F-1 (USCIS, 2018b). This visa allows students to study full-time at an accredited college or university providing that the program ultimately confers a degree, diploma, or certificate. Students on F-1 visas are not eligible to work off campus during their degree with certain exemptions such as a STEM Optional Practical Training Extension (OPT) (USCIS, 2018a). These are 24-month extensions available to students who have earned a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree from an accredited school. Individuals on F-1 visas also do not have the same access to federal funding sources as American citizens or permanent residents, and are similarly not eligible for government-sponsored aid programs such as the Pell Grant, the Federal Supplemental Education Opportunity Grant, Stafford Loan, Perkins Loan, PLUS Loan, and Federal Work-Study program. This restriction excludes students with an Arrival-Departure Record (I-94) from U.S. Citizen and Immigration Services (USCIS), or who qualify as a “battered immigrant-qualified alien” (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). According to the Brookings Institution, the number of students studying in the United States on F-1 visas has grown dramatically in recent years, and they are disproportionately studying STEM and business. Over the past 20 years, temporary visa holders earning doctorates have increasingly preferred to stay in the United States immediately following graduation, a measure referred to as PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

48 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY the “stay rate.” For instance, as of 2014, 45 percent of international students extended their visas in order to work in the United States after graduation, primarily in the same geographic area in which they earned their degrees. The lack of longitudinal data on international student employment limits the granularity of data available on stay rates. However, this influx of global talent has boosted the economy in significant ways, including contributing to an increase of more than $39 billion to our economy in 2016 (IIE, 2017). Stay rates are highest in fields where temporary visa holders are most prevalent: engineering, physical sciences, and life sciences (NCSES, 2015). For STEM master’s degrees, the rate of temporary visa holders continued a general upward trend and increased dramatically from 2014 to 2015, especially remarkable when compared to rates for white and ethnic minorities during that same time (NSB, 2018i, Fig. 2-15). At the doctoral level, the rate of visa holders earning STEM Ph.D.’s tapered off from 2014 to 2015, after a gradual rate of growth for several years earlier. For that last year of data collection, the rate of growth for white students and students from underrepresented minorities earning STEM Ph.D.’s outpaced that of visa holders, Asian or Pacific Islanders, and those of unknown or other race or ethnicity (NSB, 2018i, Fig. 2-18). 140,000 120,000 100,000 Number of students 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year Master's (U.S. Citizen or Permanent Resident) Master's (Temporary visa holder) Doctoral (U.S. Citizen or Permanent Resident) Doctoral (Temporary visa holder) FIGURE 2-8 Graduate degrees awarded in STEM fields, by citizenship status, 2000-2015. SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 49 In terms of the most popular countries of origin for temporary visa holders in the U.S. graduate STEM education system, NCSES reports: The top sending locations in 2017 continued to be India and China, accounting for 69% of the international S&E graduate students in the United States, followed by Iran, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, and Taiwan (Appendix Table 2-26). Compared to 2016, the number of graduate S&E students from India, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and South Korea declined in 2017 (by 19%, 11%, 1%, and 1% respectively) while the number from China and Taiwan increased (by 4% and 5% respectively). About 8 in 10 graduate students from India, Iran, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka and more than 6 in 10 of graduate students from China, Pakistan, and Nepal were enrolled in an S&E field. In the case of Iran, more than half of them were enrolled in engineering; in the case of Bangladesh, 42%. In contrast, more than 60% of the international students from Canada, South Korea, Brazil and Japan were enrolled in non-S&E fields. (NSB, 2018h 12) From 2000 to 2015, temporary visa holders earning master’s degrees in STEM increased by more than 136 percent, compared to just over 71 percent for American citizens (see Table 2- 12). Similarly, temporary visa holders earning doctoral degrees in STEM increased by more than 80 percent over the same period of time despite the tapering between 2014 and 2015 mentioned previously, while the number of American citizens earning doctoral STEM degrees increased by just over 40 percent (see Table 2-13). Temporary visa holders have seen a higher percentage increase in degrees earned in every field at the master’s and doctoral levels, except for physics and social and behavioral sciences at the master’s level and agricultural sciences at the doctoral level. For overall enrollment, the Council of Graduate Schools found for fall 2016 that, “International students comprised the largest share of first-time graduate students in mathematics and computer sciences (60.7%), followed closely by engineering (55.7%)” (CGS, 2017). 12 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science-and- engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states#graduate-enrollment-by-field (accessed March 16, 2018). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

50 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY TABLE 2-12 Comparison of Master’s Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Citizenship Status, in 2000 and 2015 Master’s Degrees Earned by Temporary Visa Holders Master’s Degrees Earned by U.S. Citizens Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 24,815 58,724 33,909 136.6 71,415 122,231 50,816 71.2 Engineering 9,824 24,460 14,636 149.0 15,914 24,747 8,833 55.5 Science 14,991 34,264 19,273 128.6 55,501 97,484 41,983 75.6 Agricultural sciences 516 793 277 53.7 3,342 4,999 1,657 49.6 Biological sciences 750 2,327 1,577 210.3 5,579 12,043 6,464 115.9 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 195 348 153 78.5 1,150 1,864 714 62.1 Computer sciences 6,624 17,353 10,729 162.0 8,362 14,199 5,837 69.8 Mathematics and statistics 1,111 4,092 2,981 268.3 2,184 4,177 1,993 91.3 Chemistry 599 876 277 46.2 1,310 1,615 305 23.3 Physics 483 690 207 42.9 761 1,244 483 63.5 Social and behavioral sciences 4,655 7,712 3,057 65.7 32,511 57,097 24,586 75.6 SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. TABLE 2-13 Comparison of Doctoral Degrees Awarded in STEM Disciplines, by Citizenship Status, in 2000 and 2015 Doctoral Degrees Earned by Temporary Visa Holders Doctoral Degrees Earned by U.S. Citizens Numerical Percent Numerical Percent Field 2000 2015 Change Change 2000 2015 Change Change S&E 8,461 15,183 6,722 79.4 19,401 29,338 9,937 51.2 Engineering 2,728 5,786 3,058 112.1 2,656 4,620 1,964 73.9 Science 5,733 9,397 3,664 63.9 16,745 24,718 7,973 47.6 Agricultural sciences 431 493 62 14.4 553 888 335 60.6 Biological sciences 1,268 2,170 902 71.1 3,724 5,720 1,996 53.6 Earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences 170 261 91 53.5 409 566 157 38.4 Computer sciences 375 1,087 712 189.9 402 864 462 114.9 Mathematics and statistics 493 902 409 83.0 588 900 312 53.1 Chemistry 754 1,119 365 48.4 1,336 1,787 451 33.8 Physics 500 812 312 62.4 708 1,028 320 45.2 Social and behavioral sciences 1,216 1,811 595 48.9 6,966 8,139 1,173 16.8 Medical and other health sciences 484 676 192 39.7 1,955 4,667 2,712 138.7 SOURCES: NSB, 2018e, g. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 51 The most recent data from CGS show that there was a decline in temporary visa holder enrollment between 2016 and 2017 in all fields. For STEM, graduate enrollment for first-time international students declined 5 percent in the biological and agricultural sciences; 10 percent in engineering; 2 percent in mathematics and computer sciences; 6 percent in physical and earth sciences; and 1 percent in social and behavioral sciences (Okahana and Zhou, 2017). Graduate deans have faced challenges in interpreting the recent decline in enrollment: We do not know whether this is because of fewer applications submitted, fewer applications approved, or a combination of both. An examination of admission yields offers additional insight, as the decline suggests that fewer students are willing to pursue opportunities for graduate education in the United States, even when acceptance into a degree program is offered to them . . . . While the survey [CGS Pressing Issues Survey] cannot pinpoint particular factors that might be shaping such shifts, the uncertainty with prospects of post-graduate school employment under optional practical training and/or H- 1B visa programs, as well as opportunities to pursue graduate education in other English- speaking countries, may in part explain some of the declines graduate deans are observing. Of course, national visa and immigration policies will continue to play a critical role in the continuing participation of international students, who have the potential to contribute to innovation and discovery, in the U.S. scientific enterprise. DATA AND TRENDS BY DISABILITY STATUS When considering issues of diversity and inclusion in STEM, it is important to consider other traditionally underrepresented groups such as those who have disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act defines a disability as “a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.” 13 In STEM, this population is not insignificant: there were approximately 50,800 graduate students enrolled in STEM fields with a disability in 2012 (NCSES, 2017 14). From SEI 2018: In 2014, 7% of S&E doctorate recipients reported having a disability; they were fairly similar to those who did not report a disability in terms of broad field of study. Nearly half of the S&E doctorate recipients who reported one or more disabilities of any type indicated that they had visual disabilities, 40% reported cognitive disabilities, 18% reported hearing disabilities, 10% reported lifting disabilities, and 6% reported walking disabilities. (NSB, 2018h 15) Notably absent from the indicators are any data concerning similar trends within disciplines or at the master’s level, which limits their generalizability in comparison to the data presented earlier in this chapter. Additionally, these numbers may be low as a result of underreporting. Organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science 13 See https://adata.org/faq/what-definition-disability-under-ada (accessed March 20, 2018). 14 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2017/nsf17310/static/data/tab3-7.pdf (accessed on March 16, 2018). 15 See https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in-science- andengineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states (accessed on March 16, 2018). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

52 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY have specific programming directed at making STEM graduate education more accessible to students with disabilities 16, with the aim of increasing the representation of this population in engineering and the sciences. Future efforts at supporting graduate students with disabilities would be bolstered by more thorough accounting of these individuals among the various STEM disciplines. 16 See https://www.aaas.org/program/entrypoint (accessed on March 21, 2018). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

TRENDS IN GRADUATE STEM DEGREES EARNED IN THE UNITED STATES 53 REFERENCES AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 2009. Career trends: Careers away from the bench. Advice and options for scientists. Available: http://www.sciencemag.org/sites/default/files/documents/away_from_the_bench_1.pdf (accessed January 22, 2018). CGS (Council of Graduate Schools). 2017. Healthy growth in master’s enrollment continues at U.S. graduate schools. Available: http://cgsnet.org/healthy-growth-master%E2%80%99s- enrollment-continues-us-graduate-schools (accessed March 18, 2018) IIE (Institute of International Education). Open Doors 2017 Executive Summary. Available: https://www.iie.org/Why-IIE/Announcements/2017-11-13-Open-Doors-2017-Executive- Summary (accessed March 16, 2018) NCSES (National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics). 2004. Science and engineering indicators 2004. Appendix Table 2-13. S&E graduate enrollment, by field and sex: Selected years, 1975–2001. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available https://wayback.archive- it.org/5902/20150818164912/http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind04/append/c2/at02- 13.pdf (accessed March 16, 2018). NCSES. 2015. Doctorate recipients from U.S. Universities. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. NCSES. 2017a. Doctorate recipients from U.S. universities: 2015. Special Report NSF 17-306. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available: https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2017/nsf17306/static/report/nsf17306.pdf (accessed March 26, 2018). NCSES. 2017b. Technical notes in Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 2017. Special Report NSF 17-310. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available: https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2017/nsf17310/technical- notes.cfm#reporting-categories (accessed December 21, 2017). NCSES. 2017. Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2017. Special Report NSF 17-310. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. NSB (National Science Board). 2018a. Appendix Table 2-20, Degrees awarded to U.S. citizens and permanent residents, by sex, race, ethnicity, broad field category, and degree level: 2000–15. Science and engineering indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/assets/561/tables/at02-20.pdf (accessed March 20, 2018). NSB. 2018b. Appendix Table 2-21, Earned bachelor’s degrees, by sex and field: 2000–15. Science and engineering indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/assets/561/tables/at02-21.pdf (accessed March 13, 2018). NSB. 2018c. Appendix Table 2-23, S&E graduate enrollment, by field: 2000–15. Science and engineering indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/assets/561/tables/at02-23.pdf (accessed March 26, 2018). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

54 GRADUATE STEM EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY NSB. 2018d. Appendix Table 2-27, Earned master’s degrees, by sex and field: 2000–15. Science and engineering indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/assets/561/tables/at02-27.pdf (Accessed March 13, 2018). NSB. 2018e. Appendix Table 2-28, Earned master’s degrees, by citizenship, field, race, and ethnicity: 2000–15. Science and engineering indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/assets/561/tables/at02-28.pdf (Accessed March 16, 2018). NSB. 2018f. Appendix Table 2-29, Earned doctoral degrees, by citizenship, field, and sex: 2000– 15. Science and engineering indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/assets/561/tables/at02-29.pdf (accessed March 13, 2018). NSB. 2018g. Appendix Table 2-32, Earned doctoral degrees, by citizenship, field, race, and ethnicity: 2000–15. Science and engineering indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/assets/561/tables/at02-32.pdf (accessed March 16, 2018). NSB. 2018h. Higher education in science and engineering. Chapter 2 in Science and engineering indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/2018/nsb20181/report/sections/higher-education-in- science-and-engineering/graduate-education-enrollment-and-degrees-in-the-united-states (accessed March 12, 2018). NSB. 2018i. Science and engineering indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2017. Education at a glance 2017: OECD Indicators. Table C4.1: International student mobility and foreign students in tertiary education (2015). Paris: OECDpublishing. http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/education-at-a- glance-2017_eag-2017-en#page302 (accessed January 22, 2018). Okahana, H., and E. Zhou. 2017. Graduate enrollment and degrees: 2006 to 2016. Council of Graduate Schools. Available: http://cgsnet.org/ckfinder/userfiles/files/Intl_Survey_Report_Fall2017.pdf (accessed March 18, 2018) USCIS (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services). 2018a. Optional practical training extension for STEM students (STEM OPT). Available: https://www.uscis.gov/working-united- states/students-and-exchange-visitors/students-and-employment/stem-opt (Accessed March 16, 2018). USCIS. 2018b. Students and employment. Available: https://www.uscis.gov/working-united- states/students-and-exchange-visitors/students-and-employment (accessed March 16, 2018). U.S. Department of Education, Office of Federal Student Aid. 2010. Student aid eligibility— Eligibility for Title IV aid for “battered immigrants-qualified aliens” as provided for in the Violence Against Women Act. Available: https://ifap.ed.gov/dpcletters/GEN1007.html (accessed March 16, 2018). PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

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The U.S. system of graduate education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has served the nation and its science and engineering enterprise extremely well. Over the course of their education, graduate students become involved in advancing the frontiers of discovery, as well as in making significant contributions to the growth of the U.S. economy, its national security, and the health and well-being of its people. However, continuous, dramatic innovations in research methods and technologies, changes in the nature and availability of work, shifts in demographics, and expansions in the scope of occupations needing STEM expertise raise questions about how well the current STEM graduate education system is meeting the full array of 21st century needs. Indeed, recent surveys of employers and graduates and studies of graduate education suggest that many graduate programs do not adequately prepare students to translate their knowledge into impact in multiple careers.

Graduate STEM Education for the 21st Century examines the current state of U.S. graduate STEM education. This report explores how the system might best respond to ongoing developments in the conduct of research on evidence-based teaching practices and in the needs and interests of its students and the broader society it seeks to serve. This will be an essential resource for the primary stakeholders in the U.S. STEM enterprise, including federal and state policymakers, public and private funders, institutions of higher education, their administrators and faculty, leaders in business and industry, and the students the system is intended to educate.

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