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Patricia A. Cuff and Erin Hammers Forstag, Rapporteurs Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education Board on Global Health Health and Medicine Division
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESSâ 500 Fifth Street, NWâ Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and Academic Collaborative for Integrative Health, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Aetna Founda- tion, American Academy of Nursing, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, American Board of Family Medicine, American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology/American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Council of Academic Physical Therapy, American Dental Education Association, American Medical Association, American Nurses Credentialing Cen- ter, American Occupational Therapy Association, American Osteopathic Associa- tion, American Physical Therapy Association, American Psychological Association, American Society for Nutrition, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Association of Schools of the Allied Health Professions, Athletic Training Strategic Alliance, Council on Social Work Education, Ghent University, Health Resources and Services Administration, Jonas Nursing and Veterans Healthcare, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, Michigan Center for Interprofessional Education, National Academies of Practice, National Association of Social Workers, National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates, National Board of Medical Examiners, National Council of State Boards of Nurs- ing, National League for Nursing, Office of Academic AffiliationsâVeterans Health Administration, Organization for Associate Degree Nursing, Physician Assistant Education Association, Society for Simulation in Healthcare, THEnetâTraining for Health Equity Network, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, University of Toronto, and Weill Cornell MedicineâQatar. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:â 978-0-309-47449-8 International Standard Book Number-10:â 0-309-47449-3 Digital Object Identifier:â https://doi.org/10.17226/25072 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Acad- emies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624- 6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Cover image provided by Victor Cid. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving health professional education and practice through technology: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25072.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Con- gress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and ad- vice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Â edicine M at www.nationalacademies.org.
Consensus Study Reports publishedÂ by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and MedicineÂ document the evidence-based consensusÂ on the studyâs statement of task by an authoring committee of experts.Â Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committeeâs deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it representsÂ theÂ positionÂ ofÂ the National Academies on the statement of task. ProceedingsÂ publishedÂ by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and MedicineÂ chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or otherÂ eventÂ convened by the National Academies. The statements and opin- ions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visitÂ www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.
PLANNING COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION AND PRACTICE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY1 Pamela Jeffries (Co-Chair), The George Washington University Christoph Pimmer (Co-Chair), University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Northwestern Switzerland David Benton, National Council of State Boards of Nursing Micki Cuppett, Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education Emilia Iwu, Rutgers University Elliot Maxwell, e-Maxwell and Associates Joel A. Nelson, Health Resources and Services Administration Ruth Nemire, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Diane Skiba, University of Colorado Denver Consultants Neil Gomes, Thomas Jefferson University and Jefferson Health System Patricia Hinton Walker, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Mary E. (Beth) Mancini, Society for Simulation in Healthcare Rudy Rubio, Coursera Susan Scrimshaw, The Sage Colleges Michelle Troseth, National Academies of Practice Paul Worley, Department of Health, Australia (since November 2017) 1â The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicineâs planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rap- porteurs and the institution. v
GLOBAL FORUM ON INNOVATION IN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION1 Malcolm Cox (Co-Chair), University of Pennsylvania, formerly U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Susan Scrimshaw (Co-Chair), The Sage Colleges Frank Ascione, University of Michigan Timi Agar Barwick, Physician Assistant Education Association David Benton, National Council of State Boards of Nursing Joanna Cain, University of Massachusetts School of Medicine Kathy Chappell, American Nurses Credentialing Center Steven Chesbro, American Physical Therapy Association Amy Aparicio Clark, Aetna Foundation Thomas Warren Clawson, National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates Darla Spence Coffey, Council on Social Work Education Darlene Curley, Jonas Nursing and Veterans Healthcare Jan de Maesenner, Ghent University Marietjie de Villiers, Stellenbosch University Kathrin (Katie) Eliot, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Elizabeth (Liza) Goldblatt, Academic Collaborative for Integrative Health Catherine Grus, American Psychological Association Neil Harvison, American Occupational Therapy Association Patricia Hinton Walker, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Eric Holmboe, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Elizabeth Hoppe, Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry Emilia Iwu, Jonas Nursing and Veterans Healthcare Pamela Jeffries, The George Washington University Sandeep (Sunny) Kishore, Young Professionals Chronic Disease Network Kathleen Klink, Veterans Health Administration Andrew MacCabe, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Laura MagaÃ±a Valladares, National Institute of Public Health Lucinda Maine, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Beverly Malone, National League for Nursing Mary E. (Beth) Mancini, Society for Simulation in Healthcare Angelo McClain, National Association of Social Workers 1â The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicineâs forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii
Mark Merrick, Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education Donna Meyer, Organization of Associate Degree Nursing Joel Nelson, Health Resources and Services Administration Warren Newton, American Board of Family Medicine Bjorg Palsdottir, Training for Health Equity Network (THEnet) Miguel Paniagua, National Board of Medical Examiners Rajata Rajatanavin, Mahidol University Scott Reeves, Kingston University & St. Georgeâs, University of London Edward Saltzman, American Society for Nutrition Lucy Savitz, Kaiser Permanente Nelson Sewankambo, Makerere University College of Health Sciences Stephen Shannon, American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Javaid I. Sheikh, Weill Cornell MedicineâQatar Susan Skochelak, American Medical Association Richard (Rick) Talbott, Association of Schools of the Allied Health Professions Zohray Talib, The George Washington University Maria Tassone, University of Toronto George Thibault, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation Deborah Trautman, American Association of Colleges of Nursing Michelle Troseth, National Academies of Practice Richard (Rick) W. Valachovic, American Dental Education Association Alison J. Whelan, Association of American Medical Colleges Adrienne White-Faines, American Osteopathic Association Holly Wise, American Council of Academic Physical Therapy Xuejun Zeng, Peking Union Medical College Brenda Zierler, University of Washington Health and Medicine Division Staff Patricia A. Cuff, Senior Program Officer Ambar Saeed, Research Associate Anna Fahlstrom, Senior Program Assistant Julie Pavlin, Director, Board on Global Health viii
Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Steven Chesbro, American Physical Therapy Association Elliot Maxwell, e-Maxwell and Associates Stephanie Miles-Richardson, Morehouse School of Medicine Diane Skiba, University of Colorado Denver Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Claire Pomeroy, Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with stan- dards of the National Academies and that all review comments were care- fully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. ix
Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION 7 3 BRIDGING THE EDUCATION-TO-PRACTICE GAP 19 4 TECHNOLOGY IN RESEARCH 29 5 APPLYING TECHNOLOGY TO REAL-LIFE PROBLEMS 37 6 MAKING CONNECTIONS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY 47 APPENDIXES A WORKSHOP STATEMENT OF TASK 57 B WORKSHOP AGENDA 61 C SPEAKER BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 67 D FORUM-SPONSORED PRODUCTS 81 xi