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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25072.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Improving Health Professional Education and Practice Through Technology PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Patricia A. Cuff and Erin Hammers Forstag, Rapporteurs Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education Board on Global Health Health and Medicine Division PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and Academic Collaborative for Integrative Health, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Aetna Foundation, American Academy of Nursing, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, American Board of Family Medicine, American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology/American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Council of Academic Physical Therapy, American Dental Education Association, American Medical Association, American Nurses Credentialing Center, American Occupational Therapy Association, American Osteopathic Association, American Physical Therapy Association, American Psychological Association, American Society for Nutrition, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges, Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Association of Schools of the Allied Health Professions, Athletic Training Strategic Alliance, Council on Social Work Education, Ghent University, Health Resources and Services Administration, Jonas Nursing and Veterans Healthcare, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, Michigan Center for Interprofessional Education, National Academies of Practice, National Association of Social Workers, National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates, National Board of Medical Examiners, National Council of State Boards of Nursing Inc., National League for Nursing, Office of Academic Affiliations— Veterans Health Administration, Organization for Associate Degree Nursing, Physician Assistant Education Association, Society for Simulation in Healthcare, THEnet—Training for Health Equity Network, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, University of Toronto, and Weill Cornell Medicine—Qatar. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25072 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover image provided by Victor Cid. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Improving health professional education and practice through technology: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25702. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION AND PRACTICE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY1 PAMELA JEFFRIES (Co-Chair), The George Washington University CHRISTOPH PIMMER (Co-Chair), University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Northwestern Switzerland DAVID BENTON, National Council of State Boards of Nursing MICKI CUPPETT, Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education EMILIA IWU, Rutgers University ELLIOT MAXWELL, e-Maxwell and Associates JOEL A. NELSON, Health Resources and Service Administration RUTH NEMIRE, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy DIANE SKIBA, University of Colorado Denver Consultants NEIL GOMES, Thomas Jefferson University and Jefferson Health System PATRICIA HINTON WALKER, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences MARY E. (BETH) MANCINI, Society for Simulation in Healthcare RUDY RUBIO, Coursera SUSAN SCRIMSHAW, The Sage Colleges MICHELLE TROSETH, National Academies of Practice PAUL WORLEY, Department of Health, Australia (since November 2017) 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

GLOBAL FORUM ON INNOVATION IN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION1 MALCOLM COX (Co-Chair), University of Pennsylvania, formerly U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs SUSAN SCRIMSHAW (Co-Chair), The Sage Colleges FRANK ASCIONE, University of Michigan TIMI AGAR BARWICK, Physician Assistant Education Association DAVID BENTON, National Council of State Boards of Nursing JOANNA CAIN, University of Massachusetts School of Medicine KATHY CHAPPELL, American Nurses Credentialing Center STEVEN CHESBRO, American Physical Therapy Association AMY APARICIO CLARK, Aetna Foundation THOMAS WARREN CLAWSON, National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates DARLA SPENCE COFFEY, Council on Social Work Education DARLENE CURLEY, Jonas Nursing and Veterans Healthcare JAN DE MAESENNER, Ghent University MARIETJIE DE VILLIERS, Stellenbosch University KATHRIN (KATIE) ELIOT, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics ELIZABETH (LIZA) GOLDBLATT, Academic Collaborative for Integrative Health CATHERINE GRUS, American Psychological Association NEIL HARVISON, American Occupational Therapy Association PATRICIA HINTON WALKER, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences ERIC HOLMBOE, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education ELIZABETH HOPPE, Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry EMILIA IWU, Jonas Nursing and Veterans Healthcare PAMELA JEFFRIES, George Washington University SANDEEP (SUNNY) KISHORE, Young Professionals Chronic Disease Network KATHLEEN KLINK, Veterans Health Administration ANDREW MACCABE, Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges LAURA MAGAÑA VALLADARES, National Institute of Public Health LUCINDA MAINE, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy BEVERLY MALONE, National League for Nursing MARY E. (BETH) MANCINI, Society for Simulation in Healthcare ANGELO MCCLAIN, National Association of Social Workers LEMMIETTA G. MCNEILLY, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association MARK MERRICK, Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education DONNA MEYER, Organization of Associate Degree Nursing JOEL NELSON, Health Resources and Services Administration WARREN NEWTON, American Board of Family Medicine BJORG PALSDOTTIR, Training for Health Equity Network (THEnet) MIGUEL PANIAGUA, National Board of Medical Examiners RAJATA RAJATANAVIN, Mahidol University SCOTT REEVES, Kingston University & St. George’s, University of London EDWARD SALTZMAN, American Society for Nutrition 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

viii GLOBAL FORUM ON INNOVATION IN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION LUCY SAVITZ, Kaiser Permanente NELSON SEWANKAMBO, Makerere University College of Health Sciences STEPHEN SHANNON, American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine JAVAID I. SHEIKH, Weill Cornell Medicine—Qatar SUSAN SKOCHELAK, American Medical Association RICHARD (RICK) TALBOTT, Association of Schools of the Allied Health Professions ZOHRAY TALIB, The George Washington University MARIA TASSONE, University of Toronto GEORGE THIBAULT, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation DEBORAH TRAUTMAN, American Association of Colleges of Nursing MICHELLE TROSETH, National Academies of Practice RICHARD (RICK) W. VALACHOVIC, American Dental Education Association ALISON J. WHELAN, Association of American Medical Colleges ADRIENNE WHITE-FAINES, American Osteopathic Association HOLLY WISE, American Council of Academic Physical Therapy XUEJUN ZENG, Peking Union Medical College BRENDA ZIERLER, University of Washington Health and Medicine Division Staff PATRICIA A. CUFF, Senior Program Officer AMBAR SAEED, Research Associate ANNA FAHLSTROM, Senior Program Assistant JULIE PAVLIN, Board Director, Board on Global Health PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

REVIEWERS This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: STEVEN CHESBRO, American Physical Therapy Association ELLIOT MAXWELL, e-Maxwell and Associates STEPHANIE MILES-RICHARDSON, Morehouse School of Medicine DIANE SKIBA, University of Colorado Denver Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by CLAIRE POMEROY, Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS ix

CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 2 TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION 2-1 3 BRIDGING THE EDUCATION TO PRACTICE GAP 3-1 4 TECHNOLOGY IN RESEARCH 4-1 5 APPLYING TECHNOLOGY TO REAL-LIFE PROBLEMS 5-1 6 MAKING CONNECTIONS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY 6-1 APPENDIXES A WORKSHOP STATEMENT OF TASK A-1 B WORKSHOP AGENDA B-1 C SPEAKER BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES C-1 D FORUM-SPONSORED PRODUCTS D-1 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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A pressing challenge in the modern health care system is the gap between education and clinical practice. Emerging technologies have the potential to bridge this gap by creating the kind of team-based learning environments and clinical approaches that are increasingly necessary in the modern health care system both in the United States and around the world. To explore these technologies and their potential for improving education and practice, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a workshop in November 2017. Participants explored effective use of technologies as tools for bridging identified gaps within and between health professions education and practice in order to optimize learning, performance and access in high-, middle-, and low-income areas while ensuring the well-being of the formal and informal health workforce. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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