National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality (2018)

Chapter: Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 6 - Using the EJT Calculation Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25085.
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35 Using the EJT Calculation Tools This chapter provides step-by-step instructions for using the Effective Journey Time (EJT) Calculator developed through the research and accompanying this report. Two versions of the tool are described: a simplified EJT Calculator that requires minimal data to use and a compre- hensive EJT Calculator that implements the full EJT calculation approach described in Chapter 5. The instructions detail how to use each version of the tool. Two worked examples are provided at the end of this chapter illustrating use of the tool. Tool Overview Both versions of the EJT Calculator are Microsoft Excel spreadsheets designed to run in Micro- soft Excel 2010 or higher. The tool has been tested in Windows 7, Windows 10, and macOS 10.12 operating systems. In the simplified version of the EJT Calculator, the components are reduced to two input sections, two summary charts, and four summary tables—all of which are contained in one worksheet. The full or comprehensive version of the EJT Calculator consists of six worksheets: a main navigation worksheet (Start Screen), four input worksheets (Base Case Parameters, Advanced Parameters, Future Case Parameters, and Future Advanced Parameters), and one results worksheet (Summary Results). Certain fields in the EJT Calculator are hidden to streamline use of the tool. The tool uses macros and you will be prompted to enable the use of these macros when the spreadsheet is opened. Unless otherwise specified, default values for the EJT Calculator, such as vehicle and guideway failure rates, have been populated based on previous TCRP research described in TCRP Reports 157 and 172 (Spy Pond Partners et al. 2012, Robert et al. 2014a). Using the Simplified EJT Calculator The simplified version of the EJT Calculator consists of one worksheet titled Simplified Model. To use the simplified version of the EJT Calculator, the user should enter data in the Basic Param- eters and Advanced Parameters sections. This simplified version of the tool includes some basic default parameters that users can override at their discretion. Unshaded cells are input cells that the user may edit. Shaded cells should not be edited. The outputs of the tool are calculated automatically as the inputs are updated, and the results are presented in the summary charts and tables. There are eight sections on this worksheet. The sections Basic Parameters and Advanced Parameters contain input fields. The sections Summary Chart by Fleet Age and Summary C H A P T E R 6

36 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality Chart for Selected Scenarios contain charts reflecting the results of the analysis. The sections Summary Results by Fleet Age, Summary Results for Selected Scenarios, Detailed Calcula- tions by Fleet Age, and Detailed Calculations for Selected Scenarios contain tables displaying the results of the analysis. Figure 6-1 presents a partial view of the Simplified Model worksheet. The following steps describe how to use the simplified EJT Calculator. Basic Parameters The following steps describe how to enter basic parameters in the simplified EJT Calculator. The basic parameters help define the type of vehicle and details of the vehicle fleets used in the analysis. These parameters include the route length, vehicle useful life, and average MDBF. The simplified EJT Calculator contains default values for the basic parameters that the user may choose to override. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. Figure 6-2 shows the fields for Basic Parameters. 1. Choose the Vehicle type. This value is the type of vehicles in the fleet. This field contains a dropdown list of the following vehicle types: Bus, Commuter Rail, Heavy Rail, Light Rail, Small Bus, and Van. The default value for this parameter is Bus. 2. Enter the Vehicles per consist. This value is the number of cars in a train. In the case of buses, the default value for this parameter is 1. The default value will automatically change, depending on the Vehicle type selected. 3. Enter the Average vehicle headway. This value is the number of minutes between vehicles. The default value for this parameter is 10. Figure 6-1. Simplified model worksheet.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 37 4. Enter the Route length. This value is length of a route in miles. The default value for this parameter is 5. 5. Enter the Average vehicle speed. This value is the average speed in miles per hour a vehicle travels. The default value for this parameter is 20. 6. Define the Vehicle useful life. This parameter is the useful life of a vehicle in years. The default value for this parameter will change depending on the Vehicle type selected. For buses, the default value is 14. 7. Enter the Average fleet age. This value is the average age (in years) of the fleet of vehicles. The default value for this parameter is 5. 8. Enter the Mean Distance Between Failures. This parameter determines the distance in miles that a vehicle travels between major mechanical failures. The default value for this parameter will change depending on the Vehicle type selected and Average fleet age. 9. Enter the Percentage of fleet typically under repair. This value is the portion of the fleet that is likely to be under repair at any given time. The default value for this parameter is 15%. 10. Enter the Spare vehicle ratio. This value is the number of spare vehicles divided by the vehicles required for annual maximum service. The default value for this parameter is 20%. Advanced Parameters The following steps describe how to enter advanced parameters in the simplified EJT Calcula- tor. The advanced parameters help define the type of vehicle and details of the vehicle fleet used in the analysis. These parameters include the route length, vehicle useful life, and average MDBF. The simplified EJT Calculator contains default values for the basic parameters that the user may choose to override. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. The fields for Advanced Parameters are shown in Figure 6-3. Figure 6-2. Basic parameters. Figure 6-3. Advanced parameters.

38 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality 1. Enter the Headway standard deviation. The default value is calculated by dividing the Aver- age vehicle headway parameter by 2.6 (the basis for this default is described in Appendix B). 2. Enter the Average annual increase in failure rate. This parameter is the percentage increase in the failure rate per year. The default value for this parameter will change depending on the Vehicle type selected. For buses, the default value is 8%. 3. Enter the Delay per passenger from vehicle failure. This value is the number of minutes a passenger’s trip is delayed due to vehicle failure. The default value for this parameter is set to equal the Average vehicle headway. 4. Enter the Adjustment factor – wait time. This value is the adjustment factor for wait time. The default value for standing passengers is 1.9. 5. Enter the Adjustment factor – in-vehicle time for deteriorated vehicle. This value is the adjustment factor for IVT for a deteriorated vehicle. The default value for this parameter is scaled based on the average age of the fleet. 6. Enter the Adjustment factor – std. dev. of journey time. This value is the adjustment factor for the variation in journey time. The default value for this parameter is 1.3. Summary Chart by Fleet Age The Summary Chart by Fleet Age (see Figure 6-4) illustrates the predicted effect of average fleet age on the EJT per passenger. For comparison, the chart also shows the current EJT. Summary Chart for Selected Scenario The Summary Chart for Selected Scenario (see Figure 6-5) displays the EJT per passenger for four different scenarios: Base Case, Aged 5 Years, Aged 10 Years, and New Fleet. The total EJT for each scenario is broken down and color-coded by its components: Buffer Time, Wait Time, and In-Vehicle Time. Figure 6-4. Summary chart by fleet age.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 39 Summary Results by Fleet Age The Summary Results by Fleet Age section shows the effects of fleet age on different journey time components that make up the total EJT. The total EJT for each scenario is broken down by its com- ponents: Buffer, Wait, and In-Vehicle time. The table also compares the total EJT for each fleet age to the base case scenario. This Increase Relative to Base comparison is presented in both as a change in minutes and percentage. Figure 6-6 shows an example Summary Results by Fleet Age table. • Effective Journey Time – Buffer is the number of minutes that a passenger must add to their travel time when planning a trip to ensure on-time arrival. Figure 6-5. Summary chart for selected scenario. Figure 6-6. Results by fleet age.

40 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality • Effective Journey Time – Wait is the number of minutes a passenger spends waiting for vehicle arrival. • Effective Journey Time – In-Vehicle is the number of minutes a passenger spends in a vehicle. • Effective Journey Time – Total is the total EJT per passenger. The EJT is the total amount of time a passenger is in transit and is the summation of the following components: Buffer, Wait, and In-Vehicle time. • Increase Relative to Base – Minutes is the relative change in time between the base case and the fleet age. • Increase Relative to Base – % is the percent change between the base case and the fleet age. Summary Results for Selected Scenarios The Summary Results by Selected Scenarios section shows the total EJT and its components for four different scenarios: Base Case, Aged 5 Years, Aged 10 Years, and New Fleet. The total EJT for each scenario is broken down by its components: Buffer, Wait, and In-Vehicle time. The total EJT for each scenario is also compared to the base case scenario. This Increase Relative to Base comparison is presented both as a change in minutes and percentage. Figure 6-7 provides a sample of the Summary Results for Selected Scenarios table. • Effective Journey Time – Buffer is the number of minutes that passengers must add to their travel times when planning trips to ensure on-time arrival. • Effective Journey Time – Wait is the number of minutes a passenger spends waiting for vehicle arrival. • Effective Journey Time – In-Vehicle is the number of minutes a passenger spends in a vehicle. • Effective Journey Time – Total is the total EJT per passenger. The EJT is the total amount of time a passenger is in transit and is the summation of the following components: Buffer, Wait, and In-Vehicle time. • Increase Relative to Base – Minutes is the relative change in time between the base case and the fleet age. • Increase Relative to Base – % is the percent change between the base case and the fleet age. Detailed Calculations by Fleet Age The Detailed Calculations by Fleet Age section shows detailed parameters calculated by fleet age. General parameters include the vehicle adjustment factor, MDBF, failure rate, and percent under repair. Parameters like headway, failure delay, and headway standard deviation are revised considering spare vehicle availability, and the parameters headway and headway standard devia- tion are revised considering failures. Also shown are the unadjusted EJTs: Buffer, Wait, In- Vehicle, and Total time. Figure 6-8 shows a sample Detailed Calculations by Fleet Age table. • Vehicle Adj. Factor is an adjustment factor determined by the age of the fleet. • MDBF is the mean distance between major mechanical failures. Figure 6-7. Summary results for selected scenarios.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 41 • Failure Rate is the number of vehicle failures predicted per mile (inverse of MDBF). • Percent Under Repair is the percentage of the fleet typically out of service for repairs. • Revised Considering Spare Availability – Headway is the number of minutes between vehi- cles revised to consider the percentage of vehicles under repair. • Revised Considering Spare Availability – Failure Delay is the delay per passenger due to vehicle failure revised to consider the percentage of vehicles under repair. • Revised Considering Spare Availability – Headway SD is the variation in headway data revised to consider the percentage of vehicles under repair. • Revised Considering Failures – Headway is the number of minutes between vehicles revised to consider the percentage of vehicles under repair and the rate of failures. • Revised Considering Failures – Headway SD is the variation in headway data revised to con- sider the percentage of vehicles under repair and the rate of failures. • Unadjusted Journey Time – Buffer is the number of minutes a passenger must add to travel time when planning a trip to ensure on-time arrival. • Unadjusted Journey Time – Wait is the number of minutes a passenger spends waiting for vehicle arrival. • Unadjusted Journey Time – In-Vehicle is the number of minutes a passenger spends in a vehicle. • Unadjusted Journey Time – Total is the total unadjusted journey time per passenger. This value is the total amount of time a passenger is in transit and is the summation of the following components: Buffer, Wait, and In-Vehicle time. Detailed Calculations for Selected Scenarios The Detailed Calculations for Selected Scenarios section shows detailed parameters cal- culated for four scenarios: Base Case, Aged 5 Years, Aged 10 Years, and New Fleet. General parameters include the vehicle adjustment factor, MDBF, failure rate, and percent under repair. Parameters like headway, failure delay, and headway standard deviation are revised consider- ing spare vehicle availability, and the parameters headway and headway standard deviation are revised considering failures. Also shown are the unadjusted EJTs: Buffer, Wait, In-Vehicle, and Total time. Figure 6-9 presents a sample Detailed Calculations for Selected Scenarios table. • Vehicle Adj. Factor is an adjustment factor determined by the age of the fleet. • MDBF is the mean distance between major mechanical failures. • Failure Rate is the number of vehicle failures predicted per mile (inverse of MDBF). • Percent Under Repair is the percentage of the fleet typically out of service for repairs. • Revised Considering Spare Availability – Headway is the number of minutes between vehi- cles revised to consider the percentage of vehicles under repair. 24.79 Figure 6-8. Detailed calculations by fleet age.

42 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality • Revised Considering Spare Availability – Failure Delay is the delay per passenger due to vehicle failure revised to consider the percentage of vehicles under repair. • Revised Considering Spare Availability – Headway SD is the variation in headway data revised to consider the percentage of vehicles under repair. • Revised Considering Failures – Headway is the number of minutes between vehicles revised to consider the percentage of vehicles under repair and the rate of failures. • Revised Considering Failures – Headway SD is the variation in headway data revised to con- sider the percentage of vehicles under repair and the rate of failures. • Unadjusted Journey Time – Buffer is the number of minutes that a passenger must add to travel time when planning a trip to ensure on-time arrival. • Unadjusted Journey Time – Wait is the number of minutes a passenger spends waiting for vehicle arrival. • Unadjusted Journey Time – In-Vehicle is the number of minutes a passenger spends in a vehicle. • Unadjusted Journey Time – Total is the total unadjusted journey time per passenger. This value is the total amount of time a passenger is in transit and is the summation of the following components: Buffer, Wait, and In-Vehicle time. Using the Comprehensive EJT Calculator To use the full version of the EJT Calculator, data should be entered in the Parameters, Advanced Parameters, Future Parameters, and Future Advanced Parameters worksheets. Using the Start Screen facilitates navigation among the worksheets. Each of the input work- sheets contains default parameters that can be overridden to customize the tool. Unshaded cells are input cells that may be edited, even though they may contain default values or formulas. Shaded cells should not be edited. The outputs of the tool are calculated automatically as the inputs are updated, and the results are presented on the Summary Results worksheet. Start Screen The Start Screen contains navigation buttons for accessing all of the main components of the EJT Calculator. There are four data entry worksheets and a summary results page. Figure 6-10 presents a view of the Start Screen. The navigation options are described below. Parameters The Parameters section allows users to provide inputs, including defining assets in the tool and setting parameters for those assets. • Base Parameters: Enter or edit information on vehicles, service, stations, and guideway. • Advanced Parameters: Edit additional parameters detailing adjustment factors, in-station conveyance, and guideway segment information. • Future Parameters: Detail two future scenarios – a typical future scenario and a worst case scenario. Figure 6-9. Detailed calculations for selected scenarios.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 43 • Future Advanced Parameters: Edit details concerning in-station conveyance and guideway segments for the two defined future scenarios. Summary The Summary section displays tables and charts comparing base conditions to those of future typical, future worst case, and future average scenarios. Base Case Parameters Worksheet The Base Case Parameters worksheet contains the base case scenario against which the future scenarios are compared. The Base Case should be a realistic scenario that reflects current condi- tions. There are four sections on this worksheet: Vehicle Parameters, Service Parameters, Station Parameters, and Guideway Parameters. Unshaded cells are input cells that may be edited, even though they may contain default values or formulas. Shaded cells should not be edited. Figure 6-11 presents a partial view of the Base Case Parameters worksheet. (Not shown in the screenshot is the table for entering guideway parameters.) The following steps describe how to construct a Base Case. Enter Vehicle Parameters The following steps should be used to enter vehicle parameters into the EJT Calculator. The Vehicle Parameters are used to define the type of vehicle used in the analysis. Vehicle and fleet Figure 6-10. Start screen.

44 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality details (e.g., number of seats per vehicle, average fleet age, and in-vehicle comfort factor) further help to define the vehicle parameters. The EJT Calculator contains default values for the vehicle parameters that may be overridden. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. Figure 6-12 presents the fields for Vehicle Parameters. 1. Choose the Vehicle type. This value is the type of vehicles in the fleet. This field contains a dropdown list of the following vehicle types: Bus, Commuter Rail, Heavy Rail, Light Rail, Small Bus, and Van. The default value for this parameter is “Bus.” Figure 6-11. Base case parameters worksheet. Figure 6-12. Vehicle parameters.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 45 2. Enter the Vehicles per consist. This value is the number of cars in a train. In the case of buses, the default value is 1. The default value will automatically change depending on the Vehicle type selected. 3. Enter the Seats per vehicle. Enter the number of seats per vehicle. The default value for this parameter will change depending on the Vehicle type selected. 4. Define the Vehicle useful life. This parameter is the useful life of a vehicle in years. The default value for this parameter will change depending on the Vehicle type selected. 5. Enter the Average fleet age. This parameter is used to measure the average age of the fleet of vehicles. The default value for this parameter will change depending on the Vehicle type selected. 6. Define the In-vehicle comfort factor. This parameter is used to measure the comfort factor for passengers riding in the vehicle. The default value for this parameter is calculated from the Vehicle useful life and Average fleet age parameters located in the Vehicle Parameters section of the Base Case Parameters worksheet and the Comfort factor for vehicle in poor condition located in the Adjustment Factors section on the Advanced Parameters worksheet. 7. Enter the Mean distance between vehicle failures. This parameter specifies the average dis- tance between major mechanical failures. The default value for this parameter will change depending on the Vehicle type selected and Average fleet age. Service Parameters The following steps describe how to enter service parameters into the EJT Calculator. The Ser- vice Parameters are used to define the number of stations and type of service used in the analy- sis. Other service parameters include annual unlinked passenger trips, average vehicle headway, and guideway type. The EJT Calculator contains default values for the service parameters that may be overridden. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. Figure 6-13 shows the fields for Service Parameters. 1. Enter the Number of stations/stops for the transit network. The default value is 50 sta- tions. Alongside this parameter is a button to adjust the number of stations visible in the Station Parameters section and the number of guideway segments visible in the Guideway Parameters section. This adjustment of visible station and guideway rows applies not only to the Base Case Parameters worksheet but also to the Advanced Parameters and Future Advanced Parameters worksheets. The worksheets will take a few moments to adjust to the new station count once the button is clicked. 2. Enter the Direction 1. This parameter is the first direction in which the vehicles travel. Typically this will indicate an actual direction like east or northeast but it can be defined in whatever way makes sense. Figure 6-13. Service parameters.

46 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality 3. Enter the Direction 2. This parameter is the second direction in which the vehicles travel. Typically this will indicate an actual direction like east or northeast but it can be defined in whatever way makes sense. 4. Enter the Annual unlinked passenger trips. The default value for this parameter is cal- culated from the Number of seats per vehicle and Vehicles per consist parameters in the Vehicle Parameters section and the Number of vehicles per day in the Service Parameters section (assuming that trains or buses run half-full on average). 5. Enter the Average vehicle headway. This value is the number of minutes between vehicles. The default value for this parameter is 10. 6. Enter the Headway standard deviation. The default value is calculated by dividing the Aver- age vehicle headway parameter by 2.6 (the basis for this default is described in Appendix B). 7. Enter the Typical trains/buses per day. This parameter can be entered by station on the Advanced Parameters worksheet. The default value is calculated from the Average vehicle headway parameter assuming the system operates 18 hours per day. 8. Choose the Guideway type. This field contains a dropdown list of the following guide- way types: Guideway—At Grade Bus, Guideway—Elevated Bus, Guideway—Subway Bus, Guideway—Tangent Ballasted Track, Guideway—Tangent Direct Fixation Track, and Guideway—Tangent Embedded Track. This parameter is used to predict future growth in the guideway failure rate and can be ignored if guideway failures are not being considered. 9. Enter the Guideway age in years. The default value is based on the type of guideway selected for the Guideway type parameter. 10. Enter the Guideway failure rate. This parameter is the number of failures per train per mile. The default value is 0.0001. Station Parameters The following steps describe how to enter station parameters into the EJT Calculator. The Station Parameters are used to define the names of the stations, the percentage of total daily entries at each station, and the percentage of entries traveling in each direction at a given sta- tion. The shaded cells in the Station Parameters section contain formulas or default values and should not be edited. The number of station rows visible is determined by the value entered in the Number of stations/stops parameter in the Service Parameters section. After entering a value, click the Adjust Station List button to adjust the number of station rows. The default value is 50. Figure 6-14 presents the fields for Station Parameters. 1. Enter the Station Names beginning with the destination of Direction 1. 2. Enter the % of Total Daily Entries for each station. The cell for the last station is shaded. This cell contains a formula based on the value entered for the first station and should not be edited. 3. Enter the % of Entries Traveling Direction 1 for each station. The first and last two cells are shaded. These cells contain formulas or default values and should not be edited. Guideway Parameters The following steps describe how to enter guideway parameters into the EJT Calculator. The guideway parameters are used to define the distance and the average travel time for each guide- way segment in each direction. The table information is split into two different directions based on the values entered for Direction 1 and Direction 2 in the Station Parameters section. The Guideway Segment parameter is calculated from the Station Names entered in the Station Parameters section and should not be edited. The number of visible guideway segment rows is determined by the value entered in the Number of stations/stops parameter in the Service Parameters section. After entering a value, click the Adjust Station List button to adjust the

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 47 number of guideway segment rows. The default value is 50. Figures 6-15 and 6-16 show the fields for Guideway Parameters. 1. Enter the Distance in miles for each guideway segment and direction. 2. Enter the Average Travel Time in minutes for each guideway segment and direction. Advanced Parameters Worksheet The Advanced Parameters worksheet contains detailed parameters to further define cur- rent conditions. There are four sections on this worksheet: Adjustment Factors, Miscellaneous Parameters, Station Parameters, and Guideway Parameters. Unshaded cells are input cells that can be edited, even though they may contain default values or formulas. Shaded cells should not be edited. The Adjustment Factors and Miscellaneous Parameters sections show the default values alongside the override input fields. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. The Station Parameters and Guideway Parameters sections show the default values in the input cells and can be overridden. Figure 6-14. Station parameters. Figure 6-15. Guideway parameters – direction 1.

48 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality Figure 6-17 shows a partial view of the Advanced Parameters worksheet. (Not shown in the screenshot is the table for entering guideway parameters.) The following steps describe how to enter advanced parameters for the base case scenario. Adjustment Factors The following steps describe how to enter adjustment factors into the Advanced Parameters worksheet of the EJT Calculator. The adjustment factors are used to define the level of passenger comfort while traveling in stations and vehicles. The parameters include the average time a pas- senger will spend standing or walking, and passenger comfort level in vehicles of poor or failed condition. The EJT Calculator contains default values for the adjustment factors that may be over- ridden. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. Figure 6-18 shows the fields for Adjustment Factors. Figure 6-16. Guideway parameters – direction 2. Figure 6-17. Advanced parameters worksheet.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 49 1. Enter the Comfort factor for vehicle in poor condition. This value reflects the level of com- fort a passenger would experience in a vehicle in poor condition. The default value for this parameter is 1.2. 2. Enter the Comfort factor for vehicle in failed condition. This value reflects the level of com- fort a passenger would experience in a vehicle in failed condition. The default value for this parameter is 1.8. 3. Enter the Time spent standing. This value is the number of minutes that an average person would spend standing during a trip. The default value for this parameter is 1.9. 4. Enter the Time spent walking level. This value is the number of minutes that an average person would spend walking on a flat surface during their trip. The default value for this parameter is 2.0. 5. Enter the Time spent walking up stairs. This value is the number of minutes that an average person would spend walking up stairs during their trip. The default value for this parameter is 4.0. 6. Enter the Time spent walking down stairs. This value is the number of minutes an average person would spend walking down stairs during their trip. The default value for this param- eter is 2.5. 7. Enter the Standard deviation of journey time. This value is the standard deviation in journey time. The default value for this parameter is 1.3. Miscellaneous Parameters The parameters in the Miscellaneous Parameters section of the Advanced Parameters work- sheet help define the effect of vehicle failure on passenger comfort. The EJT Calculator contains default values for these parameters that may be overridden. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. Figure 6-19 shows the fields for Miscellaneous Parameters. Figure 6-18. Adjustment factors. Figure 6-19. Miscellaneous parameters.

50 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality 1. Enter a Delay per passenger on a failed vehicle. This value is the number of minutes a pas- senger is delayed by a vehicle failure. The default value for this parameter is 10.0 (the default headway). 2. Enter a Probability of vehicle failure affecting comfort. This value is the probability of a vehicle failure affecting the comfort of a passenger. The default value for this parameter is calculated based on the Mean distance between failures and length of the route. 3. Enter a Number of other trains/buses affected by failure. This value is the number of other vehicles delayed by the failure. The default value of this parameter is 1. 4. Enter a Delay per passenger on other trains/buses affected. This value is the number of minutes a passenger on another vehicle is delayed. The default value of this parameter is 5.0 (half of the default headway). 5. Enter Adjust headways to account for vehicle and guideway failures? This parameter is to determine whether to make an adjustment to the headways of other vehicles to account for failures to vehicles and guideway. The default value for this parameter is “Yes.” 6. Enter an Adjust travel time to account for vehicle and guideway failures? This parameter is to determine whether to make an adjustment to travel times to account for the failures to vehicles and guideway. The default value for this parameter is “Yes.” Station Parameters The Station Parameters section of the Advanced Parameters worksheet (see Figure 6-20) further refines the level of detail for each station. Items like number of vehicles per day, platform and passenger comfort, and the likelihood and effect of fare collection equipment and elevator/ escalator failure can be customized for each station. The EJT Calculator provides default values for these parameters and the following steps describe how to override the default values. The Station Names are calculated from input values entered on the Base Case Parameters worksheet and should not be edited here. 1. Enter the Number of Trains/Buses Per Day for each station. The default value is calculated from the Typical trains/buses per day field on the Base Case Parameters worksheet. 2. Enter a Platform Comfort Factor for each station. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger experiences while on the station platform. The default value for this parameter is 1.0. 3. Enter an In-Station Walk Time for each station. This value is the number of minutes a pas- senger will walk in the station. The default value for this parameter is 0. 4. Enter a Passage Comfort Factor for each station. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger experiences in the station. The default value for this parameter is 1.0. Figure 6-20. Station parameters.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 51 5. Enter an Elevators/Escalators Failure Probability for each station. This value is the likeli- hood that an elevator or escalator will fail. The default value for this parameter is 0. 6. Enter an Elevators/Escalators Delay for each station. This value is the number of minutes a failure of an elevator or escalator will add to a passenger’s travel time. The default value for this parameter is 0. 7. Enter a Fare Collection Equipment Failure Probability for each station. This value is the likeli- hood that the fare collection equipment will fail. The default value for this parameter is 0. 8. Enter a Fare Collection Equipment Delay for each station. This value is the number of min- utes a failure of the fare collection equipment will add to a passenger’s travel time. The default value for this parameter is 0. Guideway Parameters The Guideway Parameters section of the Advanced Parameters worksheet (see Figure 6-21) further refines the level of detail for each guideway segment. Items like Guideway Comfort Fac- tor, failures per train mile, and guideway type can be customized for each guideway segment. The Station Names are calculated from input values entered on the Base Case Parameters worksheet and should not be edited here. These parameters are organized by guideway segment and direction. The EJT Calculator provides default values for these parameters, and the follow- ing steps describe how to override the default values. The Guideway Segment, Distance, and Average Travel Time are calculated from input values entered on the Base Case Parameters worksheet and should not be edited on this worksheet. 1. Enter the Standard Deviation Travel Time for each guideway segment. By default, this value is left as 0 and the variance in travel time is captured by varying the headway. 2. Enter the Guideway Comfort Factor for each guideway segment. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger will experience on this section of guideway. The default value for this parameter is 1.0. 3. Enter the Failures/Train Mile for each guideway segment. This value is the number of failures that will occur per train mile on this section of guideway. This default value for this parameter is specified on the Parameters worksheet. 4. Enter the Delay for each guideway segment. This value is the number of minutes a vehicle will be delayed on this section of guideway. The default value for this parameter is calculated from the Average Vehicle headway parameter on the Base Case Parameters worksheet. 5. Enter the Type of Guideway for each guideway segment. This field contains a dropdown list of the following guideway types: Guideway—At Grade Bus, Guideway—Elevated Bus, Guideway—Subway Bus, Guideway—Tangent Ballasted Track, Guideway—Tangent Direct Figure 6-21. Guideway parameters.

52 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality Fixation Track, and Guideway—Tangent Embedded Track. The default value for this param- eter is calculated from the Guideway type selected on the Base Case Parameters worksheet. Future Case Parameters Worksheet The Future Case Parameters worksheet contains the parameters to define two future case scenarios – a worst case and a typical future scenario. The base case parameter values are given for each parameter along with default values specific to each future case scenario. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. These default values are derived from the base case parameter values entered on the Base Case Parameters and Advanced Parameters worksheets. The percentage of time represented by the typical case scenario is calculated from the percent- age of time represented by the worst case scenario. Figure 6-22 shows the Future Case Param- eters worksheet. Future Worst Case Parameters The following steps describe how to enter future worst case parameters into the Future Case Parameters worksheet of the EJT Calculator. The future worst case parameters are used to simu- late a worst case scenario that might happen in the future. The future worst case parameters include percentage of time represented by the worst case scenario, mean distance between vehicle failures, and guideway age. The base case parameter values are shown alongside the default values for each parameter. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. Note the following regarding specifying future case parameters: • By default, the future case is assumed to represent a deterioration in asset conditions, with a worst case that represents a particularly “bad day” that may occur more frequently in the future, and a typical case. The average future case is then calculated by averaging these two. Figure 6-22. Future case parameters worksheet.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 53 • In practice, one can define the future case however one desires, and it is not necessary to define both the worst case and typical case. • Depending on how dire the future case is, some of the parameters assumed in the base case may or may not be realistic. The user should evaluate whether key assumptions, particularly the vehicle headway, are realistic, given the other future case parameters. Figure 6-23 shows the fields for Future Worst Case Parameters. 1. Enter the Percentage of time represented by Worst Case. This value is the percentage of time conditions will be in a worst case scenario. The default value is calculated as described for the base case. 2. Enter the Average fleet age. This value is the future average age of the vehicle fleet in years. The default value for this parameter is calculated as 10 years greater than the base case value. 3. Enter the In-vehicle comfort factor. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger expe- riences in a vehicle. The default value for this parameter is derived from several parameters— Comfort factor for vehicle in poor condition on the Advanced Parameters worksheet, Vehicle useful life on the Base Case Parameters worksheet, and Average fleet age as described in the previous step. 4. Enter the Mean distance between vehicle failures. This value is the average number of miles a vehicle can travel between mechanical failures. The default value for this parameter is derived from the base value along with the Annual miles per vehicle, Increased age, and Increase per 100,000 miles. 5. Enter the Average vehicle headway. This value is the number of minutes between vehicles. The default value for this parameter is equal to 90 minutes more than the base case value (based on the example of the Mid Atlantic Transit Agency case study described in Appendix C). 6. Enter the Headway standard deviation. By default, this value is calculated from the Average vehicle headway as described previously for the base case. 7. Enter the Guideway age. This value is the age of the guideway system in years. The default value for this parameter is 10 years greater than the base case value entered on the Base Case Parameters worksheet. 8. Enter the Guideway failure rate. This value is the rate at which the guideway will fail. The default value for this parameter is calculated from the base case value, adjusting based on Guideway age and Type of Guideway. Future Typical Case Parameters The future typical case parameters on the Future Case Parameters worksheet (see Figure 6-24) are used to simulate a future typical case scenario. The values chosen for these parameters should represent a typical scenario likely to happen in the future. The Percentage of time represented Figure 6-23. Future worst case parameters.

54 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality by Typical Case is calculated from the Percentage of time represented by Worst Case described in the previous section and cannot be overridden. The base case parameter values are shown alongside the default values for each parameter. If the Override field is left blank, the default value will be used in the analysis. The following steps describe how to define the future typical case parameters. 1. Enter the Percentage of time represented by Typical Case. This value is the percentage of time conditions will be in a worst case scenario. The default value is calculated as described for the base case. 2. Enter the Average fleet age. This value is the future average age of the vehicle fleet in years. The default value for this parameter is calculated as 10 years greater than the base case value. 3. Enter the In-vehicle comfort factor. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger expe- riences in a vehicle. The default value for this parameter is derived from several parameters— Comfort factor for vehicle in poor condition on the Advanced Parameters worksheet, Vehicle useful life on the Base Case Parameters worksheet, and Average fleet age from the preceding step. 4. Enter the Mean distance between vehicle failures. This value is the average number of miles a vehicle can travel between mechanical failures. The default value for this parameter is derived from the base value along with the Annual miles per vehicle, Increased age, and Increase per 100,000 miles. 5. Enter the Average vehicle headway. This value is the number of minutes between vehicles. The default value for this parameter is equal to the base case value. 6. Enter the Headway standard deviation. By default this value is calculated from the Average vehicle headway as described previously for the base case. 7. Enter the Guideway age. This value is the age of the guideway system in years. The default value for this parameter is 10 years greater than the base case value entered on the Base Case Parameters worksheet. 8. Enter the Guideway failure rate. This value is the rate at which the guideway will fail. The default value for this parameter is calculated from the base case value, adjusting based on Guideway age and Type of Guideway. Future Advanced Parameters Worksheet The Future Advanced Parameters worksheet contains station guideway parameters for the future worst case and future typical case scenarios defined on the Future Case Parameters worksheet. Unshaded cells are input cells that can be edited, although they may contain default values or formulas. Shaded cells should not be edited. The worksheet is divided into Station Figure 6-24. Future typical case parameters.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 55 Parameters and Guideway Parameters for each of the future cases, with the worst case param- eters presented first and the typical case parameters following. The Station Names and Guideway Segments contain values calculated from input cells on the Base Case Parameters worksheet. The Station Parameters and Guideway Parameters sec- tions contain default values entered on the Base Case Parameters and Advanced Parameters worksheets. These may be overridden as needed to customize the future scenarios. Figure 6-25 shows a partial view of the Future Advanced Parameters worksheet. Station Parameters – Future Worst Case The Station Parameters – Future Worst Case section (see Figure 6-26) can be used to further customize the future worst case scenario. This section contains default values entered in the Station Parameters section of the Advanced Parameters worksheet. These values can be edited as necessary to build a future worst case scenario. The Station Names are calculated Figure 6-25. Advanced parameters worksheet. Figure 6-26. Station parameters – future worst case.

56 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality from input values entered on the Base Case Parameters worksheet and should not be edited on this worksheet. 1. Enter a Platform Comfort Factor for each station. This value reflects the level of comfort a pas- senger experiences while on the station platform. 2. Enter an In-Station Walk Time for each station. This value reflects the number of minutes a passenger will walk in the station. 3. Enter a Passage Comfort Factor for each station. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger experiences in the station. 4. Enter an Elevators/Escalators Failure Probability for each station. This value is the likeli- hood that an elevator or escalator will fail. 5. Enter an Elevators/Escalators Delay for each station. This value is the number of minutes a failure of an elevator or escalator will add to a passenger’s travel time. 6. Enter a Fare Collection Equipment Failure Probability for each station. This value is the likelihood that the fare collection equipment will fail. 7. Enter a Fare Collection Equipment Delay for each station. This value is the number of min- utes a failure of the fare collection equipment will add to a passenger’s travel time. Guideway Parameters – Future Worst Case The Guideway Parameters – Future Worst Case section on the Future Advanced Parame- ters worksheet (see Figure 6-27) can be used to further customize the future worst case scenario. Similar to the Base Case Parameters worksheet, these parameters are organized by station and direction. This section contains default values that are entered on the Base Case Parameters and Advanced Parameters worksheets. These values can be overridden as necessary to build a future worst case scenario. The Guideway Segment parameters are calculated from input values entered on the Base Case Parameters worksheet and should not be edited on this worksheet. 1. Enter the Average Travel Time in minutes for each guideway segment. This value is the aver- age time a vehicle will spend traveling this guideway segment. 2. Enter the Standard Deviation Travel Time for each guideway segment. This value is the extent that the travel time will vary. Figure 6-27. Guideway parameters – future worst case.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 57 3. Enter the Guideway Comfort Factor for each guideway segment. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger will experience on this segment of guideway. 4. Enter the Failures/Train Mile for each guideway segment. This value is the number of failures per train mile that occur on this segment of guideway. 5. Enter the Delay for each guideway segment. This value is the delay time in minutes caused by failures on this guideway segment. Station Parameters – Future Typical Case The Station Parameters – Typical Case section (see Figure 6-28) can be used to further cus- tomize the future typical case scenario. This section contains default values entered in the Station Parameters section of the Advanced Parameters worksheet. These values can be edited as necessary to build a future typical case scenario. The Station Names are calculated from input values entered on the Base Case Parameters worksheet and should not be edited on this worksheet. 1. Enter a Platform Comfort Factor for each station. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger experiences while on the station platform. 2. Enter an In-Station Walk Time for each station. This value is the number of minutes a pas- senger will walk in the station. 3. Enter a Passage Comfort Factor for each station. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger experiences in the station. 4. Enter an Elevators/Escalators Failure Probability for each station. This value is the likeli- hood that an elevator or escalator will fail. 5. Enter an Elevators/Escalators Delay for each station. This value is the number of minutes a failure of an elevator or escalator will add to a passenger’s travel time. 6. Enter a Fare Collection Equipment Failure Probability for each station. This value is the likelihood that the fare collection equipment will fail. 7. Enter a Fare Collection Equipment Delay for each station. This value is the number of min- utes a failure of the fare collection equipment will add to a passenger’s travel time. Guideway Parameters – Future Typical Case The Guideway Parameters – Future Typical Case section on the Future Advanced Parame- ters worksheet (see Figure 6-29) can be used to further customize the future typical case scenario. Figure 6-28. Station parameters – future typical case.

58 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality Similar to the Base Case Parameters worksheet, these parameters are organized by station and direction. This section contains default values that are entered on the Base Case Parameters and Advanced Parameters worksheets. These values can be overridden as necessary to build a future typical case scenario. The Guideway Segment parameters are calculated from input values entered on the Base Case Parameters worksheet and should not be edited on this worksheet. 1. Enter the Average Travel Time in minutes for each guideway segment. This value is the aver- age time a vehicle will spend traveling this guideway segment. 2. Enter the Standard Deviation Travel Time for each guideway segment. This value is the extent that the travel time will vary. 3. Enter the Guideway Comfort Factor for each guideway segment. This value reflects the level of comfort a passenger will experience on this segment of guideway. 4. Enter the Failures/Train Mile for each guideway segment. This value is the number of failures per train mile that occur on this segment of guideway. 5. Enter the Delay for each guideway segment. This value is the delay time in minutes caused by failures on this guideway segment. Summary Results Worksheet The Summary Results worksheet contains the summary outputs of the EJT Calculator. There are four summary tables and one summary chart, each showing the estimated benefits and costs of three future scenarios compared to the base case. The four tables are Summary Results, Jour- ney Time Components, Percent Change, and Difference in Raw Values. The Summary Chart is a graphical representation of the Journey Time Components table. The cells in this worksheet are all calculated from other input cells and should not be edited. The results automatically update when the input worksheets are edited. Figure 6-30 shows a partial view of the Summary Results worksheet. Note: the following screenshots are presented using illustrative data. Summary Results The Summary Results section (see Figure 6-31) summarizes the EJT per passenger, the EJT per passenger mile, and the total EJT for the following scenarios: base case, future worst case, Figure 6-29. Guideway parameters – future typical case.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 59 Figure 6-30. Summary results worksheet. Figure 6-31. Summary results. future typical, and future average scenarios. The total EJT is calculated by multiplying the EJT per Passenger and the Annual unlinked passenger trips, the latter of which is defined on the Base Case Parameters worksheet. The results of the EJT calculation are summarized using the following three EJT measures which compare the estimated travel times for the different scenarios: • EJT per Passenger is the number of minutes a passenger would spend on their trip. • EJT per Passenger Mile is the number of minutes a passenger would spend for each mile traveled. • Total EJT is the total number of hours spent traveling for all the passengers in a year. Journey Time Components The Journey Time Components section shows the different journey time components that make up the EJT. The total EJT for each scenario is broken down by its components: buffer time, in-station conveyance time, waiting time, and in-vehicle time. The results are presented in both adjusted and unadjusted terms. Figure 6-32 shows the Journey Time Components.

60 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality • Buffer Time is the number of minutes that a passenger must add to travel time when planning a trip to ensure on-time arrival. • In-Station Conveyance Time is the number of minutes a passenger spends traveling through stations. • Waiting Time is the number of minutes a passenger spends waiting. • In-Vehicle Time is the number of minutes a passenger spends in a vehicle. • Total is the total EJT per passenger. The EJT is the total amount of time a passenger is in tran- sit and is the summation of the following components: Buffer Time, In-Station Conveyance Time, Waiting Time, and In-Vehicle Time. Summary Chart The Summary Chart (see Figure 6-33) displays the results from the Journey Time Compo- nents table (see Figure 6-32). The total EJT for each scenario is broken down and color-coded by its components: buffer time, in-station conveyance time, waiting time, and IVT. Figure 6-32. Journey time components. Figure 6-33. Summary chart.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 61 Percent Change The Percent Change section shows the percent change in Buffer Time, In-Station Convey- ance Time, Waiting Time, In-Vehicle Time, and Effective Journey Time for future scenarios relative to the base case scenario. The results are presented in both adjusted and unadjusted terms. These numbers represent the increase in minutes per passenger relative to the base case. Figure 6-34 shows the Percent Change table. • Buffer Time is the number of minutes that a passenger must add to travel time when planning a trip to ensure on-time arrival. • In-Station Conveyance Time is the number of minutes a passenger spends traveling through stations. • Waiting Time is the number of minutes a passenger spends waiting. • In-Vehicle Time is the number of minutes a passenger spends in a vehicle. • Effective Journey Time is the total EJT per passenger. The EJT is the total amount of time a passenger is in transit and is the summation of the following components: Buffer Time, In-Station Conveyance Time, Waiting Time, and In-Vehicle Time. Difference in Raw Values The Difference in Raw Values section shows the differences in Buffer Time, In-Station Convey- ance Time, Waiting Time, In-Vehicle Time, and Effective Journey Time among future scenarios. The results are presented in both adjusted and unadjusted terms. With the Base Case journey times subtracted from the results, these numbers represent the number of minutes each one of these future scenarios will add to a passenger’s trip. Figure 6-35 shows the Difference in Raw Values section. • Buffer Time is the number of minutes that a passenger must add to travel time when planning a trip to ensure on-time arrival. • In-Station Conveyance Time is the number of minutes a passenger spends traveling through stations. • Waiting Time is the number of minutes a passenger spends waiting. • In-Vehicle Time is the number of minutes a passenger spends in a vehicle. Figure 6-34. Percent change (increase in minutes per passenger relative to base case). Figure 6-35. Difference in raw values.

62 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality • Effective Journey Time is the total EJT per passenger. The EJT is the total amount of time a passenger is in transit and is the summation of the following components: Buffer Time, In-Station Conveyance Time, Waiting Time, and In-Vehicle Time. Worked Examples This section presents two worked examples illustrating the use of the EJT Calculation tools. These examples, which use fictitious data, are intended to help users understand the tools and how these tools might be applied in practice. Overview The first example is for “Main Street Transit (MST).” MST is a small transit agency with a fleet of 39 buses. The transit agency is considering investing in fleet maintenance or replacement and wants to compare the service quality of a new fleet with the service quality of a fleet allowed to age. This example shows users how to use the Simplified EJT Calculator to compare future scenarios of asset condition. The second example is for “Springfield Transit Authority (STA).” STA is a mid-sized transit agency responsible for managing various assets, including heavy rail vehicles and guideway. The agency is considering beginning a modernization program that will include a new fleet of rail vehicles as well as track improvements. Agency staff want to better understand the effect of such investments and determine the benefit of investing compared to allowing asset conditions to worsen. This example shows users how to use the Comprehensive Approach EJT Calculator to compare future scenarios of asset condition. Main Street Transit—Simplified EJT Calculator Example Main Street Transit (MST) provides bus service to a small urban area. The transit agency operates five major bus routes out of its Central Garage, connecting the local downtown to the rest of the metropolitan area. Together these routes serve approximately one million passengers annually. MST is considering replacing the buses operating out of the garage. An MST staff member has been tasked with helping establish the benefits of investing in a new fleet versus the alternative of deferring investment for another 5 years. The staff member wishes to project EJT at present for a typical route, as well as for a scenario in which the fleet is replaced and a scenario in which conditions deteriorate for 5 additional years. The transit agency has decided to use EJT as the service quality metric to make the case for investment. Because the transit agency lacks detailed O-D data on its routes, the staff member has decided to use the Simplified Approach for calculating EJT and follows the steps below. Step 1: Enter Base Case Data First, establish the base case—the current service quality the transit agency is experiencing on a particular route with the buses in the fleet. Enter the data from Table 6-1 into the Simplified EJT Calculator. Use the default values in the spreadsheet for the advanced parameters. Figure 6-36 shows the Simplified EJT Calculator populated with the values in Table 6-1. Step 2: Analyze the Results The results from the EJT Calculator are shown by fleet age and for selected scenarios using both graphs and tables. Using the parameters provided in Table 6-1 and Figure 6-36 and the default

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 63 advanced parameters, the results should be the same as those shown in Figure 6-37. This table shows the components of journey time (buffer, wait, and IVT) for the base case, vehicles aged 5 years, vehicles aged 10 years, and a new fleet. In addition to the table, the tool also provides a bar graph (see Figure 6-38) showing the com- ponents of time for each scenario. As shown in the summary table and chart, the existing EJT for a representative MST bus route is 49.5 minutes. Allowing the fleet to deteriorate for 5 years is projected to increase EJT by approximately 3.9 minutes per passenger. On the other hand, replacing the bus fleet will reduce EJT by approximately 2.2 minutes per passenger, a difference of 6.1 minutes between the two cases. The analyst can estimate the total benefit of investing versus allowing the fleet to Parameter Description Value Vehicle Type Bus Vehicles per consist (enter 1 for bus) 1 Average Vehicle Headway (minutes) 20 Route Length (miles) 5 Average Vehicle Speed (miles per hour) 20 Vehicle Useful Life (years) 14 Average Fleet age (years) 10 MDBF (miles) 6,000 Percentage of Fleet Typically Under Repair 18% Percentage of Fleet Typically in Reserve 20% Table 6-1. Basic parameters for the MST example. Figure 6-36. Data entry for the MST example. Figure 6-37. Summary results for the MST example.

64 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality 10.5 13.8 11.4 10.5 21.8 28.6 23.8 21.8 15.0 19.3 18.2 17.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 New Fleet Aged 10 Years Aged 5 Years Base Case Effective Journey Time per Passenger (min) Buffer Time Wait Time In-Vehicle Time Figure 6-38. Summary chart for the MST example. deteriorate by multiplying this EJT difference by the annual ridership and value of time. Assum- ing a value of time of $12.55 per hour, the annual user benefit is estimated to be approximately $1.28 million (6.1 minutes/passenger × 1,000,000 annual passengers × $12.55/hr). Springfield Transit Authority – Comprehensive EJT Calculator Example Springfield Transit Authority (STA) provides transit service to the City of Springfield, USA. The transit agency provides both bus services and a rail network to the city and surrounding area. Figure 6-39 shows the map of STA’s heavy rail system, highlighting the oldest line on the system, the Central Line. STA recently celebrated the 25th anniversary of the opening of the Central Line and recognizes that investments in the line and its vehicles will be needed for STA to continue to deliver the same high level of service it currently provides. The track on the Central Line has deteriorated to the point that a slow zone has been placed on part of the line, adding 3 minutes to the travel time between the Grand Central and Penn Station stops. Also, the Central Line vehicles are quickly approaching the end of their useful life. STA is interested in understanding the potential benefits to its customers of modernizing the track and replacing the Central Line fleet. This worked exam- ple walks through the steps to calculate EJT for STA using the Comprehensive EJT Calculator. Step 1: Enter Base Parameters First, establish the base case—the current service quality customers are experiencing on the Central Line. To start, open the spreadsheet tool that accompanies the Comprehensive Approach for calculating EJT. Start on the “Main Menu” tab. Click the button labeled “Enter Base Parameters” to enter the data for the base case, as indicated in Figure 6-40. Tables 6-2 through 6-5 provide the vehicle, service, station, and guideway parameters to enter into the spreadsheet on the Base Case Parameters tab. These parameters detail current condi- tions on the Central Line.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 65 Figure 6-39. Map of Central Line.

66 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality Figure 6-40. Main menu of EJT calculator. Parameter Description Value Vehicle type Heavy Rail Vehicles per consist (enter 1 for buses) 6 Seats per vehicle 35 Vehicle useful life (years) 30 Average Fleet age (years) 25 MDBF (miles) 15,000 Table 6-2. Base case vehicle parameters.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 67 Parameter Description Value Number of stations/stops 12 Direction 1 Northbound Direction 2 Southbound Annual unlinked passenger trips 6,000,000 Average vehicle headway (minutes) 9.0 Typical trains/buses per day (enter by station in advanced parameters) 90 Guideway type Tangent Ballasted Guideway age (years) 25 Guideway failure rate (failures/train mile) 1.07E-04 Table 6-3. Base case service parameters. Station Names (begin with the destination of Direction 1) % of Total Daily Entries % of Entries Traveling Direction 1 Mount Vernon 3.3% 0.0% North Broad Street 3.5% 6.0% Broadway Junction 11.8% 10.0% Park Street 10.0% 15.0% University City 18.4% 40.0% Penn Station 15.6% 40.0% Grand Central 3.3% 75.0% Millennium 9.3% 75.0% LaSalle Street 1.8% 90.0% Embarcadero 4.4% 95.0% Powell Street 6.1% 94.4% Wonderland 12.5% 100.0% Table 6-4. Base case station parameters. Guideway Segment Distance (miles) Average Travel Time (min) Wonderland to Powell Street 0.4 2 Powell Street to Embarcadero 0.7 2 Embarcadero to LaSalle Street 0.6 1 LaSalle Street to Millennium 0.4 2 Millennium to Grand Central 1.1 3 Grand Central to Penn Station 0.6 5 Penn Station to University City 0.6 2 University City to Park Street 0.9 2 Park Street to Broadway Junction 0.3 2 Broadway Junction to North Broad Street 0.2 1 North Broad Street to Mount Vernon 0.2 1 Mount Vernon to Mount Vernon 0.0 0 Table 6-5. Base case guideway parameters.

68 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality Figure 6-41. Adjust station list button. First, enter the Vehicle Parameters. Next, enter the Service Parameters. Before entering the Station Parameters from the table, press the button to “Adjust Station List” to change the number of station rows displayed in the next section of parameters as indi- cated in Figure 6-41. Then enter the Station Parameters into the spreadsheet. Next, enter the Guideway Parameters into the spreadsheet tool. This table provides the dis- tance and average travel time between stations in one direction. The distance and travel time between stations is the same in the second direction. For this worked example, use the default parameters in the “Advanced Parameters” tab. Step 2: Enter Future Case Parameters Select the tab in the spreadsheet for “Future Parameters” and enter the parameters provided in Tables 6-6 and 6-7. The tool provides the option to enter different future cases. These are labeled “worst case” and “typical,” but can be used to represent any scenario the analyst wishes to test. In this case, the worst case scenario will represent conditions if the track and fleet are allowed to age an Parameter Description Value Average Fleet age (years) 30 Average vehicle headway (minutes) 9 Guideway age (years) 30 Table 6-6. Future worst case parameters. Parameter Description Value Average Fleet age (years) 0 MDBF (miles) 75,000 Guideway age (years) 5 Table 6-7. Future typical case parameters.

Using the EJT Calculation Tools 69 additional 5 years, while the “typical” scenario will be used to calculate the benefit of improving the track and replacing the fleet. Finally, select the tab in the spreadsheet for “Future Advanced Parameters” and, for the future typical case, change the average travel time from Grand Central to Penn Station from 5 minutes to 2 minutes. Make the same change for Penn Station to Grand Central. This change approxi- mates the effect of removing the slow zone for this section. Step 3: Analyze the Results The summary results from the EJT Calculator are shown in Figures 6-42 and 6-43. The sum- mary results table in Figure 6-42 shows the EJT per passenger, EJT per passenger mile, and total annual EJT for the three cases (the future average case can be ignored in this example). Figure 6-43 shows additional detail on the different components of journey time and also shows unadjusted journey time (without the adjustment factors described in Chapter 3). As indicated in Figure 6-42, the base case EJT is 26.4 minutes. Allowing the rail system to dete- riorate for 5 years would increase EJT to 26.6 minutes, while replacing the fleet and improving Figure 6-42. Summary results for the STA example. 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.8 8.9 8.8 11.9 11.7 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 5.2 5.2 9.9 9.9 9.8 9.8 5.2 5.2 8.3 8.3 10.1 10.1 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 Adjusted Future Average Unadjusted Future Average Adjusted Future Typical Unadjusted Future Typical Adjusted Future Worst Case Unadjusted Future Worst Case Adjusted Base Unadjusted Base Effective Journey Time per Passenger (min) Buffer Time In-Station Conveyance Time Waiting Time In-Vehicle Time Figure 6-43. Summary chart for the STA example.

70 The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality the track would reduce EJT to 23.4 minutes. Much of this reduction stems from the predicted change in IVT from eliminating the slow zone between Penn Station and Grand Central, as well as from improving the fleet. The EJT reduction of 3.2 minutes for investing in improving the track and fleet relative to allowing further deterioration results in an annual reduction of approximately 318,000 hours, equivalent to a benefit of approximately 4 million dollars, assum- ing a value of time of $12.55/hour. Evaluating EJT is a key step in relating asset conditions to service quality, but, as noted in previous chapters, no single measure can completely communicate all of the dimensions of service quality. Thus, an analysis of EJT used to quantify effects of changes in asset condition should not be provided in isolation, but should be accompanied by additional information on the nature of the project service quality impacts that can help to best illustrate the full set of impacts of changes in condition on transit QoS.

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Report 198: The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality documents the development of a quantitative method for characterizing service quality and demonstrates how this quantitative measure varies with changes in asset condition. It provides guidance on how asset condition and transit service quality relate in terms of investment prioritization.

Three Excel spreadsheets–a simplified Effective Journey Time (EJT) Calculator, a comprehensive EJT Calculator, and a worked example demonstrating the use of the comprehensive EJT Calculator—provide quantitative methods. Transit agencies may use this report and tools to better manage existing transit capital assets and make more efficient and effective investment decisions.

Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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