National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

Reengineering the
Census Bureau’s
Annual Economic Surveys

Panel on Reengineering the Census Bureau’s Annual Economic Surveys

Katharine G. Abraham, Constance F. Citro, Glenn D. White, Jr., and
Nancy K. Kirkendall, Editors

Committee on National Statistics

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract No. YA1323-14-CN-0033 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Census Bureau. Support for the work of the Committee on National Statistics is provided by a consortium of federal agencies through a grant from the National Science Foundation, a National Agricultural Statistics Service cooperative agreement, and several individual contracts. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-47536-5
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-47536-8
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25098

Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Reengineering the Census Bureau’s Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25098.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

PANEL ON REENGINEERING THE CENSUS BUREAU’S ANNUAL ECONOMIC SURVEYS

KATHARINE G. ABRAHAM (Chair), Department of Economics and Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Maryland

MARY BATCHER, BDS Data Analytics, Bethesda, MD

MARIE BRODEUR, Statistics Canada, Ottawa (retired)

CYNTHIA Z.F. CLARK, National Agricultural Statistics Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (retired)

WILLIAM DUNKELBERG, National Federation of Independent Businesses, Nashville, TN

ROBERT E. HALL, Hoover Institution and Department of Economics, Stanford University

KAYE HUSBANDS FEALING, School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology

J. STEVEN LANDEFELD, Economics/Statistical Division, United Nations, and U.S. Naval Academy

DAVID MARKER, Westat, Rockville, MD

JOAN GENTILI NAYMARK, Minnesotans for the American Community Survey and JG Naymark Demographics, Minneapolis, MN

KRISTEN OLSON, Department of Sociology, University of Nebraska–Lincoln

GER SNIJKERS, Department of Methodology, Statistics Netherlands

CHAD SYVERSON, Booth School of Business, University of Chicago

RICHARD VALLIANT, Joint Program in Survey Methodology, University of Michigan and University of Maryland

GLENN D. WHITE, JR., Study Director

NANCY J. KIRKENDALL, Senior Program Officer

CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar

MARY ANN KASPER, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS

ROBERT M. GROVES (Chair), Department of Mathematics and Statistics and Department of Sociology, Georgetown University

FRANCINE BLAU, Department of Economics, Cornell University

MARY ELLEN BOCK, Department of Statistics (emerita), Purdue University

ANNE C. CASE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University

MICHAEL E. CHERNEW, Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School

JANET CURRIE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University

DONALD A. DILLMAN, Department of Sociology, Washington State University

CONSTANTINE GATSONIS, Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University

JAMES S. HOUSE, Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

THOMAS L. MESENBOURG, U.S. Census Bureau (retired)

SARAH M. NUSSER, Department of Statistics, Iowa State University

COLM O’MUIRCHEARTAIGH, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago

JEROME P. REITER, Department of Statistical Science, Duke University

ROBERTO RIGOBON, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JUDITH A. SELZTER, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles

EDWARD H. SHORTLIFFE, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University/Arizona State University

BRIAN HARRIS-KOJETIN, Director

CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

Acknowledgments

This project was sponsored by the U.S. Census Bureau, which asked the Committee on National Statistics to convene a panel to review the Bureau’s portfolio of annual economic surveys. The Panel on Reengineering the Census Bureau’s Annual Economic Surveys could not have conducted its work without the contributions from Census Bureau staff and many other colleagues, whom we thank for their time, generosity, and expert guidance in helping the panel develop a broader and deeper understanding of key issues for the future of these surveys. The panel especially thanks Kevin Deardorff, Maria Iseman, and Jessica Wellwood at the Census Bureau for their time and background materials in response to our many requests.

The panel thanks the following individuals who attended open meetings and generously gave of their time to present material to inform the panel’s deliberations: Kim Bayard, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System; Aaron Catlin, Office of the Actuary, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Jim Diffley, IHS Economics; Dennis Fixler, Bureau of Economic Analysis; Alexa Ghagouri, Accenture; Vanessa Goeschl, Charlotte Regional Partnership; Maurine Haver, Haver Analytics, Inc.; Eric Long, Greater Oklahoma City Chamber of Commerce; Nancy McCrea, Maryland Department of Commerce; Thomas Mesenbourg, Census Bureau (retired) and Key Concepts Knowledgebase, LLC; Daniela Ravindra, Statistics Canada; Anthony Scriffignano, Dun & Bradstreet; Chris Sparks, Bureau of Labor Statistics; Gaétan St-Louis, Statistics Canada; David Talan, Bureau of Labor Statistics; and Neal Young, Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development. In addition, the panel thanks Jose Plehn,

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

Powerlytics, and Jack Kleinhenz, National Retail Federation, who were unable to attend an open meeting but provided written statements.

We also thank the following presenters from the U.S. Census Bureau, many of whom generously gave of the their time to answer questions and provide additional materials to the panel: Andrew Baer, Erika Becker Medina, Naomi Blackman, William G. Bostic, Jr., Chuck Brady, Carol Caldwell, Rob Chestnut, Jeffrey Dalzell, Bill Davie, Kevin Deardorff, Aneta Erdie, Meghan Harrison, Carrie Hill, Jim Jamski, Ron Jarmin, Susanne Johnson, Mike Kornbau, Jim Liu, Erica Marquette, Valerie Mastalski, Blynda Metcalf, Stephanie Morales Garcia, John Murphy, Patrice Norman, Nick Orsini, Steve Roman, Anne Russell, Chris Savage, Scott Scheleur, Julius Smith, Robert Struble, Julie Vesely, Katrina Washington, Deanna Weidenhammer, Jessica Wellwood, Jeremy Wiedemann, Diane Willimack, and Brandy Yarbrough.

The panel could not have conducted its work efficiently without the capable staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Brian Harris-Kojetin, director of the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT), provided institutional leadership, and Nancy Kirkendall, CNSTAT senior program officer, provided invaluable support to the study director throughout the project. Mary Ann Kasper provided logistical support for the panel’s meetings. We also thank Eugenia Grohman, Kirsten Sampson-Snyder, and Yvonne Wise of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, who, respectively, edited this Consensus Study Report, oversaw the report review process, and managed the production of this Report.

A special note of appreciation is due to Constance F. Citro, CNSTAT senior scholar and former director, for her significant contributions to improving the structure of this Report and the clarity of presentation throughout the document, as well as contributing in other ways to the panel’s work and preparation of this Report.

On behalf of the panel, I express our gratitude to our study director, Glenn D. White, Jr. Over a span of 30 months, he facilitated communication among panel members, identified relevant studies and reports, coordinated all of our activities, and kept the panel on track. He organized our meetings, communicated our questions to the Census Bureau, masterfully organized the material the Bureau provided, and helped to ensure that the panel’s thinking was fully reflected in the final report.

A note of appreciation is in order for my fellow panel members. Despite their many professional commitments, every panel member donated considerable time and contributed a wealth of expertise to make this Consensus Study possible. All of the panel members helped to draft one or more chapters of this Consensus Study Report in their particular areas of expertise, in addition to providing input on this Report as a whole, so that it reflects our

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

collective expertise and commitment. This group—deliberately chosen for its varied perspectives, diverse statistical, economic, and business backgrounds, and deep subject-matter knowledge—displayed rigor and creativity, and also patience when dealing with one another, throughout the project. I also thank Michael D. Larsen, Department of Statistics and Survey Design and Data Analysis, The George Washington University, who served on the panel in its beginning but was unable to continue for the entirety of this study.

This Consensus Study Report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their reviews of this Report: Thomas Abt, Center for International Development, Harvard Law School; Gale A. Boyd, Triangle Research Data Center, Duke University; Jill A. Dever, Division for Statistical and Data Sciences, RTI International; Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Statistical Advisory Center, RAND; Gustav Haraldsen, Division for Methods, Statistics Norway; Jacqui Jones, Macroeconomic Statistics Division, Australian Bureau of Statistics; Jack Kleinhenz, Kleinhenz Associates; William D. Nordhaus, Department of Economics, Yale University; and Polly Phipps, Office of Survey Methods Research, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this Report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this Report was overseen by Keith F. Rust, Westat, Rockville, Maryland, and Roderick J.A. Little, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this Report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring panel and the National Academies.

Katharine G. Abraham, Chair
Panel on Reengineering the Census Bureau’s
Annual Economic Surveys

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

Acronyms

ABS Annual Business Survey
ABSS Annual Business Survey System
ACES Annual Capital Expenditures Survey
ACS American Community Survey
AFF American Fact Finder
API application programming interface
ARTS Annual Retail Trade Survey
ASE Annual Survey of Entrepreneurs
ASM Annual Survey of Manufactures
AWTS Annual Wholesale Trade Survey
BEA Bureau of Economic Analysis
BES Business Expenses Supplement
BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics
BMF Business Master File
BR Business Register
BRDI-M Business R&D and Innovation for Microbusinesses
BRDIS Business R&D and Innovation Survey
CBP County Business Patterns
CES Center for Economic Studies
CMS Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
CNSTAT Committee on National Statistics
COS Company Organization Survey
CPS Current Population Survey
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
CV coefficient of variation
EDI Electronic Data Interchange
EID Economic Indicator Division
EIN Employer Identification Number
EPM Enterprise Portfolio Management
ESMD Economic Statistical Methods Division
ESP Enterprise Statistics Program
EWD Economy-Wide Statistics Division
FAQ frequently asked questions
FESAC Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee
FRB Federal Reserve Board
FRED Federal Reserve Economic Data
FSRDC Federal Statistical Research Data Center
FTE full-time equivalent
FY fiscal year
GDP gross domestic product
HT Horvitz-Thompson
IBSP Integrated Business Statistics Program
ICTS Information and Communication Technology Survey
IMPECT IMPlementation EConomic Transformation program
IRS Internal Revenue Service
IT information technology
LEHD Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics Program
MARTS Advanced Monthly Retail Trade Survey
MBDA Minority Business Development Agency
MOPS Management and Organizational Practices Survey
MSA Metropolitan Statistical Area
M3UFO Manufacturers’ Unfilled Orders Survey
NAICS North American Industry Classification System
NAPCS North American Product Classification System
NASS National Agricultural Statistics Service
NCSES National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
NSF National Science Foundation
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
OMB Office of Management and Budget
PPS probability proportional to size
PRN permanent random number
QSS Quarterly Services Survey
R&D research and development
RDC Research Data Center
SAE small-area estimation
SAS Service Annual Survey
SBO Survey of Business Owners
SEC Securities and Exchange Commission
SMART specific, measurable, assignable, realistic, and time-bound
SQ-CLASS Business and Professional Classification Survey
SRS simple random sampling
SSN Social Security number
STSRS stratified simple random sampling
STSYS stratified systematic random sampling
TQRR total quantity response rate
UN United Nations
URR unit response rate
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25098.
×
Page R18
Next: Executive Summary »
Reengineering the Census Bureau's Annual Economic Surveys Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $60.00 Buy Ebook | $48.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The U.S. Census Bureau maintains an important portfolio of economic statistics programs, including quinquennial economic censuses, annual economic surveys, and quarterly and monthly indicator surveys. Government, corporate, and academic users rely on the data to understand the complexity and dynamism of the U.S. economy. Historically, the Bureau’s economic statistics programs developed sector by sector (e.g., separate surveys of manufacturing, retail trade, and wholesale trade), and they continue to operate largely independently. Consequently, inconsistencies in questionnaire content, sample and survey design, and survey operations make the data not only more difficult to use, but also more costly to collect and process and more burdensome to the business community than they could be.

This report reviews the Census Bureau’s annual economic surveys. Specifically, it examines the design, operations, and products of 11 surveys and makes recommendations to enable them to better answer questions about the evolving economy.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!