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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations—RUMBLE and PCBoom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25099.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations—RUMBLE and PCBoom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25099.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations—RUMBLE and PCBoom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25099.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations—RUMBLE and PCBoom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25099.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations—RUMBLE and PCBoom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25099.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations—RUMBLE and PCBoom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25099.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations—RUMBLE and PCBoom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25099.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations—RUMBLE and PCBoom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25099.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 183 2018 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations— RUMBLE and PCBoom Kevin A. Bradley Clif Wilmer Vincent San Miguel Wyle laboratories, inc. Arlington, VA Michael M. James Alexandria R. Salton Matthew F. Calton blue ridge research and consulting, llc Asheville, NC

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 183 Project 02-66 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44684-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2018936163 © 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 183 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-66 PANEL Field of Environment Tom Duncan, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL (Chair) David Alberts, RS&H, Inc., Jacksonville, FL Fin B. Bonset, C.M., Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Orlando, FL Janice D. Houston, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Boulder, CO Max K. Kiesling, Ricondo & Associates, Irving, TX Dongwook Lim, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA James B. Byers III, FAA Liaison Natalia Sizov, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

Commercial space launch vehicle activities are expected to continue to increase. As they begin testing and become operational, many noise issues as well as the effects from sonic booms will need to be evaluated. The Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) is designed to evaluate the effects of noise and emissions from aircraft, but doesn’t have the ability to predict noise and sonic boom effects from commercial space operations. Two tools were developed in this project to predict noise and sonic boom to be used in the noise modeling evaluation process. RUMBLE 2.0 predicts rocket noise, and PCBoom4 was modified to predict sonic boom from commercial space operations. ACRP Research Report 183 is the user’s guide for each tool, and ACRP Web-Only Document 33: Commercial Space Operations Noise and Sonic Boom Modeling and Analysis is the contractor’s final report on the methodology and develop- ment of these tools. The impacts from commercial space operations are dependent on variables such as the number of operations, the launch pad configuration, and the type of launch vehicle. While those are just some of the factors, no data on the noise parameters of launch vehicles nor a method developed that can be used with AEDT for environmental analysis has been compiled. Wyle Laboratories, as part of ACRP Project 02-66, was selected to develop two models that can be integrated with AEDT to evaluate rocket noise and sonic boom. The models are based on a database that compiles information on the vehicles and engine/motors used. The models user’s guide is recommended before or while using either model. For information on how the methodologies were developed for the tools, please refer to ACRP Web-Only Document 33: Commercial Space Operations Noise and Sonic Boom Modeling and Analysis. The software for PCBoom and RUMBLE can be found on the TRB website by searching for ACRP Research Report 183. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 1.1 About the RUMBLE User Guide 4 1.2 About the PCBoom User Guide P A R T I RUMBLE, Launch Vehicle Acoustic Simulation Model, Version 2.0, User Guide 9 Chapter 2 Introduction to RUMBLE 9 2.1 About RUMBLE 9 2.2 About this User Guide 11 Chapter 3 Technical Reference 11 3.1 Source 14 3.2 Propagation 15 3.3 Receiver 16 Chapter 4 System and Installation 16 4.1 System Requirements 16 4.2 Installation Package Contents 17 4.3 Software Installation 22 Chapter 5 Noise Metrics 22 5.1 Maximum Sound Level 22 5.2 Maximum A-weighted Sound Level 23 5.3 Sound Exposure Level 23 5.4 Day-Night Average Sound Level 23 5.5 Community Noise Equivalent Level 24 Chapter 6 Input File Descriptions 24 6.1 Fleet Input Format 25 6.2 Trajectory Input Format 26 6.3 Atmospheric Profile Input Format 27 Chapter 7 Program Operation 27 7.1 Getting Started 28 7.2 User Interface Navigation 29 7.3 Workspace 29 7.4 Study Tab 34 7.5 Spaceport Tab 34 7.6 Receptors Tab 37 7.7 Operations Tab 39 7.8 Scenarios Tab 43 7.9 Metric Results Tab C O N T E N T S

48 Chapter 8 Output File Descriptions 48 8.1 RUMBLE Grid File 48 8.2 RUMBLE Log File 50 Chapter 9 Error and Warning Messages 53 Chapter 10 Instructional Resources 53 10.1 Sample Cases 57 10.2 Create New Study Exercise 67 Chapter 11 Approval Process 67 11.1 Procedures for Review of Non-Default Methods and Data 68 11.2 List of Common Methods/Data and AEE Review Requirements 69 11.3 Guidance Regarding a Request to Use Non-Default Methods/Data 71 Chapter 12 RSIF Reference Guide 71 12.1 Introduction 71 12.2 XML Hierarchy 72 12.3 RSIF Examples 73 12.4 Notation 74 12.5 Element Descriptions 90 12.6 Group Descriptions 92 12.7 Complex Type Descriptions 103 12.8 Simple Type Descriptions 106 References 107 Abbreviations P A R T I I PCBoom, Sonic Boom Model for Space Operations, Version 4.99, User Guide 113 Chapter 13 Introduction to PCBoom 113 13.1 About PCBoom 113 13.2 Organization of User Guide 114 Chapter 14 Technical Reference 114 14.1 Sonic Boom Background 117 14.2 Sonic Boom Theory 119 14.3 Propagation Using Geometrical Acoustics 122 14.4 Signature Aging 125 Chapter 15 Program Installation and Execution 129 Chapter 16 PCBoom Input Files 129 16.1 Case Description 129 16.2 Ground Pressure and Latitude 131 16.3 Atmosphere Specification 134 16.4 Ray Tracing Altitude Extent Specification 136 16.5 Signature and Vehicle Input Mode 144 16.6 Ray Tracing Azimuthal Control 146 16.7 Flight Trajectory Specification

148 Chapter 17 Sonic Boom Metrics 149 Chapter 18 PCBoom Output Files 150 Chapter 19 Error and Warning Messages 153 Chapter 20 Sample Cases 153 20.1 Sample Case 1: Vertically Launched, Two-Stage-To-Orbit Vehicle 155 20.2 Sample Case 2: Horizontally Launched, Suborbital Vehicle 160 Chapter 21 PCBoom Data Display and Grid Output 160 21.1 WCON Control Features 162 21.2 PCBoom Noise Grid Output for NMPlot 168 21.3 PCBoom Noise Grid Output for AEDT 170 Chapter 22 Generating Sonic Boom Source Signatures 170 22.1 Carlson’s Simplified N-Wave Method 173 Chapter 23 Approval Process Guidance for Commercial Space Noise Studies 173 23.1 Procedure for Review of Non-Default Methods and Data 174 23.2 List of Common Methods/Data and AEE Review Requirements 175 23.3 Guidance Regarding a Request to Use Non-Default Methods/Data 177 References 178 Abbreviations Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 183: User Guides for Noise Modeling of Commercial Space Operations—RUMBLE and PCBoom provides guidance on using RUMBLE 2.0, which predicts rocket noise, and PCBoom4, which has been modified to predict sonic booms from commercial space operations.

As commercial space launch vehicle activities increase, many noise issues, as well as the effects of sonic booms, will need to be evaluated. The Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) is designed to evaluate the effects of noise and emissions from aircraft but doesn’t have the ability to predict noise and sonic boom effects from commercial space operations. This project develops two tools to predict noise and sonic boom to be used in the noise modeling evaluation process. Download software for PCBoom and RUMBLE. ACRP Web-Only Document 33: Commercial Space Operations Noise and Sonic Boom Modeling and Analysis is the contractor’s final report on the methodology and development of these tools.

Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact, or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not, in any case, be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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