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Suggested Citation:"6 Conclusions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25104.
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Suggested Citation:"6 Conclusions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25104.
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Page 67
Suggested Citation:"6 Conclusions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25104.
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Page 68
Suggested Citation:"6 Conclusions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25104.
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Page 69
Suggested Citation:"6 Conclusions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25104.
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Page 70
Suggested Citation:"6 Conclusions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25104.
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Page 71
Suggested Citation:"6 Conclusions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25104.
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Page 72

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6 Conclusions Data science education is well into its formative stages of development; it is evolving into a self- supporting discipline and producing professionals with distinct and complementary skills relative to professionals in the computer, information, and statistical sciences. However, regardless of its potential eventual disciplinary status, the evidence points to robust growth of data science education that will indelibly shape the undergraduate students of the future. In fact, fueled by growing student interest and industry demand, data science education will likely become a staple of the undergraduate experience. There will be an increase in the number of students majoring, minoring, earning certificates, or just taking courses in data science as the value of data skills becomes even more widely recognized. The adoption of a general education requirement in data science for all undergraduates will endow future generations of students with the basic understanding of data science that they need to become responsible citizens. Continuing education programs such as data science boot camps, career accelerators, summer schools, and incubators will provide another stream of talent. This constitutes the emerging watershed of data science education that feeds multiple streams of generalists and specialists in society; citizens are empowered by their basic skills to examine, interpret, and draw value from data. Today, the nation is in the formative phase of data science education, where educational organizations are pioneering their own programs, each with different approaches to depth, breadth, and curricular emphasis (e.g., business, computer science, engineering, information science, mathematics, social science, or statistics). It is too early to expect consensus to emerge on certain best practices of data science education. However, it is not too early to envision the possible forms that such practices might take. Nor is it too early to make recommendations that can help the data science education community develop strategic vision and practices. The following is a summary of the findings and recommendations discussed in the preceding four chapters of this report. Finding 2.1: Data scientists today draw largely from extensions of the “analyst” of years past trained in traditional disciplines. As data science becomes an integral part of many industries and enriches research and development, there will be an increased demand for more holistic and more nuanced data science roles. 6-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Finding 2.2: Data science programs that strive to meet the needs of their students will likely evolve to emphasize certain skills and capabilities. This will result in programs that prepare different types of data scientists. Recommendation 2.1: Academic institutions should embrace data science as a vital new field that requires specifically tailored instruction delivered through majors and minors in data science as well as the development of a cadre of faculty equipped to teach in this new field. Recommendation 2.2: Academic institutions should provide and evolve a range of educational pathways to prepare students for an array of data science roles in the workplace. Finding 2.3: A critical task in the education of future data scientists is to instill data acumen. This requires exposure to key concepts in data science, real-world data and problems that can reinforce the limitations of tools, and ethical considerations that permeate many applications. Key concepts involved in developing data acumen include the following: • Mathematical foundations, • Computational foundations, • Statistical foundations, • Data management and curation, • Data description and visualization, • Data modeling and assessment, • Workflow and reproducibility, • Communication and teamwork, • Domain-specific considerations, and • Ethical problem solving. Recommendation 2.3: To prepare their graduates for this new data-driven era, academic institutions should encourage the development of a basic understanding of data science in all undergraduates. Recommendation 2.4: Ethics is a topic that, given the nature of data science, students should learn and practice throughout their education. Academic institutions should ensure that ethics is woven into the data science curriculum from the beginning and throughout. Recommendation 2.5: The data science community should adopt a code of ethics; such a code should be affirmed by members of professional societies, included in professional development programs and curricula, and conveyed through educational programs. The code should be reevaluated often in light of new developments. Finding 3.1: Undergraduate education in data science can be experienced in many forms. These include the following: • Integrated introductory courses that can satisfy a general education requirement; • A major in data science, including advanced skills as primary field of study; 6-2 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

• A minor or track in data science, where intermediate skills are connected to major field of study; • Two-year degrees and certificates; • Other certificates, often requiring fewer courses than a major but more than a minor; • Massive open online courses, which can engage large numbers of students at a variety of levels; and • Summer programs and boot camps, which can serve to supplement academic or on-the-job training. Recommendation 3.1: Four-year and two-year institutions should establish a forum for dialogue across institutions on all aspects of data science education, training, and workforce development. Finding 4.1: The nature of data science is such that it offers multiple pathways for students of different backgrounds to engage at levels ranging from basic to expert. Finding 4.2: Data science would particularly benefit from broad participation by underrepresented minorities because of the many applications to problems of interest to diverse populations. Recommendation 4.1: As data science programs develop, they should focus on attracting students with varied backgrounds and degrees of preparation and preparing them for success in a variety of careers. Finding 4.3: Institutional flexibility will involve the development of curricula that take advantage of current course availability and will potentially be constrained by the availability of teaching expertise. Whatever organizational or infrastructure model is adopted, incentives are needed to encourage faculty participation and to overcome barriers. Finding 4.4: The economics of developing programs has recently changed with the shift to cloud-based approaches and platforms. Finding 5.1: The evolution of data science programs at a particular institution will depend on the particular institution’s pedagogical style and the students’ backgrounds and goals, as well as the requirements of the job market and graduate schools. Recommendation 5.1: Because these are early days for undergraduate data science education, academic institutions should be prepared to evolve programs over time. They should create and maintain the flexibility and incentives to facilitate the sharing of courses, materials, and faculty among departments and programs. Finding 5.2: There is a need for broadening the perspective of faculty who are trained in particular areas of data science to be knowledgeable of the breadth of approaches to data science so that they can more effectively educate students at all levels. 6-3 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Recommendation 5.2: During the development of data science programs, institutions should provide support so that the faculty can become more cognizant of the varied aspects of data science through discussion, co-teaching, sharing of materials, short courses, and other forms of training. Finding 5.3: The data science community would benefit from the creation of websites and journals that document and make available best practices, curricula, education research findings, and other materials related to undergraduate data science education. Finding 5.4: The evolution of undergraduate education in data science can be driven by data science. Exploiting administrative records, in conjunction with other data sources such as economic information and survey data, can enable effective transformation of programs to better serve their students. Finding 5.5: Data science methods applied both to individual programs and comparatively across programs can be used for both evaluation and evolution of data science program components. It is essential that both processes are sustained as new pathways emerge at institutions. Recommendation 5.3: Academic institutions should ensure that programs are continuously evaluated and should work together to develop professional approaches to evaluation. This should include developing and sharing measurement and evaluation frameworks, data sets, and a culture of evolution guided by high-quality evaluation. Efforts should be made to establish relationships with sector-specific professional societies to help align education evaluation with market impacts. Finding 5.6: As professional societies adapt to data science, improved coordination could offer new opportunities for additional collaboration and cross-pollination. A group or conference with bridging capabilities would be helpful. Professional societies may find it useful to collaborate to offer such training and networking opportunities to their joint communities. Recommendation 5.4: Existing professional societies should coordinate to enable regular convening sessions on data science among their members. Peer review and discussion are essential to share ideas, best practices, and data. 6-4 PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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Appendixes PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

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Data science is emerging as a field that is revolutionizing science and industries alike. Work across nearly all domains is becoming more data driven, affecting both the jobs that are available and the skills that are required. As more data and ways of analyzing them become available, more aspects of the economy, society, and daily life will become dependent on data. It is imperative that educators, administrators, and students begin today to consider how to best prepare for and keep pace with this data-driven era of tomorrow. Undergraduate teaching, in particular, offers a critical link in offering more data science exposure to students and expanding the supply of data science talent.

Data Science for Undergraduates: Opportunities and Options offers a vision for the emerging discipline of data science at the undergraduate level. This report outlines some considerations and approaches for academic institutions and others in the broader data science communities to help guide the ongoing transformation of this field.

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