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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25111.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25111.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25111.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25111.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25111.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25111.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25111.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25111.
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PREPUBLICATION COPY Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures ADVANCE COPY NOT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE BEFORE Thursday, June 28, 2018 2:00 p.m. EDT This prepublication version has been provided to the public to facilitate timely access to the committee’s findings. Although the substance of the report is final, editorial changes will be made throughout the text, and citations will be checked prior to publication.

PREPUBLICATION COPY Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures Committee on the Study of the Control of Respirable Coal Mine Dust Exposure in Underground Mines Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Board on Health Sciences Policy Division on Earth and Life Studies Health and Medicine Division A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract 200-2011-38807 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. Digital Object Identifier: https:/doi.org/10.17226/25111 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https:/doi.org/10.17226/25111. ii Prepublication Copy

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www. nationalacademies.org. Prepublication Copy iii

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Acad- emies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. iv Prepublication Copy

COMMITTEE ON THE STUDY OF THE CONTROL OF RESPIRABLE COAL MINE DUST EXPOSURE IN UNDERGROUND MINES Members THURE E. CERLING (Chair), The University of Utah, Salt Lake City DIRK DAHMANN, Institut für Gefahrstoff-Forschung, Bochum, Germany (Retired) R. LARRY GRAYSON, The Pennsylvania State University, Coraopolis, PA BRADEN T. LUSK, Missouri University for Science and Technology, Rolla, MO MICHAEL MCCAWLEY, West Virginia University, Morgantown RAJA V. RAMANI, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park CECILE S. ROSE, National Jewish Health and University of Colorado Denver EMILY A. SARVER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg JOSEPH A. SBAFFONI, JAS Mine Consulting LLC, DuBois, PA MICHAEL J. WRIGHT, United Steelworkers, Pittsburgh, PA Staff RAYMOND WASSEL, Project Director ELIZABETH EIDE, Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources SAMMANTHA MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer CATHY LIVERMAN, Scholar YASMIN ROMITTI, Research Associate MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center (until April 6, 2018) RADIAH ROSE-CRAWFORD, Manager, Editorial Projects TAMARA DAWSON, Program Coordinator Sponsor National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Prepublication Copy v

BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES Members GENE WHITNEY (Chair), Congressional Research Service (Retired), Washington, DC R. LYNDON (LYN) ARSCOTT, International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (Retired), Danville, California BRENDA B. BOWEN, The University of Utah CHRISTOPHER (SCOTT) CAMERON, GeoLogical Consulting, LLC RODNEY C. EWING, NAE, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and Stanford University, Stanford, California CAROL P. HARDEN, The University of Tennessee THORNE LAY, NAS, University of California, Santa Cruz ANN S. MAEST, Buka Environmental, Boulder, Colorado ZELMA MAINE-JACKSON, Washington State Department of Ecology, Nuclear Waste Program, Richland, Washington MARTIN W. MCCANN, Jack R. Benjamin and Associates and Stanford University, Menlo Park, California JAMES M. ROBERTSON, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison JEFFREY N. RUBIN, Tualatin Valley Fire and Rescue JAMES SLUTZ, National Petroleum Council, Washington, DC SHAOWEN WANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ELIZABETH J. WILSON, Dartmouth College BESR Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director ANNE M. LINN, Scholar DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer COURTNEY R. DEVANE, Administrative Coordinator NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate YASMIN ROMITTI, Research Associate CARLY BRODY, Senior Program Assistant RAYMOND M. CHAPPETTA, Senior Program Assistant ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant vi Prepublication Copy

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members WILLIAM H. FARLAND (Chair), Colorado State University, Fort Collins LESA AYLWARD, Summit Toxicology, LLP, Falls Church, VA RICHARD A. BECKER, American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC E. WILLIAM COLGLAZIER, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC DOMINIC M. DITORO, University of Delaware, Newark DAVID C. DORMAN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh ANNE FAIRBROTHER, Exponent, Inc., Philomath, OR GEORGE GRAY, The George Washington University, Washington, DC STEVEN P. HAMBURG, Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY ROBERT A. HIATT, University of California, San Francisco R. JEFFREY LEWIS, ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annandale, NJ H. SCOTT MATTHEWS, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA ROBERT PERCIASEPE, Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, VA R. CRAIG POSTLEWAITE, Department of Defense, Burke, VA REZA J. RASOULPOUR, Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL JOAN B. ROSE, Michigan State University, East Lansing GINA M. SOLOMON, Public Health Institute, Oakland, CA ROBERT M. SUSSMAN, Sussman and Associates, Washington, DC DEBORAH L. SWACKHAMER, University of Minnesota, St. Paul PETER S. THORNE, The University of Iowa, Iowa City BEST Senior Staff TERESA A. FRYBERGER, Director (until April 30, 2018) ELLEN K. MANTUS, Scholar and Director of Risk Assessment RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Scholar and Director of Environmental Studies SUSAN N. J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology Prepublication Copy vii

BOARD ON HEALTH SCIENCES POLICY Members JEFFREY KAHN (Chair), NAM, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD DAVID BLAZES, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA ROBERT M. CALIFF, NAM, Duke University, Durham, NC R. ALTA CHARO, NAM, University of Wisconsin–Madison LINDA HAWES CLEVER, NAM, California Pacific Medical Center, Portola Valley BARRY S. COLLER, NAS/NAM, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY BERNARD A. HARRIS, JR., Vesalius Ventures, Houston, TX MARTHA N. HILL, NAM, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD ALAN M. JETTE, NAM, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA PATRICIA A. KING, NAM, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC STORY C. LANDIS, NAM, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Freeport, ME HARRY T. ORR, NAM, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis BRAY PATRICK-LAKE, Duke University, Erie, CO DIETRAM A. SCHEUFELE, University of Wisconsin–Madison UMAIR A. SHAH, Harris County Public Health and Environmental Services, Houston, TX ROBYN STONE, NAM, LeadingAge, Washington, DC HSP Staff ANDREW M. POPE, Senior Board Director STEPHANIE YOUNG, Program Coordinator viii Prepublication Copy

Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse per- spectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: T. Renee Anthony, The University of Iowa David Beerbower, Beerbower Safety Associates, LLC Bharath Belle, Anglo American Coal (Australia and South Africa) Susan L. Brantley, The Pennsylvania State University Jurgen Brune, Colorado School of Mines Robert Cohen, Northwestern University Fiona M. Doyle, University of California, Berkeley David M. Mannino, University of Kentucky Syd S. Peng, West Virginia University Linda Raisovich-Parsons, United Mine Workers of America John Volckens, Colorado State University Gregory R. Wagner, Harvard School of Public Health Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by the review coordinator, Paul A. Locke, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and the review monitor, Kirk R. Smith, University of California, Berkeley. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Prepublication Copy ix

Preface Dust generated during underground coal mining operations includes particles small enough to be de- posited in the airways and the gas-exchange region of a miner’s lung, when inhaled. Chronic exposure to those particles, referred to as respirable coal mine dust (RCMD), puts miners at risk for various lung dis- eases, including coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, emphysema, silicosis, and chronic bronchitis. This report is about methods for monitoring and sampling miners’ exposure to RCMD. Results from the implementa- tion of those methods are used for determining whether miners’ exposures are within regulatory limits and informing mine operators’ efforts to reduce those exposures. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is the federal agency responsible for setting and enforcing mine safety and health standards. On May 1, 2014, MSHA’s final rule, entitled Lowering Miners’ Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors, was issued as part of an ongoing effort to protect miners from the health risks of lung diseases associated with RCMD inha- lation. (Chapter 1 of this report provides an overview of the rule’s main requirements.) Some coal mine operators and mining associations had expressed various concerns about the efficacy of the monitoring and sampling protocols in MSHA's new rule in aiding decisions regarding the control of RCMD and mine worker exposure. For example, MSHA’s dust rule requires the use of a continuous per- sonal dust monitor (CPDM) for measurement of RCMD mass concentrations in near real time and deter- mining compliance with the regulatory exposure limit. Concerns were expressed as to whether CPDM measurements will accurately reflect the concentration of particles in coal mine dust that are of relevance to coal mining–related respiratory diseases. CPDMs might also measure particles of limestone or other types of rock dust that are typically applied in mines to meet requirements for controlling the combustibility of coal dust. In the Fiscal 2016 Consolidated Appropriations, Congress directed the National Institute for Occupa- tional Safety and Health (NIOSH) to arrange for a study with the National Academy of Sciences to consider monitoring technologies and sampling protocols used in the United States and in similarly industrialized countries for the control of RCMD exposure in underground coal mines; effects of rock dust mixtures and their application on RCMD measurements; and the efficacy of current monitoring technologies and sam- pling approaches. The request also called for science-based conclusions regarding optimal monitoring and sampling strategies to aid mine operators’ decision making related to reducing respirable coal mine dust exposure to miners in underground coal mines. In response to the congressional request, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Med- icine assembled a committee of 10 members who had expertise in underground mine air quality, exposure science, mine worker health and safety regulations, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine and environ- mental health, mining engineering, and international perspectives. (The committee’s formal statement of task is presented in Appendix A and biographical sketches of the members are presented in Appendix B.) In responding to the request from Congress, the committee was asked to identify important research gaps regarding monitoring and sampling protocols for controlling miners’ RCMD exposures. It was asked not to recommend changes to the requirements of MSHA’s final rule for lowering miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust, as the development of those requirements involves considerations beyond the scientific and technical focus of this study. In the course of preparing its report, the committee held public information-gathering sessions during four of its meetings to hear presentations from members of Congress’ professional staff; representatives of MSHA, NIOSH, National Mining Association, several coal mining companies, United Mine Workers of America, a rock dust manufacturer; and relevant experts from Australia and the Republic of South Africa. Two of the committee’s information-gathering sessions were held in Charleston and Morgantown, West Prepublication Copy xi

Preface Virginia, to receive input from individual coal miners and others living in areas where underground coal mining occurs. The committee gratefully acknowledges the individuals listed in Appendix C for their presentations to the committee during the public sessions. Members of the committee visited the Dana Mine in Mount Morris, Pennsylvania, and the Arch/Coal Leer Mine in Grafton, West Virginia. The committee is very appreciative of the personnel at those mines for allowing members to observe coal mine operations, in situ use of CPDMs, and exposure reduction practices. The committee also appreciates receiving extensive written materials from MSHA, NIOSH, coal mine companies, and other organizations. The committee is grateful for the assistance of the project staff members for the support they provided. Thure E. Cerling, Chair Committee on the Study of the Control of Respirable Coal Mine Dust Exposure in Underground Mines xii Prepublication Copy

Abbreviations AFC armored face conveyor CDE cumulative dust exposure CFR Code of Federal Regulations CMDLD coal mine dust lung disease CMDPSU coal mine dust personal sample unit CMHSA Coal Mine Health and Safety Act COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CPDM continuous personal dust monitor CVD cardiovascular disease CWHSP Coal Workers’ Health Surveillance Program CWP coal workers’ pneumoconiosis DA designated area DDF dust-related diffuse fibrosis DGMS Directorate General of Mine Safety DO designated occupation DPM diesel particulate matter DWP designated work position EC elemental carbon FTIR Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy GAO U.S. Government Accountability Office GSD geometric standard deviation HEG homogenous exposure group HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration MMCRDM machine-mounted continuous respirable dust monitor MMU mechanized mining unit MRE Mining Research Establishment MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NMA National Mining Association NOS not otherwise specified ODO other designated occupation OEL occupational exposure limit OMP occupational medical practitioner PDM personal dust monitor PMF progressive massive fibrosis PNOS particles not otherwise specified PPE personal protective equipment PSD particle size distribution RCMD respirable coal mine dust RCS respirable crystalline silica RDD respirable dust dosimeter RPP rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis SEG similar exposure group SEM-EDX scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy Prepublication Copy xiii

Abbreviations SIMTARS Safety in Mines Testing and Research Station TEOM tapered-element oscillating microbalance TGA thermogravimetric analysis TWA time-weighted average XRF x-ray fluorescence xiv Prepublication Copy

Contents SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................................... 11 2 EFFECTS OF ROCK DUST APPLICATIONS ON COAL MINE DUST MEASUREMENTS ................................................................................................................................... 27 3 EXPOSURE MONITORING AND SAMPLING APPROACHES USED IN DIFFERENT INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES .......................................................................................................... 39 4 EFFICACY OF CURRENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES AND SAMPLING APPROACHES .......................................................................................................................................... 54 5 OPTIMIZING MONITORING AND SAMPLING STRATEGIES ..................................................... 74 6 OVERALL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................ 100 APPENDIXES A STATEMENT OF TASK ........................................................................................................................ 107 B COMMITTEE MEMBER BIOSKETCHES ......................................................................................... 108 C OPEN-SESSION MEETING AGENDAS.............................................................................................. 112 D GLOSSARY.............................................................................................................................................. 116 E COAL MINING IN THE UNITED STATES ........................................................................................ 118 F UNDERGROUND COAL MINING METHODS AND ENGINEERING DUST CONTROLS ....... 126 G MANDATORY AIRBORNE DUST STANDARDS FOR U.S. UNDERGROUND COAL MINES ................................................................................................. 142 Prepublication Copy xv

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Coal remains one of the principal sources of energy for the United States, and the nation has been a world leader in coal production for more than 100 years. According to U.S. Energy Information Administration projections to 2050, coal is expected to be an important energy resource for the United States. Additionally, metallurgical coal used in steel production remains an important national commodity. However, coal production, like all other conventional mining activities, creates dust in the workplace. Respirable coal mine dust (RCMD) comprises the size fraction of airborne particles in underground mines that can be inhaled by miners and deposited in the distal airways and gas-exchange region of the lung. Occupational exposure to RCMD has long been associated with lung diseases common to the coal mining industry, including coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, also known as “black lung disease.”

Monitoring and Sampling Approaches to Assess Underground Coal Mine Dust Exposures compares the monitoring technologies and sampling protocols currently used or required by the United States, and in similarly industrialized countries for the control of RCMD exposure in underground coal mines. This report assesses the effects of rock dust mixtures and their application on RCMD measurements, and the efficacy of current monitoring technologies and sampling approaches. It also offers science-based conclusions regarding optimal monitoring and sampling strategies to aid mine operators’ decision making related to reducing RCMD exposure to miners in underground coal mines.

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