National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
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OPEN SCIENCE BY DESIGN

Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research

Committee on Toward an Open Science Enterprise

Board on Research Data and Information

Policy and Global Affairs

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by the Laura and John Arnold Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-47624-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-47624-0
Library of Congress Control Number: 2018950760
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25116

Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25116.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×

COMMITTEE ON TOWARD AN OPEN SCIENCE ENTERPRISE

Alexa T. McCray (NAM) (Chair), Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Francine Berman, Edward P. Hamilton Distinguished Professor of Computer Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Michael Carroll, Professor of Law, American University Washington College of Law

Donna Ginther, Professor, Department of Economics; Director, Center for Science, Technology and Economic Policy, University of Kansas

Robert Miller, Chief Executive Officer, LYRASIS

Peter Schiffer, Vice Provost for Research and Professor in Applied Physics, Yale University

Edward Seidel, Vice President for Economic Development and Innovation, University of Illinois System; Founder Professor of Physics, Professor of Astronomy and Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Alex Szalay, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor of Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University

Lisa Tauxe (NAS), Distinguished Professor of Geophysics, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego

Heng Xu, Associate Professor of Information Sciences and Technology, College of Information Sciences and Technology, The Pennsylvania State University

Principal Project Staff

Tom Arrison, Program Director, Policy and Global Affairs Division (from November 2017)

Emi Kameyama, Associate Program Officer, Board on Research Data and Information

George Strawn, Director, Board on Research Data and Information

Ester Sztein, Deputy Director, Board on Research Data and Information

Nicole Lehmer, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Research Data and Information

Alan Anderson, Consultant

Christine Liu, Senior Program Officer (until October 2017)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
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BOARD ON RESEARCH DATA AND INFORMATION

Alexa McCray (NAM) (Chair), Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Amy Brand, Director, MIT Press

Kelvin Droegemeier, Vice President for Research, University of Oklahoma

Stuart Feldman, Chief Scientist, Schmidt Futures

Salman Habib, Senior Physicist and Computational Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory

James Hendler, Director, Institute for Data Exploration and Applications, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Elliot Maxwell, Chief Executive Officer, e-Maxwell & Associates

Barend Mons, Chair in Biosemantics, Leiden University Medical Center

Sarah Nusser, Vice President for Research, Iowa State University

Michael Stebbins, President, Science Advisors, LLC

Bonnie Carroll,* Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Information International Associates (CODATA Secretary General)

John Hildebrand (NAS),* Regents Professor of Neuroscience, University of Arizona (NAS Foreign Secretary)

Paul Uhlir,* Consultant, Data Policy and Management (CODATA Executive Committee Member)

Staff

George Strawn, Director

Tom Arrison, Program Director

Ester Sztein, Deputy Director

Emi Kameyama, Associate Program Officer

Nicole Lehmer, Senior Program Assistant

___________________

* Denotes ex-officio member.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×

Preface

Just as society has been transformed by the digital revolution, so, too, have many aspects of the scientific enterprise. Publicly available data in federally sponsored databases serve as starting points for many research investigations. Collaborations are no longer hampered by geographic distance, and, in some cases, the majority or even all of the work is conducted by sharing digital research files, corresponding by email, and meeting virtually, with time zone differences being the only deterrent to the frequency of the meetings. Data are largely collected, stored, manipulated, and shared in electronic form. Research papers are prepared using word-processing software and are often formatted and submitted in camera-ready form to the publisher. The majority of published articles are no longer bound in print journals and disseminated by conventional postal delivery, but rather are available through the publisher’s database, most often mediated by contracts with institutional libraries.

This transformation has had economic, policy, and practical implications, many of which are still in the process of being fully addressed and resolved. An increasing number of scientists have begun to question the closed world of scientific publishing and have suggested that the results of their research should be openly available for all, to benefit not only fellow scientists, but also the general citizenry. Indeed, the pursuit of “citizen science” is now recognized as a valid and useful activity. Faculty at many universities have adopted university-wide “open access” policies that ensure that, at a minimum, their research papers are available through their institution’s repository.

New publishing venues have arisen, including open access journals, some of very high-quality and others not. Individual researchers, while interested in having their work broadly read and cited, are faced with competing pressures, including publishing in journals with high “impact factors,” such that they are in the best possible position for promotion and tenure.

Research funders have seen the value of openly sharing the results of the research that they have supported, not just in the form of publications, but also in the form of the data that have been produced in the course of the investigation. They have begun to require that applicants prepare data management plans as part of their grant proposals.

A number of legal and policy developments have facilitated broader access to scientific research. Recognizing the potential of the Internet to broadly and equitably disseminate scientific knowledge, a collaborative effort has created a legal framework that is consistent with U.S. copyright law, and that provides guidance to researchers who would like to have greater control over how their research results are used and disseminated. Several federal policies require that publicly

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
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funded research results, in the form of data and publications, be deposited in public access repositories. Legislation is now also pending in Congress that would strengthen these policies.

To evaluate more fully the benefits and challenges of broadening access to the results of scientific research, described as “open science,” the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine appointed an expert committee in March 2017. Brief biographies of the individual committee members are provided in Appendix A. The committee was charged with focusing on how to move toward open science as the default for scientific research results, and to indicate both the benefits of moving toward open science and the barriers to doing so. This report presents the findings and recommendations of the committee, with the majority of the focus on solutions that move the research enterprise toward open science.

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Prudence Adler, Association of Research Libraries; David Allison, Indiana University, Bloomington; Geoffrey Boulton, University of Edinburgh; Anita de Waard, Elsevier; Michael Forster, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; Laura Greene, Florida State University; Heather Joseph, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition; Véronique Kiermer, Public Library of Science; Michael Lesk, Rutgers University; William Mobley, University of California, San Diego; Mark Musen, Stanford University; Sarah Nusser, Iowa State University; and George Schatz, Journal of Physical Chemistry.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Boulder and Julia Phillips, Sandia National Laboratories (Retired). They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

The report would not have been possible without the sponsor of this study, the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, whom we thank for their support. The committee gratefully acknowledges all of the speakers for their informative presentations at our meeting and public symposium. They are listed in Appendix E at the conclusion of the report. The information provided during the meeting and symposium is used throughout this report and provided important perspectives that were utilized in this report’s findings and conclusions.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×

The committee is also grateful for the assistance of the National Academies staff in preparing this report. Staff members who contributed to this effort are Tom Arrison, program director, Policy and Global Affairs; Emi Kameyama, associate program officer, Board on Research Data and Information; George Strawn, director, Board on Research Data and Information; Ester Sztein, deputy director, Board on Research Data and Information; Nicole Lehmer, senior program assistant, Board on Research Data and Information; Alan Anderson, consultant; Christine Liu, senior program officer (through October 2017); Adriana Courembis, financial officer; Marilyn Baker, director for reports and communication; and John Boright, interim executive director, Policy and Global Affairs.

Finally, I thank especially the members of the committee for their tireless efforts throughout the development of this report.

Alexa T. McCray, Chair
Committee on Toward an Open Science Enterprise

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
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Abbreviations and Acronyms

AARNET Australia’s Academic and Research Network
AAU American Association of Universities
ACS American Chemical Society
AGU American Geophysical Union
ALPSP Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers
ANDS Australian National Data Service
APC Article Processing Charges
APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
API Application Programming Interface
APLU Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities
APO Apache Point Observatory
APOGEE Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment
ARC Astrophysical Research Consortium
ARS Agricultural Research Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
ARXIV Archive
AWSI Amazon Web Services
BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs
BIORXIV Bio Archive
BLM Bureau of Land Management
BOAI Budapest Open Access Initiative
BOSS Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey
BRDI Board on Research Data and Information
CADRE Center for the Advancement of Data and Research in Economics
CAPTCHA Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart
CC Creative Commons
CC BY Creative Commons Attribution
CC BY-NC Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial
CC BY-ND Creative Commons Attribution-Noderivs License
CC BY-SA Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike
CC0 Cc Zero
CDL California Digital Library
CERN Conseil Européen Pour La Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research)
CHORUS Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the United States
COAR Confederation of Open Access Repositories
CODATA Committee on Data for Science and Technology
COPE Committee on Publication Ethics
COS Center for Open Science
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×
CRISPR/CAS9 Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Crispr Associated Protein 9
CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
DASH Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard
DDI Design, Development, and Implementation
DFIG Data Fabric Interest Group
DMP Data Management Platform
DO Digital Object Architecture
DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
DOI U.S. Department of Interior
DOIS Digital Object Identifiers
DVN Dataverse Network
EC European Commission
EMBL-EBI The European Molecular Biology Laboratory-The European Bioinformatics Institute
EOSC European Open Science Cloud
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
ESO European Southern Observatory
ESSOAR Earth and Space Science Open Archive
EU European Union
EUA European University Association
FAIR Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable
FASTR Fair Access to Science and Technology Research
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FDAAA Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act
FOSTER Facilitate open science training for European Research
FRED Federal Reserve Economic Data Site
FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service
FWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
G7 Group of Seven
GCMS Geologic Collections Management System
GNU General Public License
GO FAIR Global Open Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable
HEP High Energy Physics
HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
HOA Hybrid Open Access
HOAP Harvard Open Access Project
ICPSR Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
ICSU International Council for Science
IDW International Data Week
IEDA Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IGSN International Geo Sample Number
IMDB Internet Movie Database
IODP International Ocean Discovery Program
IoT Internet of Things
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×
IP Internet Protocol
IRIS Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology
IT Information Technology
IQSS Institute for Quantitative Social Science
IUPUI Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
IWGSC Interagency Working Group on Scientific Collections
JIF Journal Impact Factor
JISC Joint Information Systems Committee
JSTOR Journal Storage
LIBER Library Federations
LOD Linked Open Data
LSST Large Synoptic Survey Telescope
MAGIC Magnetics Information Consortium
MANGA Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apo
MDPI Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
MEDOANET Mediterranean Open Access Network
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MPDL Max Planck Digital Library
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASEM National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine
NBER National Bureau of Economic Research
NDS National Data Service
NIFA National Institute of Food and Agriculture
NIH National Institutes of Health
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology
NLM National Library of Medicine
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NPS National Park Service
NRC National Research Council
NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service
NSF National Science Foundation
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network
NSTC National Science and Technology Council
NUTRIXIV Nutritional Sciences Archive
OA Open Access
OAD Open Access Directory
OASPA Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
OPENAIRE Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe
ORCID Open Researcher and Contributor ID
ORFG Open Research Funders Group
OSC Open Science Collaboration
OSF Open Science Framework
OSPP Open Science Policy Platform
OSTP Office of Science and Technology Policy
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
PEERJ Peer-Reviewed Journal
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
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PII Personally Identifiable Information
PLOS Public Library of Science
PMC PubMed Central
PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
R&D Research and Development
RCT Randomized Controlled Trial
RDA Research Data Alliance
RE3DATA Registry of Research Data Repository
REPEC Research Papers in Economics
RNA Ribonucleic Acid
ROARMAP Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policies
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCICOLL Scientific Collections International
SCOAP3 Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics
SDSS Sloan Digital Sky Survey
SESAR System for Earth Sample Registration
SHARE SHared Access Research Ecosystem
SLAC Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
SPARC Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition
STEM Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TOP Transparency and Openness Promotion
UC University of California
UK United Kingdom
UNESCO United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USFS U.S. Forest Service
USFSC U.S. Federal Scientific Collections
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
UUID Universally Unique Identifier
WAME World Association of Medical Editors
WDS World Data System
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Openness and sharing of information are fundamental to the progress of science and to the effective functioning of the research enterprise. The advent of scientific journals in the 17th century helped power the Scientific Revolution by allowing researchers to communicate across time and space, using the technologies of that era to generate reliable knowledge more quickly and efficiently. Harnessing today’s stunning, ongoing advances in information technologies, the global research enterprise and its stakeholders are moving toward a new open science ecosystem. Open science aims to ensure the free availability and usability of scholarly publications, the data that result from scholarly research, and the methodologies, including code or algorithms, that were used to generate those data.

Open Science by Design is aimed at overcoming barriers and moving toward open science as the default approach across the research enterprise. This report explores specific examples of open science and discusses a range of challenges, focusing on stakeholder perspectives. It is meant to provide guidance to the research enterprise and its stakeholders as they build strategies for achieving open science and take the next steps.

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