National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix A Committee Member Biographies
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×
Page 195
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×
Page 196
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×
Page 197
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25116.
×
Page 198

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Appendix B Glossary Citation: a well-established measure of research impact; recognition or validation of research by others (Hersh and Plume, 2016). Delayed open access: articles published in a subscription journal, but are made free to read after an embargo period (Willinsky, 2009; Laakso and Björk, 2013; Piwowar et al., 2017). Digital object identifier (DOI): a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet (American Psychological Association, 2018). Fully open publication: all articles in the journal freely available to readers immediately upon publication (see Chapter 2). Gold open access: immediate availability of articles at no cost to the reader beyond that required to access the Internet (see Chapter 2). Articles are published in an open access journal, a journal in which all articles are open directly on the journal website (Archambault et al., 2014; Gargouri et al., 2012; Piwowar et al., 2018). Green open access: less open approaches to publication in which authors are able to self-archive a version of the article in an open access repository when access to the final published version requires a subscription to the journal (see Chapter 2). Green articles are published in a toll-access journal, but self-archived in an open access archive (Harnad et al., 2008). Hybrid open access: articles that are published in a subscription journal but are immediately free to read under an open license, in exchange for an article processing charge paid by authors (Piwowar et al., 2018). 195

196 Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research Metadata: summarize data content, context, structure, interrelationships, and provenance (information on history and origins). They add relevance and purpose to data, and enable the identification of similar data in different data collections (NSF, 2007). Open access: an ambitious goal that aims to ensure the availability and usability of scholarly publications (see Chapter 2). Free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself (Budapest Open Access Initiative, 2002a). Open access journal: a scientific and scholarly journal that meets high-quality standards by exercising peer review or editorial quality control and use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access (DOAJ, 2018). Open code: ensuring the availability and usability of methods, in the case of computational work. The concept of open code is fundamentally linked to open source software and the Open Source Initiative that was founded in 1998 (from Chapter 2). Open data: data that can be freely used, reused, and redistributed by anyone— subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike (Open Data Handbook, 2018). Open peer review: peer review where authors’ and reviewers’ identities are disclosed to one another, as a growing trend in scholarly publishing (Ford, 2015). Open publication: free and unrestricted access to publications with the only restriction on use being that proper attribution and credit needs to be given to the original creator of the work, as originally advocated by the Budapest Open Access Initiative (see Chapter 2; Budapest Open Access Initiative, 2002b). Open science: an ambitious goal that aims to ensure the availability and usability of scholarly publications, the data that result from scholarly research, and the methodology, including code or algorithms, that were used to generate those data. Open science typically refers to the entire process of conducting science and harkens back to the original precepts underpinning the conduct and goals of the scientific enterprise (Storer, 1966; Borgman, 2010; Neylon, 2017). (from Chapter 2)

Appendix B 197 Preprint: a complete written description of a body of scientific work that has yet to be published in a journal (Bourne et al., 2017). Preprint servers can also host other objects such as posters presented at scientific meetings. Research data: the recorded factual material commonly accepted in the scientific community as necessary to validate research findings, but not any of the following: preliminary analyses, drafts of scientific papers, plans for future research, peer reviews, or communications with colleagues. This “recorded” material excludes physical objects (e.g., laboratory samples)” (GPO, 2012). Specimen: a portion or quantity of material for use in testing, examination, or study (Merriam-Webster, 2018). REFERENCES Archambault, É., D. Amyot, P. Deschamps, A. Nicol, F. Provencher, R. Françoise, L. Rebout, and G. Roberge. 2014. Proportion of Open Access Papers Published in Peer- Reviewed Journals at the European and World Levels: 1996-2013. Online. Available at http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/scholcom/8. Accessed May 28, 2018. American Psychological Association. 2018. What is a digital object identifier, or DOI? Online. Available at http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/what-is-doi.aspx. Accessed March 21, 2018. Borgman, C. 2010. Scholarship in the Digital Age: Information, Infrastructure, and the Internet. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Bourne, P. E., J. K. Polka, R. D. Vale, and R. Kiley. 2017. Ten simple rules to consider regarding preprint submission. PLoS Computational Biology 13(5):e1005473. Online. Available at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005473. Accessed November 9, 2017. Budapest Open Access Initiative. 2002a. BOAI15. Online. Available at http://www. budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/boai15-1. Accessed March 21, 2018. Budapest Open Access Initiative. 2002b. Read the Budapest Open Access Initiative. Online. Available at http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read. Accessed March 21, 2018. DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals). 2018. Online. Available at http://doaj. org/about. Accessed March 21, 2018. Ford, E. 2015. Open peer review at four STEM journals: an observational overview [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5n1] F1000Research 4:6. doi: 10.12688/f1000 research.6005.2. GPO (U.S. Government Publishing Office). 2012. 2 CFR 215 - Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-110). Online. Available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title2-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012- title2-vol1-part215.pdf. Accessed February 8, 2018. Hersh, G., and A. Plume. 2016. Citation metrics and open access: what do we know? Online. Available at https://www.elsevier.com/connect/citation-metrics-and-open- access-what-do-we-know. Accessed March 21, 2018.

198 Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research Laakso, M., and B. Björk. 2013. Delayed open access: an overlooked high-impact category of openly available scientific literature. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64(7):1323-1329 DOI 10.1002/asi.22856. Merriam-Webster. 2018. Specimen. Online. Available at https://www.merriam-webster. com/dictionary/specimen. Accessed March 21, 2018. Neylon, C. 2017. Openness in Scholarship: A Return to Core Values? Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Electronic Publishing. IOS Press Ebooks. Online. Available at http://ebooks.iospress.nl/publication/46638. Accessed March 21, 2018. NSF (National Science Foundation). 2007. Cyberinfrastructure Vision for 21st Century Discovery. Online. Available at https://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2007/nsf0728/nsf0728. pdf. Accessed February 12, 2018. Open Data Handbook. 2018. What is Open? Online. Available at http://opendatahandbook. org/guide/en/what-is-open-data. Accessed March 21, 2018. Piwowar, H., J. Priem, V. Larivière, J. P. Alperin, L. Matthias, B. Norlander, A. Farley, J. West, and S. Haustein. 2018. The State of OA: A large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles. PeerJ 6:e4375. DOI 10.7717/peerj. 4375. Storer, N. W. 1966. The Social System of Science. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Willinsky, J. 2009. The access principle: the case for open access to research and scholarship. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Next: Appendix C Office of Science and Technology Policy 2013 Memorandum: Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research »
Open Science by Design: Realizing a Vision for 21st Century Research Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $55.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Openness and sharing of information are fundamental to the progress of science and to the effective functioning of the research enterprise. The advent of scientific journals in the 17th century helped power the Scientific Revolution by allowing researchers to communicate across time and space, using the technologies of that era to generate reliable knowledge more quickly and efficiently. Harnessing today’s stunning, ongoing advances in information technologies, the global research enterprise and its stakeholders are moving toward a new open science ecosystem. Open science aims to ensure the free availability and usability of scholarly publications, the data that result from scholarly research, and the methodologies, including code or algorithms, that were used to generate those data.

Open Science by Design is aimed at overcoming barriers and moving toward open science as the default approach across the research enterprise. This report explores specific examples of open science and discusses a range of challenges, focusing on stakeholder perspectives. It is meant to provide guidance to the research enterprise and its stakeholders as they build strategies for achieving open science and take the next steps.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!