Citation: a well-established measure of research impact; recognition or validation of research by others (Hersh and Plume, 2016).
Digital object identifier (DOI): a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet (American Psychological Association, 2018).
Fully open publication: all articles in the journal freely available to readers immediately upon publication (see Chapter 2).
Gold open access: immediate availability of articles at no cost to the reader beyond that required to access the Internet (see Chapter 2). Articles are published in an open access journal, a journal in which all articles are open directly on the journal website (Archambault et al., 2014; Gargouri et al., 2012; Piwowar et al., 2018).
Green open access: less open approaches to publication in which authors are able to self-archive a version of the article in an open access repository when access to the final published version requires a subscription to the journal (see Chapter 2). Green articles are published in a toll-access journal, but self-archived in an open access archive (Harnad et al., 2008).
Hybrid open access: articles that are published in a subscription journal but are immediately free to read under an open license, in exchange for an article processing charge paid by authors (Piwowar et al., 2018).
Metadata: summarize data content, context, structure, interrelationships, and provenance (information on history and origins). They add relevance and purpose to data, and enable the identification of similar data in different data collections (NSF, 2007).
Open access: an ambitious goal that aims to ensure the availability and usability of scholarly publications (see Chapter 2). Free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself (Budapest Open Access Initiative, 2002a).
Open access journal: a scientific and scholarly journal that meets high-quality standards by exercising peer review or editorial quality control and use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access (DOAJ, 2018).
Open code: ensuring the availability and usability of methods, in the case of computational work. The concept of open code is fundamentally linked to open source software and the Open Source Initiative that was founded in 1998 (from Chapter 2).
Open data: data that can be freely used, reused, and redistributed by anyone—subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike (Open Data Handbook, 2018).
Open peer review: peer review where authors’ and reviewers’ identities are disclosed to one another, as a growing trend in scholarly publishing (Ford, 2015).
Open publication: free and unrestricted access to publications with the only restriction on use being that proper attribution and credit needs to be given to the original creator of the work, as originally advocated by the Budapest Open Access Initiative (see Chapter 2; Budapest Open Access Initiative, 2002b).
Open science: an ambitious goal that aims to ensure the availability and usability of scholarly publications, the data that result from scholarly research, and the methodology, including code or algorithms, that were used to generate those data. Open science typically refers to the entire process of conducting science and harkens back to the original precepts underpinning the conduct and goals of the scientific enterprise (Storer, 1966; Borgman, 2010; Neylon, 2017). (from Chapter 2)
Preprint: a complete written description of a body of scientific work that has yet to be published in a journal (Bourne et al., 2017). Preprint servers can also host other objects such as posters presented at scientific meetings.
Research data: the recorded factual material commonly accepted in the scientific community as necessary to validate research findings, but not any of the following: preliminary analyses, drafts of scientific papers, plans for future research, peer reviews, or communications with colleagues. This “recorded” material excludes physical objects (e.g., laboratory samples)” (GPO, 2012).
Specimen: a portion or quantity of material for use in testing, examination, or study (Merriam-Webster, 2018).
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American Psychological Association. 2018. What is a digital object identifier, or DOI? Online. Available at http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/what-is-doi.aspx. Accessed March 21, 2018.
Borgman, C. 2010. Scholarship in the Digital Age: Information, Infrastructure, and the Internet. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Bourne, P. E., J. K. Polka, R. D. Vale, and R. Kiley. 2017. Ten simple rules to consider regarding preprint submission. PLoS Computational Biology 13(5):e1005473. Online. Available at https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005473. Accessed November 9, 2017.
Budapest Open Access Initiative. 2002a. BOAI15. Online. Available at http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/boai15-1. Accessed March 21, 2018.
Budapest Open Access Initiative. 2002b. Read the Budapest Open Access Initiative. Online. Available at http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read. Accessed March 21, 2018.
DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals). 2018. Online. Available at http://doaj.org/about. Accessed March 21, 2018.
Ford, E. 2015. Open peer review at four STEM journals: an observational overview [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5n1] F1000Research 4:6. doi: 10.12688/f1000 research.6005.2.
GPO (U.S. Government Publishing Office). 2012. 2 CFR 215 - Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-110). Online. Available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title2-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title2-vol1-part215.pdf. Accessed February 8, 2018.
Hersh, G., and A. Plume. 2016. Citation metrics and open access: what do we know? Online. Available at https://www.elsevier.com/connect/citation-metrics-and-open-access-what-do-we-know. Accessed March 21, 2018.
Laakso, M., and B. Björk. 2013. Delayed open access: an overlooked high-impact category of openly available scientific literature. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64(7):1323-1329 DOI 10.1002/asi.22856.
Merriam-Webster. 2018. Specimen. Online. Available at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/specimen. Accessed March 21, 2018.
Neylon, C. 2017. Openness in Scholarship: A Return to Core Values? Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Electronic Publishing. IOS Press Ebooks. Online. Available at http://ebooks.iospress.nl/publication/46638. Accessed March 21, 2018.
NSF (National Science Foundation). 2007. Cyberinfrastructure Vision for 21st Century Discovery. Online. Available at https://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2007/nsf0728/nsf0728.pdf. Accessed February 12, 2018.
Open Data Handbook. 2018. What is Open? Online. Available at http://opendatahandbook.org/guide/en/what-is-open-data. Accessed March 21, 2018.
Piwowar, H., J. Priem, V. Larivière, J. P. Alperin, L. Matthias, B. Norlander, A. Farley, J. West, and S. Haustein. 2018. The State of OA: A large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles. PeerJ 6:e4375. DOI 10.7717/peerj. 4375.
Storer, N. W. 1966. The Social System of Science. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Willinsky, J. 2009. The access principle: the case for open access to research and scholarship. Cambridge: MIT Press.