LEE C. BOLLINGER has served as the president of Columbia University since 2002 and is the longest serving Ivy League president. He is Columbia’s first Seth Low Professor of the University, a member of the Columbia Law School faculty, and one of the country’s foremost First Amendment scholars. His book, The Free Speech Century, co-edited with Geoffrey R. Stone, will be published in the fall of 2018 by Oxford University Press.
From 1996 to 2002, Bollinger was the president of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. He led the school’s litigation in Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger, resulting in Supreme Court decisions that upheld and clarified the importance of diversity as a compelling justification for affirmative action in higher education. He speaks and writes frequently about the value of racial, cultural, and socio-economic diversity to American society through opinion columns, media interviews, and public appearances.
Bollinger received his Juris Doctor from Columbia Law School. He served as a law clerk to Judge Wilfred Feinberg of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and Chief Justice Warren Burger of the Supreme Court. Bollinger went on to join the faculty of the University of Michigan Law School in 1973, becoming dean of the school in 1987. He became provost of Dartmouth College in 1994 before returning to the University of Michigan in 1996 as president.
MICHAEL A. McROBBIE is the 18th president of Indiana University (IU). Dr. McRobbie joined IU in 1997 as vice president for information technology and chief information officer, and was appointed vice president for research in 2003. He was named interim provost and vice president for academic affairs for Indiana University’s Bloomington campus in 2006 and became president the following year. He is now one of the longest serving public university presidents in the Association of American Universities.
As president, McRobbie has led the largest ever academic restructuring and expansion of IU, with the establishment of 10 new schools, over $2.5 billion of new construction, and the establishment of the university’s Global Gateway Network of offices around the world.
As chief information officer, McRobbie was responsible for a number of initiatives of national importance, including the establishment of the Global Network Operations Center, now responsible for the operation and management of over 20 national and international research and education networks including the Internet2 network, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s research network, and international connections to major research and education networks in the Asia-Pacific, Europe and Africa, and the establishment of the Research and Education Network Information Sharing and Analysis Center (REN-ISAC) focused on network based cybersecurity issues for its 540 national and international members—the only ISAC in higher education.
McRobbie holds faculty appointments in computer science, philosophy, and cognitive science and informatics and has been an active researcher in information technology and logic over the course of his career. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, an honorary fellow of the Australian Academy of Humanities and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He was awarded the Sagamore of the Wabash by the governor of Indiana in 2007 and 2017. McRobbie’s commitment to international engagement in higher education has been recognized through the receipt of the International Citizen of the Year award in Indiana and five honorary degrees from foreign universities. A native of Australia, in 2010 he was made an Officer of the Order of Australia, Australia’s national honors system.
ANDREW W. APPEL is the Eugene Higgins Professor of Computer Science at Princeton University, where he has been on the faculty since 1986. He served as department chair from 2009 to 2015. His research is in software verification, computer security, programming languages and compilers, and technology policy. He received his A.B. summa cum laude in physics from Princeton in 1981 and his Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie
Mellon University in 1985. He has been editor-in-chief of ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems and is a fellow of the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery). He has worked on fast N-body algorithms (1980s), Standard ML of New Jersey (1990s), Foundational Proof-Carrying Code (2000s), and the Verified Software Toolchain (2010s). He is the author of several scientific papers on voting machines and election technology, served as an expert witness on two voting-related court cases in New Jersey, and has taught a course at Princeton on election machinery.
JOSH BENALOH is senior cryptographer at Microsoft Research and an affiliate faculty member in the University of Washington School of Computer Science and Engineering. He holds an S.B. in mathematics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and M.S., M. Phil., and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from Yale University where his 1987 doctoral dissertation “Verifiable Secret-Ballot Elections” introduced the use of homomorphic encryption as a paradigm to enable election tallies to be verified by individual voters and observers without having to trust election equipment, vendors, or personnel.
Benaloh served for 17 years as a director of the International Association for Cryptologic Research, and he currently serves on the Coordinating Committee of the Election Verification Network. He has published and spoken extensively on cryptography, policy, and election technologies and is an author of the widely covered 2015 “Keys Under Doormats” report, which explores the technical implications of restrictions on cryptography and has influenced the ongoing political debate. Benaloh is also an author of the 2015 U.S. Vote Foundation report on the viability of end-to-end-verifiable Internet voting systems. Outside of elections, policy, and technology, Benaloh recently completed 2 years as chair of the Sound Transit Citizen Oversight Panel, which oversees the Seattle regional transit authority that is currently investing billions annually on new infrastructure in the Puget Sound region.
KAREN COOK is the Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Sociology and vice provost for Faculty Development and Diversity at Stanford University. She is also the director of the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences (IRiSS) at Stanford and a trustee of the Russell Sage Foundation. Cook has a long-standing interest in social exchange, social networks, social justice, and trust in social relations. She has edited a number of books in the Russell Sage Foundation Trust Series including Trust in Society (2001), Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives (with R. Kramer, 2004), eTrust: Forming Relations in the Online World (with C. Snijders, V. Buskens, and Coye Cheshire, 2009), and Whom Can Your Trust? (with M. Levi and R. Hardin, 2009). She is co-author of Cooperation without
Trust? (with R. Hardin and M. Levi, 2005). In 1996, she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2007 to the National Academy of Sciences. In 2004 she received the ASA Social Psychology Section Cooley Mead Award for Career Contributions to Social Psychology.
DANA DeBEAUVOIR is in her 31st year serving as the elected Travis County Clerk in Austin, Texas. The Clerk’s Office has a wide range of responsibilities including conducting elections; filing and preserving real property records; issuing marriage licenses; and managing civil, misdemeanor, and probate court records. With the passage of the Help America Vote Act in 2002, DeBeauvoir assumed new duties for the more than 130 local jurisdictions conducting their elections jointly with Travis County. She currently serves as the Texas representative on the federal Election Assistance Commission Standards Board, having served in that role since the position was established.
DeBeauvoir served as a United Nations Elections Observer at the 1994 election in South Africa that marked the end of apartheid. She served with the International Foundation for Electoral Systems as a consultant preparing for elections in Bangladesh (1995), Sarajevo, Bosnia (1996), and Pristina, Kosovo (1999). She also served as the Legislative Committee Chair for Elections for the County and District Clerks Association from 1995 to 2015. Her first award for improved management, a National Director’s Award, presented by the International Association of Clerks, Recorders, Elections Officials, and Treasurers for creating a database of civil case names to cure an inherited and troublesome court backlog, was received in 1989. DeBeauvoir was awarded the 2009 Public Official of the Year by the National Association of County Recorders, Election Officials, and Clerks. The same year, she received the 2009 Minute Man Award for developing improved security practices by The Election Center. In 2014, she received the prestigious Eagle Award from The Election Center.
DeBeauvoir is a graduate of the University of Texas at Arlington, having received a B.A. in sociology/social work in 1979. She received a masters of public affairs in 1981 from the LBJ School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin. In 2002, she received the LBJ School Alumni Association Distinguished Public Service Award.
MOON DUCHIN is an associate professor in the Department of Mathematics and serves as founding director of the interdisciplinary Program in Science, Technology, and Society at Tufts University. Her mathematical research is in low-dimensional topology, geometric group theory, and dynamics. She leads a research team called the Metric Geometry and Gerrymandering Group (MGGG) that studies novel applications of geometry and topology to redistricting problems. One of the first public activities of the MGGG
was a summer school in August 2017 that brought together scholars from law, civil rights, and mathematics to train expert witnesses for voting rights cases. Duchin is a fellow of the American Mathematical Society and holds a CAREER award from the National Science Foundation to study geometry at the intermediate scale between metric spaces and their asymptotic limits. She has lectured widely in pure mathematics and has spoken on the geometry of redistricting to audiences from high schools to a rabbinical school to the Distinguished Lecture Series of the Mathematical Association of America. She holds a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Chicago and a B.A. in mathematics and women’s studies from Harvard University.
JUAN E. GILBERT is the Andrew Banks Family Preeminence Endowed Professor and chair of the Computer & Information Science & Engineering Department at the University of Florida where he leads the Human Experience Research Lab. He is also a fellow of the American Association of the Advancement of Science, a fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, an Association for Computing Machinery Distinguished Scientist, and a senior member of the Institue of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Gilbert is the inventor of Prime III, an open-source, secure, and accessible voting technology that has been used in numerous organization elections and recently in statewide elections in New Hampshire.
SUSAN L. GRAHAM is the Pehong Chen Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Emerita at the University of California, Berkeley. She received an A.B. in mathematics from Harvard University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from Stanford University. Her research has spanned programming language design and implementation, software tools, software development environments, and high-performance computing. She was the founding editor-in-chief of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems. She is a fellow of the ACM, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.
Graham has served on numerous advisory and visiting committees and has been a consultant to a variety of companies. She was a member of the President’s Information Technology Advisory Committee from 1997 to 2003. She served as the chief computer scientist for the National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure from 1997 to 2005. She was a member of the Harvard Board of Overseers from 2001 to 2007 and was president in 2006-2007. Graham was a founding member of the Computing Research Association’s Computing Community Consortium, serving first as vice-chair and then as chair. From 2013 to January 2017 she was
a member of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology where she co-chaired their study and report “Big Data and Privacy: A Technological Perspective.” She is a member of the Harvard Corporation (formally, a fellow of Harvard College).
NEAL KELLEY is registrar of voters for Orange County, California, the fifth largest voting jurisdiction in the United States, serving more than 1.6 million registered voters.
Kelley joined the county as chief deputy registrar of voters in 2004. In his role as the county’s chief election official, he leads an organization responsible for conducting elections, verifying petitions, and maintaining voter records.
Prior to joining Orange County, Kelley developed and grew several companies of his own, employing hundreds of people from 1989 to 2004. He was also an adjunct professor with Riverside Community College’s Business Administration Department, and served as a police officer in Southern California during the mid-1980s.
In 2009, Kelley earned professional election certification through the national Election Center and Auburn University as a Certified Elections and Registration Administrator. He has been the recipient of several awards for election administration, including recognition from the California State Association of Counties, The Election Center, and the National Association of Counties. He was recently honored with the “2015 Public Official of the Year” from the National Association of County Recorders, Election Officials and Clerks.
Kelley is an appointed member of the U.S. Election Assistance Commission Board of Advisors (and currently serves as chairman) and its Voting Systems Standards Board, is the past president of the California Association of Clerks and Election Officials, and is the immediate past president for the National Association of County Recorders, Election Officials, and Clerks.
Kelley earned a B.S. in business and management from the University of Redlands and an M.B.A. from the University of Southern California.
KEVIN J. KENNEDY left government service on June 29, 2016, with the dissolution of the Wisconsin Government Accountability Board. He presently consults and speaks on issues and topics related to campaign finance, elections, and ethics.
Kennedy served as director and General Counsel for the Wisconsin Government Accountability Board (G.A.B.) from November 5, 2007, through June 29, 2016. Before assuming the top staff position for the G.A.B., he was executive director—and before that legal counsel—for the Wisconsin State Elections Board.
Kennedy served as Wisconsin’s chief election official from August 17,
1983 until June 29, 2016. No other individual has served longer in that capacity. Under his leadership, Wisconsin has been consistently recognized as a leader and innovator in the administration of elections, lobbying, and campaign finance.
In addition to his service to the people of Wisconsin, Kennedy has been active in a number of professional organizations. He has testified before Congress, several federal and state legislative bodies, and numerous private organizations active in the fields of campaign finance, elections, ethics, and lobbying.
NATHANIEL PERSILY is the James B. McClatchy Professor of Law at Stanford Law School, with appointments in the departments of Political Science and Communication. Prior to joining Stanford, Persily taught at Columbia and the University of Pennsylvania Law School, and as a visiting professor at Harvard, New York University, Princeton, the University of Amsterdam, and the University of Melbourne. Persily’s scholarship and legal practice focus on American election law or what is sometimes called the “law of democracy,” which addresses issues such as voting rights, political parties, campaign finance, redistricting, and election administration. He has served as a special master or court-appointed expert to craft congressional or legislative districting plans for Georgia, Maryland, Connecticut, and New York, and as the senior research director for the Presidential Commission on Election Administration. In addition to dozens of articles (many of which have been cited by the Supreme Court) on the legal regulation of political parties, issues surrounding the census and redistricting process, voting rights, and campaign finance reform. Persily is also coauthor of the leading election law casebook, The Law of Democracy (Foundation Press, 5th ed., 2016), with Samuel Issacharoff, Pamela Karlan, and Richard Pildes. His current work, for which he has been honored as an Andrew Carnegie Fellow, examines the impact of changing technology on political communication, campaigns, and election administration. He has edited several books, including Public Opinion and Constitutional Controversy (Oxford Press, 2008); The Health Care Case: The Supreme Court’s Decision and Its Implications (Oxford Press 2013); and Solutions to Political Polarization in America (Cambridge Press, 2015). He received a B.A. and M.A. in political science from Yale (1992); a J.D. from Stanford (1998) where he was president of the Stanford Law Review; and a Ph.D. in political science from University of California, Berkeley in 2002.
RONALD L. RIVEST is an institute professor in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and a leader of the Cryptography and Information Security research group within MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial
Intelligence Laboratory. He received a B.A. in mathematics from Yale University in 1969 and a Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University in 1974.
Rivest is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences.
Rivest is an inventor of the RSA public-key cryptosystem and a founder of RSA Data Security. He has extensive experience in cryptographic design and cryptanalysis, and he has published numerous papers in these areas. He has served as director of the International Association for Cryptologic Research, the organizing body for the Eurocrypt and Crypto conferences, and of the Financial Cryptography Association. He has also worked extensively in the areas of computer algorithms and machine learning.
Rivest is a member of the CalTech/MIT Voting Technology Project and serves on the Board of Verified Voting. He has served on the TGDC (Technical Guidelines Development Committee) that advises the U.S. Election Assistance Commission and chaired the committee’s subgroup on Security and Transparency.
CHARLES STEWART III is the Kenan Sahin Distinguished Professor of Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he has taught since 1985, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His research and teaching areas include elections, congressional politics, and American political development.
Since 2001, Stewart has been a member of the Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project, a leading research effort that applies scientific analysis to questions about election technology, election administration, and election reform. He is currently the MIT director of the project. In addition, he is the director of the MIT Election Data and Science Lab, a new initiative to disseminate scientific analysis of election processes among academic researchers and election practitioners. Stewart is an established leader in the analysis of the performance of election systems and the quantitative assessment of election performance. Working with the Pew Charitable Trusts, he helped with the development of Pew’s Elections Performance Index. Stewart also provided advice to the Presidential Commission on Election Administration. His research on measuring the performance of elections and polling place operations is funded by Pew, the Democracy Fund, and the Hewlett Foundation. He recently published The Measure of American Elections (2014 with Barry C. Burden).
His current research about Congress touches on the historical development of committees, origins of partisan polarization, and Senate elections. His recent books of congressional research include Electing the Senate
(2014 with Wendy J. Schiller), Fighting for the Speakership (2012 with Jeffery A. Jenkins), and Analyzing Congress (2nd ed., 2011).
Stewart has been recognized at MIT for his undergraduate teaching, being named to the second class of MacVicar Fellows in 1994, awarded the Baker Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, and the recipient of the Class of 1960 Fellowship. From 1992 to 2015, he served as Head of House of McCormick Hall, along with his spouse, Kathryn M. Hess.
Stewart received his B.A. in political science from Emory University and S.M. and Ph.D. from Stanford University.
ANNE-MARIE MAZZA, Ph.D., is the senior director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Mazza joined the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 1995. In 1999 she was named the first director of the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Mazza has been the study director on numerous National Academies’ activities involving emerging technologies (e.g., human genome editing and synthetic biology), science in the courtroom (e.g., eyewitness identification and forensic science), and laws and regulations related to the governance of academic research (e.g., with regard to dual use research of concern, intellectual property, and human subjects). Between October 1999 and October 2000, Mazza divided her time between the National Academies and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, where she served as a senior policy analyst responsible for issues associated with a Presidential Review Directive on the government-university research partnership. Before joining the National Academies, Mazza was a senior consultant with Resource Planning Corporation. She is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Mazza was awarded a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from The George Washington University.
JON EISENBERG is the senior board director of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. He has been study director for a diverse body of work, including a series of studies exploring Internet and broadband policy and networking and communications technologies. In 1995-1997 he was an American Association for the Advancement of Science, Engineering, and Diplomacy Fellow at the U.S. Agency for International Development, where he worked on technology transfer and information and telecommunications policy issues. Eisenberg received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Washington in 1996 and B.S. in physics with honors from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 1988.
STEVEN KENDALL is program officer for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Dr. Kendall has contributed to numerous National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine reports, including Dual Use Research of Concern in the Life Sciences: Current Issues and Controversies (2017); Optimizing the Nation’s Investment in Academic Research (2016); International Summit on Human Gene Editing: A Global Discussion (2015); Identifying the Culprit: Assessing Eyewitness Identification (2014); Positioning Synthetic Biology to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century (2013); the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 3rd Edition (2011); Review of the Scientific Approaches Used During the FBI’s Investigation of the 2001 Anthrax Mailings (2011); Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010); and Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). Kendall completed his Ph.D. in the Department of the History of Art and Architecture at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he wrote a dissertation on 19th century British painting. Kendall received his M.A. in Victorian art and architecture at the University of London. Prior to joining the National Research Council in 2007, he worked at the Smithsonian American Art Museum and The Huntington in San Marino, California.
KAROLINA KONARZEWSKA is program coordinator for the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. She holds a master’s degree in applied economics from George Mason University, a master’s degree in international relations from New York University, and a bachelor’s degree in political science from the College of Staten Island, City University of New York. Prior to joining the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, she worked at various research institutions in Washington, DC, where she covered political and economic issues pertaining to Europe, Russia, and Eurasia.
WILLIAM J. SKANE is former executive director of the Office of News and Public Information at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. He retired in 2017, having assumed the position in 2002. Before joining the Academies, Skane was the Washington producer for the CBS News broadcast Sunday Morning with Charles Kuralt (1991-2002) and national medical producer for the CBS Evening News with Dan Rather (1984-1991). He is the recipient of three Emmy awards, two Peabody awards, a Sigma Delta Chi award for breaking news coverage, and the Westinghouse-AAAS award for science reporting on television. Skane began his journalism career as the science reporter for public television station KQED in San Francisco. He earned an Honors B.A. in economics from Stanford University, an M.J. from the Graduate School of Journalism at the University of California, Berkeley, and an M.Ed. from The George Washington University.