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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Page 97
Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Page 98
Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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Suggested Citation:"ENDNOTES AND FIGURE SOURCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25121.
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United Nations Department of Economic and 23 Godfray, H., J.R. Beddington, I.R. Crute, L. Haddad, Social Affairs. 2017.World Population Projected D. Lawrence, J.F. Muir, J. Pretty, S. Robinson, S.M. to Reach 9.8 Billion in 2050, and 11.2 Billion in Thomas, and C.Toulmin. 2010. Food security: 2100. The challenge of feeding 9 billion people. 7. World Bank. 2017. No Poverty. Atlas of Sustainable Science 327:812–818; Conway, G. 2012. One Development Goals.Washington, DC. Billion Hungry: Can We Feed the World? Ithaca, 8. World Health Organization and United Nations NY: Cornell University. Children’s Fund. 2017. Progress on Drinking Water, 24. Food and Agriculture Organization of the Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SGD United Nations. 2017. The Future of Food and Baselines. Geneva:WHO and UNICEF. Agriculture—Trends and Challenges. Rome: FAO; 9. International Energy Agency. 2017. Energy Access U.S. Global Change Research Program. 2017. Outlook 2017: From Poverty to Prosperity. 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United Nations Conference on Trade and for Resilience. Economic Research Institute for Development. 2016. Development and ASEAN and East Asia Discussion Paper Series. Globalization: Facts and Figures 2016. 26. Foley, J. A., N. Ramankutty, K. A. Brauman, E. S. 13. Kharas, H. 2010.The Emerging Middle Class in Cassidy, J. S. Gerber, M. Johnston, N. D. Mueller, Developing Countries. OECD Development C. O’Connell, D. K. Ray, P. C.West, and C. Balzer. Centre Working Paper No. 285. Paris: 2011. Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature Organisation for Economic Co-operation and 478(7369): 337-342. Development. 27. Mahlein, A.-K. 2016. Plant disease detection 14. United Nations. 2018. Sustainable Development by imaging sensors—Parallels and specific Goals. demands for precision agriculture and plant 15. United Nations. 2017. The Sustainable Development phenotyping. Plant Disease 100(2): 241-251. Goals Report 2017. 28. Schumann,A.W. 2010. Precise placement and 16. World Health Organization. 2017. Children: variable rate fertilizer application technologies for Reducing Mortality. Fact Sheet. October. horticultural crops. HortTechnology 20(1): 34-40. 17. World Health Organization and United Nations 29. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, Children’s Fund. 2017. Progress on Drinking and Medicine. 2018. Science Breakthroughs to Water, Sanitation andHygiene: 2017 Update and Advance Food and Agricultural Research by 2030. SGD Baselines. Geneva:WHO and UNICEF. Washington, DC:The National Academies Press. 88  ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING IN THE 21st CENTURY:  ADDRESSING THE GRAND CHALLENGES | 

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Environmental engineers support the well-being of people and the planet in areas where the two intersect. Over the decades the field has improved countless lives through innovative systems for delivering water, treating waste, and preventing and remediating pollution in air, water, and soil. These achievements are a testament to the multidisciplinary, pragmatic, systems-oriented approach that characterizes environmental engineering.

Environmental Engineering for the 21st Century: Addressing Grand Challenges outlines the crucial role for environmental engineers in this period of dramatic growth and change. The report identifies five pressing challenges of the 21st century that environmental engineers are uniquely poised to help advance: sustainably supply food, water, and energy; curb climate change and adapt to its impacts; design a future without pollution and waste; create efficient, healthy, resilient cities; and foster informed decisions and actions.

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