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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
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An
American
Crisis

The Growing Absence of Black
Men in Medicine and Science

PROCEEDINGS OF A JOINT WORKSHOP

Cato T. Laurencin, M.D., Ph.D., Rapporteur

Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

Health and Medicine Division

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by the Aetna Foundation (Contract 10003873), Burroughs Wellcome Fund (Contract 10003742), W. Montague Cobb/NMA Health Institute (unnumbered), The Kavli Foundation (10003589), National Academy of Medicine (unnumbered), National Institutes of Health (unnumbered), and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (Contract 10003809). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-47690-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-47690-9
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25130

Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American crisis: The growing absence of Black men in medicine and science: Proceedings of a joint workshop between the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the W. Montague Cobb/NMA Health Institute. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25130.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×

images

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON INCREASING AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES IN THE MEDICAL PROFESSION1

CATO T. LAURENCIN (Chair), University of Connecticut

KENDALL CAMPBELL, East Carolina University Brody School of Medicine

THEODORE J. CORBIN, Drexel University College of Medicine

GEORGE C. HILL, Vanderbilt University

RANDALL C. MORGAN, JR., W. Montague Cobb/NMA Health Institute

ELIZABETH OFILI, Morehouse School of Medicine

VIVIAN PINN, National Institutes of Health (retired)

Health and Medicine Division Staff

N. RENEE GETHERS, Project Director (from January 2018)

LESLIE Y. KWAN, Associate Program Officer (from March 2018)

HOPE HARE, Administrative Assistant

ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Project Director (until January 2018), Senior Board Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Joint Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Joint Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

L. D. BRITT, Eastern Virginia Medical School

EVE J. HIGGINBOTHAM, University of Pennsylvania

FAITH MITCHELL, Grantmakers In Health

VALERIE MONTGOMERY RICE, Morehouse School of Medicine

ALVIN POUSSAINT, Harvard Medical School

JOHN A. RICH, Drexel University School of Public Health

DARLA THOMPSON, The George Washington University

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by CARMEN R. GREEN,

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×

University of Michigan. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AAMC Association of American Medical Colleges
AHEC Area Health Education Center
AOA American Osteopathic Association
APA American Psychological Association
BHW Bureau of Health Workforce
BUILD Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity initiative
CHC community health center
DO Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
FDA Food and Drug Administration
GRE Graduate Record Examinations
HBCU Historically Black Colleges and Universities
HCOP Health Careers Opportunity Program
HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HPPI Health Professions Partnership Initiative
HRSA Health Resources and Services Administration
LCME Liaison Committee on Medical Education
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
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MATC Milwaukee Area Technical College
MCAT Medical College Admission Test
MD Doctor of Medicine
NAM National Academy of Medicine
NCAA National Collegiate Athletic Association
NHSC National Health Service Corps
NIH National Institutes of Health
NMA National Medical Association
NMF National Medical Fellowships
NSF National Science Foundation
SES socioeconomic status
STEM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
UConn University of Connecticut
UMBC University of Maryland, Baltimore County
UNC University of North Carolina
UT University of Texas
VUSM Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25130.
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Black men are increasingly underrepresented in medical schools and in the medical profession. A diverse workforce is a key attribute of quality healthcare and research suggests that a diverse workforce may help to advance cultural competency and increase access to high-quality health care, especially for underserved populations. Conversely, lack of diversity in the health workforce threatens health care quality and access and contributes to health disparities. In this way, the growing absence of Black men in medicine is especially troubling, because their absence in medicine may have adverse consequences for health care access, quality, and outcomes among Black Americans and Americans overall.

To better understand the factors that contribute to the low participation of Black men in the medical profession, facilitate discussion of current strategies used to increase their participation in medical education, and explore new strategies along the educational and professional pipeline that may have potential to increase participation in medicine, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the Cobb Institute jointly convened a 2-day workshop in November 2017, in Washington, DC. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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