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Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age (2018)

Chapter: Appendix E: Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
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Appendix E

Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another

Table E-1 shows a compilation of the scaling methods to extrapolate from the reference values of one age group to another age group (IOM, 2002/2005).

REFERENCE

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2002/2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10490.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
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TABLE E-1 Extrapolation by Scaling

Nutrient Extrapolation Allometric, E xponent; 0.75 Isometric Growth Factor Other
Choline AI adult →AI child yes yes
AI 0–6m→AI 7–12m yes no
Biotin AI 0–6m→AI 7–12m, 1–18y, adult yes no
Pantothenic acid adult→children yes yes
AI 0–6m→AI 7–12m yes no
Fluoride 0.05 mg/kg/d no yes no
Vitamin D adult→1–9y yes no
Magnesium EAR 10–15y→EAR 1–3 and 4–8y 5mg/kg/d yes no
Potassium AI adult→AI 1–18y AI child = AI adult × F F = energy intakechild/ energy intake adult UL child = UL adult × F F= energy intake adult/
UL adult →UL child energy intake child
Sodium Same as potassium
Vitamin A, chromium, copper, molybdenum, iodine EAR/AI adult→EAR/AI child (no extrapolation for iodine for 1–3 y and 4–8 y old) yes yes
yes
AI 0–6m →AI 7–12m no
Vitamin K AI 7–12m→AI 0–6m yes no
Iron No extrapolation for 7–12 m, 1–8y, 9–18 y
Manganese EAR adult→EARchild yes yes
AI 0–6m →AI 7–12m no no
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×
Zinc Factorial similar to allometric extrapolation from adult plus GF
Thiamin EAR adult→EARchild yes yes
EAR adult→AI 7–12m yes yes
Riboflavin EAR adult→EARchild yes yes
AI 0–6m →AI 7–12m yes no
Niacin EAR adult→EARchild yes yes
EAR adult→AI 7–12m yes yes
UL adult →UL child yes no
Vitamin B6 EAR adult→EARchild yes yes
AI 7–12m from mean of extrapolations:
AI 0–6m →AI 7–12m
EAR adult→AI 7–12m yes no
UL adult →UL child yes yes
yes no
Folate AI 0–6m →AI 7–12m yes no
EAR adult→AI 7–12m yes yes
EAR adult→EARchild yes yes
UL adult →UL child yes no
Vitamin B12 EAR adult→EARchild yes yes
EAR adult→AI 7–12m yes yes
Vitamin C AI 0–6m →AI 7–12m yes no
EAR adult→EARchild no no
Vitamin E AI 0–6m →AI 7–12m yes no
EAR adult→EARchild yes yes
Selenium AI 0–6m →AI 7–12m yes no
EAR adult→EARchild yes yes

NOTE: When data are insufficient, the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) for infants or children can be extrapolated down by scaling the requirements for adults to the 0.75 power of body mass.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×
Page 144
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×
Page 145
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Scaling Methods to Extrapolate from Reference Values of One Age Group to Another." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25148.
×
Page 146
Next: Appendix F: European Food Safety Authority's Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for Protein: Growth Factors for Children Age 6 Months to 17 Years »
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Recommended intake levels for nutrients and other dietary components were designed initially to prevent nutrient deficiency diseases in a given population, and the original methodological approach used to derive intake values did not include consideration for other applications. However, with the increasing globalization of information and the identification of a variety of factors specific to different population subgroups (e.g., young children and women of reproductive age) that influence their nutritional needs, there has been increasing recognition of the need to consider methodological approaches to deriving nutrient reference values (NRVs) that are applicable across countries and that take into account the varying needs of different population subgroups.

There is a need for guidance and recommendations about methodological approaches, as well as their potential for application to an international process for the development of NRVs, and particularly for young children and women of reproductive age. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age examines these issues and makes recommendations for a unified approach to developing NRVs that would be acceptable globally.

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