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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
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B

Workshop Agenda

NEUROFORENSICS: EXPLORING THE LEGAL IMPLICATIONS OF EMERGING NEUROTECHNOLOGIES—A WORKSHOP

March 6, 2018
Keck Center of the National Academies
500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC


Background: Current developments in neuroscience, genomics, and computing are allowing unprecedented insight into human cognition and behavior in health and disease. Technological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging, neurophysiology, genome sequencing, and other methods, together with rapid progress in computational and statistical methods and data storage, have facilitated large-scale collection of human genomic, cognitive, behavioral, and brain-based data. As relevant technologies have become more widely disseminated and less costly, datasets have become progressively larger and more informative. For example, technologies for studying the central nervous system, approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWASs), genome sequencing, and initiatives such as the Human Connectome Project have begun to yield large databases that are more widely used than ever. Such databases make it possible to characterize and make probabilistic predictions about individuals by imputation from studies of large populations. Several ongoing research efforts, such as the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative and the European Human Brain Project, are strong catalysts for the development of the next generation of methods for observing

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
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the brain and for making experimental and therapeutic interventions. The next decade promises a burgeoning use of these neurotechnologies.

The rapid development of neurotechnologies and associated databases has been mirrored by an increase in attempts to introduce neuroscience and behavioral genetic evidence into legal proceedings. Historically, the closest parallel to this kind of evidence has been the polygraph, which monitors peripheral consequences of nervous system activity to assess the veracity of testimony—and which is largely, but not entirely, excluded. Emerging neurotechnologies promise increased access to evidence obtained from the central nervous system and thus to brain function associated with complex behaviors and cognitive characteristics. Indeed, neuroscience evidence obtained from emerging neurotechnologies conceivably might be used by law enforcement, the courts, regulatory agencies, and others as factors in predicting dangerousness, assessing competence to stand trial, assessing volitional control over actions, revealing mitigating factors relevant to sentencing, predicting recidivism, distinguishing pain from malingering, verifying intent, and manipulating memories.

To better understand the potential impact of emerging neurotechnologies on the legal system, the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders, in collaboration with the Committee on Science, Technology, and Law (CSTL), will plan and conduct a 1-day public workshop bringing together leaders from academia, judicial and law enforcement systems, industry, government and regulatory agencies, nonprofit foundations, and other stakeholders to explore and advance efforts to identify and evaluate the potential effects of emerging neurotechnologies on the legal system.

Workshop Objectives:

  • Provide an overview of some state-of-the-art neurotechnologies relevant to the legal system, and the use and impact of neuroscience evidence in the legal system.
  • Explore emerging neurotechnologies—including methods for observing or manipulating the central nervous system and the genetics of cognition and behavior—and their potential implications and use by law enforcement, the courts, administrative proceedings, regulatory agencies, and others.
  • Consider the potential use of behavioral genetics based on large genetics databases and by the legal system.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
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  • Discuss the ethical and societal considerations associated with the use of neuroscience evidence in criminal, administrative, and other judicial proceedings.
  • Highlight topics at the nexus of emerging neurotechnologies and the law for further study, such as potential opportunities for developing standards and procedures for using evidence from emerging neurotechnologies in the legal system and identifying potential stakeholders across sectors that may be affected by this multidisciplinary area.
8:00 a.m. Overview of the Workshop
Scientific Advances

STEVEN E. HYMAN, Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University (CO-CHAIR)

Legal Developments

HENRY T. GREELY, Stanford University (CO-CHAIR)

8:40 a.m. Discussion

Session Objectives:

  • Explore case studies of innovative neurotechnologies and cutting-edge neuroscience that are of great interest for use in various legal settings, including, for example, police investigation, suppression hearings, administrative proceedings, and settlement negotiations.
  • For each case, discuss current use and what would be needed to appropriately use these neurotechnologies in legal settings in the future.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
×
8:50 a.m. Session Overview
JOSHUA SANES, Harvard University (MODERATOR)
9:00 a.m. Presentations
Detecting Deception
JOSHUA BUCKHOLTZ, Harvard University
Can Brain Identify Pain?
TOR WAGER, University of Colorado Boulder
9:30 a.m. Discussion
9:45 a.m. Break
10:00 a.m. Presentations
Mind Reading
JACK GALLANT, University of California, Berkeley
10:30 a.m. Discussion
10:45 a.m. Break
11:00 a.m. Presentations
Electrophysiology Measures in Perception and Recognition
ADRIAN NESTOR, University of Toronto
Contribution of Genetics to Behavioral Prediction
BENJAMIN NEALE, Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University
11:30 a.m. Discussion
11:45 a.m. Lunch
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
×

Session Objectives:

  • Describe specific neurotechnologies and methods in conceptual or early stages of development and assess their projected paths for growth and implementation over the next 20 years.
  • Evaluate the potential utility of emerging neurotechnologies for collecting evidence and information for use in the legal system, including out-of-court settings.
  • Identify the challenges for developing scientific standards for use of evidence obtained from these technologies.
12:50 p.m. Session Overview
KHARA RAMOS, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (MODERATOR)
1:00 p.m. Presentations
Closed-Loop Brain Stimulation
AYSEGUL GUNDUZ, University of Florida
Understanding the Neural Basis of Volitional State Through Continuous Recordings in Humans
SYDNEY CASH, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard University
1:40 p.m. Discussion
2:00 p.m. Break
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
×

Session Objective:

  • Brainstorm potential approaches to establishing frameworks and standards for using neuroscience evidence, in anticipation of the burgeoning use of neurotechnologies in the coming decades.
2:15 p.m. Session Overview
CHIEF JUDGE PATTI SARIS, U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts (MODERATOR)
2:25 p.m. Presentations and Reflections

DAVID FAIGMAN, University of California, San Francisco

FRANCIS SHEN, University of Minnesota

JUDGE BARBARA HERVEY, Texas Court of Criminal Appeals

JUDGE NANCY GERTNER (Ret.), Harvard Law School

3:45 p.m. Moderated Discussion
4:20 p.m. Q&A
4:30 p.m.

HENRY T. GREELY, Stanford University (CO-CHAIR)

STEVEN E. HYMAN, Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University (CO-CHAIR)

5:00 p.m. Adjourn Workshop
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
×
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
×
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
×
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
×
Page 54
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
×
Page 55
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Neuroforensics: Exploring the Legal Implications of Emerging Neurotechnologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25150.
×
Page 56
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Technological advances in noninvasive neuroimaging, neurophysiology, genome sequencing, and other methods together with rapid progress in computational and statistical methods and data storage have facilitated large-scale collection of human genomic, cognitive, behavioral, and brain-based data. The rapid development of neurotechnologies and associated databases has been mirrored by an increase in attempts to introduce neuroscience and behavioral genetic evidence into legal proceedings.

In March 2018, the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine organized a workshop in order to explore the current uses of neuroscience and bring stakeholders from neuroscience and legal societies together in both the United Kingdom and the United States. Participants worked together to advance an understanding of neurotechnologies that could impact the legal system and the state of readiness to consider these technologies and where appropriate, to integrate them into the legal system. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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