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2018 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 199 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation â¢ Administration and Management Transit Technical Training, Volume 1: Guide to Applying Best Practices and Sharing Resources Janet Weisenford Brian Cronin Skilan Ortiz Elora Majumdar Chelsey Thompson Jessica Jenkins Chris Riches Crystal Heasley Brock Wolf ICF Fairfax, VA i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Diana Long Rahall TRanspoRTaTIon InsTITuTe MaRshall unIveRsITy Huntington, WV Alex Bond eno CenTeR FoR TRanspoRTaTIon Washington, D.C. Ream Lazaro Valerie Lazaro Boyd CaTon GRoup (BCG) Charlottesville, VA
TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 199 Project F-22 ISSN 2572-3782 (Online) ISBN 987-0-309-39033-0 Â© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 199 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Keyara Dorn, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Heidi Willis, Editor TCRP PROJECT F-22 PANEL Field of Human Resources A. Mark Dalton, King County (WA) Metro, Seattle, WA (Chair) Michael Arrow, Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT Monica DaCosta, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, NYC Transit, New York, NY Bobby J. Griffin, Griffin and Associates, Flower Mound, TX Lyn B. Hellegaard, Missoula Ravalli Transportation Management Association, Missoula, MT Kenneth H. Jones, Sr., Miami-Dade County (FL) Department of Transportation & Public Works, Miami, FL Edward LaGuardia, Michael Baker International, Philadelphia, PA Austin Lee, AC Transit, Oakland, CA Lauren Semper Scott, LTD2 Consulting, LLC, Springdale, MD Carol S. Taylor, Metra Railroad, Chicago, IL Charles A. Wright, CA&BE = W2 Enterprises, Tallahassee, FL Betty F. Jackson, FTA Liaison Charles Joseph, APTA Liaison Louis F. Sanders, APTA Liaison Stephen J. Andrle, TRB Liaison
By Gwen Chisholm Smith Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Research Report 199: Transit Technical Training is a two-volume set that presents guidance on technical training programs and the implementation of those for transportation agencies. TCRP Research Report 199: Transit Technical Training, Vol. 1: Guide to Applying Best Practices and Sharing Resources documents the best models of technical training programs serving U.S. and international transportation agencies and related industries. A product of this research also includes a training resource catalog to help transit agencies provide technical training for their employees. Training course information listed includes course descriptions, objectives, target audience, length, cost, training standards, and directions on how to access the course. The training resource catalog is available at https://ntrb.enotrans.org/. TCRP Research Report 199: Transit Technical Training, Vol. 2: Guide to Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Best and Innovative Training provides public transportation agencies with best practices, strategies, and resources to assist with the implementation of effective and innovative training programs and techniques for frontline employees. The products of this research will be useful to senior managers and public transportation frontline employees, including operators and maintenance personnel across all modes, all disciplines, and all system sizes. Public transportation strives to achieve customer satisfaction by providing safe, efficient, accessible, and reliable service. Technical training has played an important role in how public transportation agencies accomplish this mission. The current economic climate has forced many larger transit agencies to reduce their technical training opportunities, while a significant number of small and medium-size agencies have limited access to technical training opportunities. The shortage of training comes at a time when the technical com- plexity of transit vehicles and infrastructure is at its greatest and increasing each year. Keeping these complex technologies operational requires skilled technicians. ICF prepared this report under TCRP Projects F-22 and F-24. The primary objectives of this research were to document the best models of technical training programs used in the U.S., international transportation agencies, and related industries and to develop an electronic, sharable training resource catalog of available training materials. To accomplish these objectives, a focused review of domestic and international literature, research in progress, and current practices related to technical training programs was conducted. In addition, a survey of a cross-section of transportation organizations with technical training programs was conducted to provide the foundation for a best practices report on training approaches and to assist with the development of an electronic training resource catalog that organizes training materials for transit technical skills. Finally, ICF developed and piloted a web-based application for disseminating and updating the web-based catalog and a prepared plan for long-term maintenance of the web-based application. F O R E W O R D
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Purpose and Organization of the Report 3 Chapter 2 Effective Approaches for Training Program Development 3 Instructional Systems Design (ISD) 4 National Standards for Training 7 Chapter 3 Innovative Training Strategies 8 Simulations 10 Gaming 13 Adaptive Learning and Intelligent Tutoring 14 Transmedia Storytelling 17 Web-Based Training 20 Mobile Learning 25 Social Media 26 Summary 29 Chapter 4 Transit Industry Course Catalog 29 Transit Catalog Overview 35 Chapter 5 Conclusion and Future Implications 36 Bibliography 38 Appendix A NHI Instructional Design Standards 103 Appendix B Factors to Consider in Determining Whether ISD Was Used in Developing Training C O N T E N T S