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12 The case examples in this chapter present the key outcomes of the interviews and airport- specific literature search. Each case example provides a discussion of the context of the capacity- enhancing project featured; how and why sustainability concepts were incorporated into the project; stakeholder outreach tools, methods, and messages used to communicate the sustain- ability approach; team member roles; project outcomes; and lessons learned including sustain- ability benefits. The case examples reflect the flow of the discussion during each interview, and thus they vary in terms of which topics were emphasized. Although each case example focuses on sustainabilityâs role within a specific capacity-enhancing project, the context provided around each project showcases a progression of learning as airport staff work to integrate sustainability concepts. The case examples are organized alphabetically. Austin-Bergstrom International Airport (AUS) C H A P T E R 3 Case Examples AUS Key Highlights â¢ Background: Located in one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States, AUS has experienced passenger growth, which has increased demand on all airport services. â¢ Sustainability Context: AUS is solidifying its longstanding sustainability prac- tices as part of an ongoing Master Plan update. The airport also publishes annual sustainability reports. â¢ Featured Project: The CONRAC project centralized rental car operations and incorporated a suite of sustainable-design measures. â¢ Capacity Enhancement: The new CONRAC facility freed the rental car concession- aires from the space constraints of the previous layout, allowing them to increase parking capacity and meet the demands of the growing number of travelers. â¢ Stakeholder Engagement: The undertaking involved significant engagement with the rental car concessionaires, and AUSâs embracing of sustainability for this project helped achieve their buy-in. â¢ Date: The CONRAC opened in October 2015. Austin: âCity of the Eternal Boomâ AUS is a commercial service airport located in Austin, Texas, and is owned and operated by the City of Austin Aviation Department. Austin and its surrounding counties have been experiencing
Case Examples 13 growth; Texas Monthly called Austin âthe city of the eternal boomâ (Hall 2016) and employment has more than doubled since 2000. Compared with New York City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, Austinâs job growth is three, four, and five times greater, respectively (Kotkin 2016; U.S. Census Bureau 2017). Reflecting this growth, AUS has had a near constant increase in enplaned passen- gers. The airport enplaned 6,095,545 passengers in 2016âa figure which has consistently increased annually by more than 5% over the past several years (FAA 2017c). This increase affects all services that stem from the airport, including rental car concessionaires (RACs). Sustainability at AUS AUS was an early adopter of sustainability and posts a sustainability report on its website yearly. The report outlines all sustainability activi- ties taking place at AUS, and defines the four areas in which the airport focuses its sustainable efforts: customer and community value, opera- tional excellence, economic sustainability, and environmental steward- ship (Austin-Bergstrom International Airport 2017). While AUS does not have a formal SMP, the airport embarked on a new master plan- ning effort in 2017 which defines how AUS will continue operating and developing in a sustainable way. Because AUS is located in Austin, it is required to meet city ordinances and local requirements for all aspects of its operations including those for green building. Through legislation passed in 2007, the city of Austin called for new building codes that would reduce energy usage by 75% in public buildings by 2015 (City of Austin 2017; U.S. Department of Energy 2017a; U.S. Department of Energy 2017b). Legislation also requires construction projects that meet certain criteria to achieve LEED Silver certification (U.S. Depart- ment of Energy 2017b). Beyond environmental initiatives, the airportâs focus on the passenger service experience is an integral part of sustainability at AUS, which is represented by the ways in which AUS works to have the airport reflect the nature and character of Austin. The airport features local music and foodâ both significant tenets of Austin cultureâand strives to give the city a sense of ownership. AUS staff also partners with the City of Austinâs Small and Minority Owned Business Resources Department to host events encouraging local business involvement with the airport and its concessionaires. The airport staff provides neighboring schools with mentorships to students, school supplies, and opportunities to collaborate on holiday festivities (Austin-Bergstrom International Airport 2017). AUSâs CONRAC Facility Passenger growth at AUS has meant more customers renting cars. AUSâs RACs strove to meet this need, expanding their offerings and operational capacity until they maximized the limits of the available physical space. The original building had space for 1,100 vehicles and was simply too small to house the RACs. Additionally, with the RACs confined to the top level of the structure, expansion was difficult. The buildingâs location also had built-in inefficiencies, because the turn- around services such as refueling and cleaning were located across the airport. The RACs had to drive a returned car in two loops around the airport to prepare for the next rental. This cost the RACs time and money, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and added to traffic at the airport. To address this issue, AUSâs RACs came together and approached the airport leadership about additional space for current and future expansion. The plan was to develop a CONRAC that included all RACs and turnaround services in the same facility. The RACs formed a consortium so that, in total, there were three parties involved in the projectâthe airport, the consortium of Sustainability at AUS means we âwork hard to have the airport reflect the nature and character of Austin.â âJanice White, Project Management Supervisor, Austin-Bergstrom International Airport Aviation Division
14 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity RACs, and the developer. While the undertaking was a public-private partnership, the airport was the owner and a participant throughout the entire process. Construction began in March 2013, and was completed in two phases: May and September 2015. Throughout the project manage- ment process, project stakeholders were regularly engaged through monthly meetings. The new CONRAC facility is a five-level, 1.6-million-sq-ft complex that houses all rental car operations, including vehicle pick up, drop off, storage, cleaning, and fueling (see Figure 3). The RACs operate 3,000 vehicles per day at the facility, with the ability to accommodate up to 5,000 vehicles on busy days. With the elimination of rental cars traveling back and forth across the airport, the CONRAC has been estimated to lower carbon dioxide emissions by 411.7 tons each year (City of Austin 2016). Sustainability at the CONRAC As a public-private partnership, the facility was considered a private development and thus not required to meet Austinâs ordinances for environmental sustainability in public buildings. However, the airport leadership decided to meet these standards and pursue LEED Silver certifi- cation for the facility (achieved in 2016) to accurately reflect the nature and culture of Austin. In addition to the carbon savings resulting from reduced rental car trips, the facility incorporated features such as reclaimed water for the car washing system, streamlined waste management practices, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, and recycled materials. The contract to build the facility also included a minority and disadvantaged business obligation. This goal was rigor- ously pursued through job fairs, vendor fairs, newspaper advertisements, and direct outreach to companies through the City of Austinâs Small and Minority Business Resources Department. The Request for Proposal (RFP) also specified that public art be incorporated, again integrating Austinâs nature and culture. This artwork, âUplifted Ground,â was awarded an Americans for the Arts prize for âBest in Public Art Projectsâ in 2016. The sustainability initiatives were supported with buy-in from all three of the involved par- ties. AUS found that encouraging and leading with these sustainability initiatives helped get the attention of, and engagement from, the RACs. AUS found that the new facility was generally received positively by the public, and that its sustainability attributes represented the project as indicative of the nature and culture of Austin. Positive comments have been received about the projectâboth anecdotal and through comments via email and phoneâin particular, about the benches made from recycled milk jugs used at the facility. Figure 3. CONRAC facility at AUS (Source: Austin- Bergstrom International Airport).
Case Examples 15 CONRAC management staff viewed sustainability as an integral part of the development and project management of the facility. Although a formal SMP was not used as a guide, having a dedicated staff member on the developer side spearhead the inclusion of environmental design attributes ensured consistent implementation. Externally, AUS staff highlighted and advertised that the CONRAC incorporated environ- mentally friendly design, and ultimately achieved LEED Silver certification. Educational placards have been placed throughout the facility, providing details on the often unseen low- impact features of the building (see Figure 4). Tours of the facility are also conducted for any interested parties, and a flier with an overview of the CONRAC has been developed to accom- pany the tour. The flier highlights the sustainability components of the facility as well as the collaborative process that went into its development. Takeaways and Lessons Learned AUSâs CONRAC facility has reduced traffic congestion, reduced on-airport emissions, and opened additional parking by giving space back to the airportâall while allowing for increased capacity of rental cars at the airport. At AUS, project managers sought to incorporate sustainability measures as basic and important tenets of project management because of the long-standing sustainabil- ity culture at AUS. The CONRAC project is an example of how AUS puts its four sustainability focus areas (customer and community value, operational excellence, economic sustainability, and environmental stewardship) into practice. The facility was designed in such a way as to streamline rental car operations while at the same time preserving natural resources. Through engagement with local small and disadvantaged businesses as part of the construction, and integration of Austinâs culture through public art, AUS showcased the ways in which the airport enhances customer and community value. As the communities surrounding AUS continue to grow, AUS strives to ensure economic sustainability through projects such as the CONRAC that allow the airport to serve a higher number of passengers in an efficient and streamlined way. By coupling sustainability with its capacity-enhancing efforts, AUS benefits by affirming its role as a key economic player in the region, furthering its reputation as a community leader, and increasing operational efficiency. OâHare International Airport (ORD) Figure 4. Plaque detailing the alternative transportation options to the CONRAC (Source: Austin-Bergstrom International Airport). ORD Key Highlights â¢ Background: ORD is one of the busiest airports in the United States and in the world. Delays at the airport can impact flights across the National Airspace System (NAS). â¢ Sustainability Context: The Chicago Department of Aviation developed the Sustainable Airport Manual (SAM), a comprehensive sustainability guide for airports that has been applied throughout ORDâs operations. â¢ Featured Project: The OâHare Modernization Program (OMP) spurred the development of the SAM, and projects resulting from the OMP follow the established guidelines in the SAM. â¢ Capacity Enhancement: The OMP involves the construction and reconfigura- tion of runways, resulting in additional airspace capacity and reduced delays. â¢ Stakeholder Engagement: ORD tailors its sustainability message when engag- ing with community stakeholders to place an emphasis on the aspects most important to the audience. â¢ Date: The OMP was proposed in 2001, approved in 2005, and aspects were still underway in 2017.
16 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity ORD within the National Airspace System ORD is a primary, commercial service airport located in Chicago, Illinois, and operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation (CDA). The airport is the third busiest in the United States and the sixth busiest in the world based on passenger traffic, with 37,589,899 enplaned passen- gers in 2016 (FAA 2017c). As a result of ORD being a major hub for two airlines and its geo- graphic location, delays at ORD ripple across the NAS. At various points throughout its history, ORD has been among a small group of airports subject to federal regulations aimed at reducing congestion. OâHare Modernization Program In 2001, Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley announced a multi-year, multi-billion dollar air- port modernization program for ORD, referred to as the OMP. The core purpose of the OMP is to increase efficiency and capacity at the airport, primarily by decommissioning three runways, and building four new runways to replace them. Building new runways in a parallel orientation allows simultaneous airplane arrivals and departures. These simultaneous arrivals and depar- tures provide maximum operational benefits in the airspace, resulting in additional capacity. ORD acquired hundreds of parcels of land from the adjacent suburbs to accommodate the expansion. As of 2017, ORD is still in the process of implementing the OMP, with construction 75% complete on the new runways, and a scheduled completion date of 2021. Sustainable Airport Manual As it prepared for the OMP, the CDA established a set of sustainability guidelines that were released in 2003 as the Sustainable Design Manual (SDM), making Chicago the first city in the United States with sustainability guidelines for an airport. This initial version of the manual was principally focused on design and construction. Since then, the SDM has morphed into what is now the SAM, the latest version of which was released in 2014 (see Figure 5). SAM contains Figure 5. Sustainable Airport Manual (Source: Chicago Department of Aviation).
Case Examples 17 sustainable guidelines for a wide range of airport functions, including administrative procedures, planning, design and construction, operations and maintenance, and concessions and tenants. These sustainability guidelines allowed ORD to better position itself to address environmental concerns during the planning stage of the project. Instead of having to mitigate environmental impacts after the fact, ORD leadership could point to the set of voluntary measures developed to proactively address these issues. Beyond the OMP, OâHare 21 is the next major improvement program for ORD. This program involves terminal enhancements, enhanced transit connections, and new hotel developments. As with OMP projects, the SAM will be incorporated throughout OâHare 21 projects. Further- more, the SAM will be broadened to encompass sustainability guidelines for facilities such as terminals and hotels. Stakeholder Buy-In CDA staff had a lot of experience working with aviation consultants with expertise in environmental issues. Because CDA staff realized developing sustainability guidelines would benefit the OMP EIS process, and with consultant support, the idea of the SAM was presented to the airport executive leadership, who embraced it and championed it. Because the sustainability guidelines within the SAM entailed a reduced environmental footprint, and less environmental mitigation, they were also welcomed by the FAA. The originally developed SDM was based on environmental best practices at the time and paralleled the LEED rating system. However, when the SDM was updated in 2009 to go beyond design and construction and become the SAM, a broad range of stakeholders was involved, giving them a sense of ownership in the process. These stakeholders included City of Chicago sustainability staff from departments outside of the CDA, the FAA, Illinois EPA, U.S. EPA, and aviation industry experts, both domestic and international. In-person workshops, as well as phone conversations and email were used to gather input from these parties. With tenants, the greatest opportunities for buy-in arise when a new lease or new contract is being executed. The SAM includes a chapter focused on concessions and tenants, which is split into a design and construction section, and an operations and maintenance section. ORD incorporates the design and construction sustainability guidelines into the lease documents and RFPs whenever there is tenant major renovation or new construction. ORD also has a Green Concessions Policy with waste reduction requirements such as eliminating the use of plastic bags, containers, and utensils; recycling and composting; and donating surplus food. As part of this policy, concessionaires are also encouraged to rate themselves based on the guidelines for operations and maintenance in the SAM. As of 2017, 65 concessionaires at ORD have gone through the rating process. Community Outreach Conducting public outreach was required as part of FAAâs OMP EIS. However, CDA staff saw value in going beyond the NEPA public involvement regulatory requirements because of the scope and impacts of the project, and the FAA agreed with and supported this approach. Staff of the CDA and the FAA worked collaboratively on a three-pronged approach for engag- ing key audiences with an interest in ORDâs growth: elected and appointed officials, local busi- nesses, and the surrounding community. With elected and appointed officials, the emphasis was on the job creation and job retention benefits of a modernized ORD because the airport plays such a key role in the economic fabric of the region. Likewise, the economic benefits
18 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity of the OMP were highlighted with the business community because enhanced capacity at the airport translates into increased exchanges of goods and services. As the Deputy Commissioner of Environment for the CDA, Aaron Frame continues to do outreach to community members about the OMP. ORD also conducts tours open to the public, often with a focus on the design and construction elements of the airport. Sustainability is periodically highlighted during these tours, which are conducted using a diesel electric hybrid bus. While environmental sustainability issues are not typically the main focus of feedback that community members provide to the airport, there has been anecdotal support for individual initiatives contained in the SAM, such as positive feedback for recycling options. In addition, ORDâs initiatives have received a positive reception from airport peers. OMP Sustainability Examples Anchored by the SAM, the OMP has provided opportunities to incorporate sustainable ele- ments throughout construction projects. One example of this is soil management at construc- tion sites. ORD staff maximizes appropriate on-site reuse of soil from multiple construction sites and minimizes transportation of soil off-site. By not hauling all the soil off-site, ORD avoids landfill fees and minimizes truck traffic and emissions on local roads. CDA implemented tailpipe emissions standards for construction equipment working on the OMP that were later adopted as citywide policy. CDA incorporated the standards into construction bid documents and established an enforcement mechanism by requiring emissions documentation to be attached to invoices prior to approval. The newly built runways feature LED lights, as well as local and recycled materials. New facili- ties such as the Northeast Cargo Facility incorporated elements that result in water and energy reduction, and implemented strategies such as waste reused on-site, locally sourced materials, green roofs, and permeable pavement. Another facility, the OâHare FedEx sort facility, was relo- cated to make way for runway improvements. At the new facility, a green roof was installed, which is the largest airport green roof in the United States as of 2017 and has resulted in 30% heating, ventilation, and air conditioning savings compared with the previous facility. Furthermore, every new gate that is built at ORD will use preconditioned air and 400 Hz power, to shift away from auxiliary power units and ground power units that produce diesel and Jet A emissions. Takeaways and Lessons Learned Top-down support was key for developing the sustainability guidelines contained in the SAM and ensuring they were incorporated into the OMP. The mayor and the CDA Commis- sioner at the time were strong supporters and champions of the endeavor. From CDA staffâs perspective, developing the SAM eased the intensive and complex EIS process for a project of the OMPâs magnitude. The benefits generated by the SAM extend beyond its origins as a companion to the OMP. Now that the SAM has been created, expanded upon, and incorporated into projects, it has gained a momentum all its own that has continued despite changes in airport leadership. The SAM has thus helped institutionalize sustainability practices at ORD. âWhen you have a multi-year, multi- billion dollar construction program, there are a lot of jobs there. If we can find sustainable materials and use sustainable construction practices, that goes a long way.â âAaron Frame, Deputy Commissioner of Environment, Chicago Department of Aviation Championing from the highest levels of airport leadership and elected officials provided the support necessary for ORD to embark upon its sustainability efforts.
Case Examples 19 Another strategy that ORD has found useful for institutionalizing sustainability is to incorpo- rate sustainability language into legal documents such as RFPs and tenant leases. However, this strategy is significantly more effective if there are also mechanisms in place to track and enforce contractual compliance. Orlando International Airport (MCO) MCO Key Highlights â¢ Background: The 2011 Airport Master Plan Update for MCO launched capacity- enhancing projects at the airport to account for forecast growth. â¢ Sustainability Context: MCO incorporated sustainability elements when it transitioned to a commercial service airport in the 1970s. In 2014, the Greater Orlando Aviation Authority released an SMP, which captured ongoing sustain- ability efforts and set forth future initiatives at MCO. â¢ Featured Project: MCOâs Automated People Mover (APM) connects MCOâs existing North Terminal Complex with the new 1.5-million-sq-ft South Airport Complex, comprising the APM and Intermodal Terminal Facility (ITF), as well as the future South Terminal C. â¢ Capacity Enhancement: This project will enhance the airportâs terminal capacity to meet the demands of high passenger growth. The South Airport APM and ITF includes a 2,400 space, six-level parking garage, which increases the air- portâs parking capacity and relieves ground transportation congestion. The ITF will specifically address the need for intermodal connectivity for the Central Florida region. â¢ Stakeholder Engagement: Sustainability initiatives at the airport, including those related to the South Airport APM and ITF, are conveyed through a combination of in-person and digital communication channels. â¢ Date: MCOâs South Airport APM and ITF opened on November 17, 2017. Capacity Enhancements at MCO MCO is a commercial service airport located in Orlando, Florida, and operated by the Greater Orlando Aviation Authority (GOAA). MCO is the second busiest airport in Florida, with 20,283,541 enplaned passengers in 2016 and an average annual growth of 8.3% between 2014 and 2016 (FAA 2017c). In December 2017, MCO reported more than 44 million pas- sengers during a 12-month period for the first time in its history (Orlando International Airport 2017). The GOAA has long recognized the future need for expansion at MCO, but the planning process was hindered first by the September 11, 2001 (9/11), terrorist attacks and later by the Great Recession. Plans for new development eventually came to fruition as a result of an Airport Master Plan update in 2011. The MCO Master Plan update made specific recom- mendations to accommodate capacity needs at the time and make preparations for pro- jected growth. Based on the Master Plan and approved through MCOâs Capital Improvement Program, GOAA undertook major improvements to enhance the airportâs North Terminal Complex and phase in the South Airport Complex. One of the capacity-enhancing improve- ments was the construction of the South Airport APM and ITF. Design of the South Airport
20 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity APM and ITF was completed in 2014, and the 1.5-million-sq-ft complex opened in November 2017 (see Figure 6). The South Airport APM and ITF were built to alleviate congestion and provide a more effi- cient travel experience for passengers. Connecting the South Airport Complex to the North Terminal is a state-of-the-art APM system. A set of three two-car trams transports passengers along a 1.5-mi guideway between the two facilities. The South Airport APM will also connect to MCOâs future South Terminal C, currently under design to enhance the airportâs terminal capacity and meet the demands of high passenger growth. The South Airport Complex also includes the new Parking Garage C, a 2,400-space facility designed to relieve ground transpor- tation congestion in the North Terminal. The ITF addresses the need identified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for intermodal connectivity in the Central Florida region, one of the top tourist destinations in the United States. The ITF supports all modes of transportationâdomestic and international aviation, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, ground transportation (including bus, rental car, shuttle and taxi/transportation network com- pany vehicles)âand also enables direct access to cruise lines and other Port services. When the Brightline express train arrives at the ITF, MCO will be the only airport in the United States that is a hub for intercity rail connections. Sustainability at MCO Through industry-leading environmental stewardship, sustainable concepts were in place at MCO from its beginnings in the 1970s, when the airport transitioned from a military facility to the international commercial service airport it is today. During construction, 75,000 trees were acquired to replace those displaced by the newly expanded airport. New detention ponds and the first EPA-approved wetland were built to retain stormwater runoff. Additionally, the South Florida Water Management District was engaged in the design of a recharge area to ensure that airport runoff would not impact Floridaâs fragile aquifers. More recently, MCO formalized its environmental stewardship efforts and broadened them to encompass additional aspects of sustainability. In 2013, MCO included âinnovation, sustain- ability, and flexibilityâ among the six values in its Strategic Plan (Greater Orlando Aviation Authority 2013). The following year, the GOAA SMP was released, with an objective of âcon- tinuous improvement in operations, maintenance, purchasing, engineering, and constructionâ (Greater Orlando Aviation Authority 2014). The SMP includes sustainability guiding principles that focus on minimizing environmental impact, community awareness, and preserving the airportâs economic health. The SMP formalized longstanding practices at the airport, such as Figure 6. The completed South Airport APM and ITF (Source: Orlando International Airport).
Case Examples 21 construction material recycling, and established a framework of four sustainability focus areas and nine corresponding initiatives. GOAAâs SMP complements parallel sustainability efforts at the local, regional, and state levels. Orlando Mayor Buddy Dyer launched Green Works Orlando in 2007 with the goal of making Orlando âthe green city capital of the southeast United Statesâ (City of Orlando 2013). Green Works Orlando promotes green business opportunities, green and efficient municipal operations, natural resource protection, environmentally friendly lifestyles, local food produc- tion, and locally owned businesses. Orange County, where MCO is based, released its Sustain- able Orange County Plan in 2014, which sets forth goals, measures, and strategies across seven focus areas. At the state level, GOAAâs sustainability efforts helped inform the development of the 2017 FDOT Airport Sustainability Guidebook. The shared vision of sustainability between GOAA, the City of Orlando, Orange County, and the State of Florida projects a consistent commitment to environmental stewardship, community engagement, and economic strength. In keeping with GOAAâs SMP, MCO has several sustainability initiatives that have been championed by leadership at the airport. In 2015, the GOAA CEO signed the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Pledge, which encourages all airport departments, vendors, and service partners to adopt, practice, and promote environmentally preferable purchasing practices. In 2017, the CEO signed the Organizational Sustainability Pledge, further demonstrating GOAAâs commitment to enhancing economic vitality, social connections, environmental resources, and operational efficiency. Sustainability within the South Airport APM and ITF The South Airport APM and ITF project brought together a large team of airport partners and stakeholders. Staff of the GOAA Planning, Engineering, and Construction Department led the design and construction of the project, with input from the other GOAA department person- nel. A committee of independent members appointed by the GOAA Board provided oversight on the project. Funding came from multiple sources, including FDOT grants, Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) pay-as-you-go, PFC supported bonds, general airport revenue bonds, Facility Improvement Funds and GOAA funds. FAA approval of PFCs necessitated consultation with airlines and public outreach describing the project. As part of the public engagement process, GOAA held four evening open houses in the communities surrounding MCO (see Figure 7). During the meetings, GOAA and project Figure 7. Presentation slide used to discuss sustainability (Source: Orlando International Airport).
22 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity consultants staffed a series of display boards focused on different aspects of the project. There were boards dedicated to sustainability, both on the LEED aspects of the project and on sustainability at the airport in general. The sessions provided an opportunity for com- munity members to learn about the impacts of the project and ask questions. In addition to the open houses held with community stakeholders, GOAA used a diverse set of strategies to communicate to internal and external audiences about the project: in-house publications including a newly developed newsletter called Flight Plans; monthly meeting updates; social media; internal and external websites; email announcements; media releases; and meetings with elected officials. GOAA held to the sustainability initiatives in its SMP, designing the South Airport APM and ITF to LEED version 4 (v4) standards. The LEED v4 checklist was used to track progress in the strategies identified in the SMP, including energy cost savings, reduced potable water usage, waste management, and community outreach. Low impact and preservation practices have been incorporated into the APM and ITF site development and design, focused on main- taining wildlife diversity and quality of waterways, habitats, and lakes (Greater Orlando Aviation Authority 2016). The South Airport Complex tenant contracts will incorporate more stringent sustainability language as recommended in the SMP. Takeaways and Lessons Learned Incorporating sustainability into the South Airport APM and ITF and going through the LEED v4 process served as a significant step toward meeting GOAAâs sustainability objectives. For instance, regarding environmental objectives, the South Airport APM and ITF incorporated water conservation efforts that preserve natural resources while cutting costs, and increased alternative transportation options to the airport, which will help enhance air quality. Beyond environmental benefits, the South Airport APM and ITF enhance the airportâs role as a community leader and economic driver by improving passenger experience and connectivity to key industries in the region. The LEED process was useful for providing target criteria for sustainable development, but it was not conducive to pinpointing all airport needs and requirements. During the initial phase of design and construction, it would have been helpful to implement road- mapping as a strategy to tie long-term sustainability forecasting more specifically to aviation industry challenges and objectives. Sustainability is not just environmental alignment, it is a building block for long-term survivability that must be industry-specific. This is serving as a lesson learned for project stakeholders, and as additional stages of development move forward, GOAA will seek a more industry-focused approach to the LEED process and docu- ment development. The South Airport APM and ITF represent a large-scale project involving many design- ers, contractors, and airport staff, and GOAA focused on assembling the right team to get the job done. Identifying the appropriate team members and securing proper commitments from all levels of planning, and design and construction from the outset helped to focus the team. This is vital for continued success, particularly on projects of this scale, and helps drive further achievement. Despite initial challenges, GOAA supportâbeginning with the Board, and including executive staff and all departmental levelsâalong with community support ensured that the sustainability components were successfully implemented on the project. Sustainability is not just environmental alignment, it is a building block for long-term survivability that must be industry-specific. âJudith-Ann Jarrette, Manager, Noise Abatement & Sustainability, GOAA
Case Examples 23 San Diego International Airport (SAN) SAN Key Highlights â¢ Background: Constrained to its existing downtown urban footprint, SAN must be innovative to meet the growing air service needs of the San Diego region. â¢ Sustainability Context: Sustainability at SAN is deeply rooted in both policy and culture, and airport staff equate sustainability with innovation and use it as a framework to address the airportâs needs. â¢ Featured Project: SANâs Green Build added 10 gates, updated the airfield, and expanded and updated an existing terminal and ground transportation facilities. â¢ Capacity Enhancement: The Green Build enabled the airport to increase ter- minal capacity through additional gates, expand concession capacity through additional dining and shopping options, and increase passenger processing capacity through improved operations. â¢ Stakeholder Engagement: SAN extensively engaged community stakeholdersâ specifically citing sustainabilityâto facilitate approval of the Green Build project, which helped garner support for a new parking plaza opening in 2018. â¢ Date: Construction of the Green Build was completed in 2013. Establishing SAN SAN is owned and operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority. The airport has the San Diego Bay adjacent to its south, and downtown urban San Diego on all other sides. In 2016, 9,985,763 passengers enplaned at SAN, representing 3.6% growth over the previous year and a continuation of previous annual enplanement increases at the airport (7.0% in 2015, and 5.1% in 2014) (FAA 2017c). In 2003, California Assembly Bill 93 established the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority. Tied to the creation of the agency was a mandate that on the 2006 state ballot there would be a question asking voters to choose between the current and an alternate location for the airport. The Airport Authority undertook an effort to look for alternate locations, but the poten- tial move of the airport to a new location was voted down in the 2006 ballot vote. This put pres- sure on SAN to meet the regionâs air service needs given its location and associated constraints. Sustainability at SAN The foundation of sustainability at SAN was established through its 2008 Sustainability Policy, one of the first sustainability policies for a major airport in the United States. The Sustainability Policy is rooted in the EONS framework and connects sustainability with the mission of the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority to promote prosperity and pro- tect quality of life in the region. The policy states that â[i]t is essential for the Authority to become a known benchmark and respected role model for best sustainable practices in the San Diego region and the avi- ation industryâ (San Diego County Regional Airport Authority 2008). Though there have been initiatives, policies, reports, and frameworks in the years since, the 2008 policy has served as the basis for future efforts. Since 2008, SAN has developed and published many more plans and reports related to sustainability. The airport has developed a Reflective of the EONS framework, the 2008 Sustainability Policy adopted at SAN served as a key building block for developing a culture of sustainability at the airport.
24 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity Water Stewardship Plan, a Strategic Energy Plan, and a Sustainable Statement and Resource Guide to support its Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program, as well as an annual Sustainability Report that focuses on operational, financial, community, customer, and employee accomplishments at the airport (San Diego International Airport 2016a; San Diego International Airport 2016b; San Diego International Airport 2017a; San Diego International Airport 2017b). The Green Build With the option to build a new, larger airport in a different location no longer viable because of the 2006 ballot vote, SAN set out to innovatively and efficiently update the airport to meet the growing air service needs of the region. Completed in 2013, SANâs Green Build project expanded and updated several aspects of the airportâs Terminal 2 and facilities (see Figures 8 and 9). The Green Build added 10 new passenger gates; expanded the airside apron area; relocated the remain-overnight parking; enlarged the concession area, airline ticketing lobbies, and baggage claim area; added more security lanes; and added a dual-level terminal access roadway (San Diego International Airport 2017c). The planning efforts began in 2006, construction started in 2009, and the new facilities opened in August 2013. The Green Build expanded both the airside and landside areas; the initiative expanded the aircraft apron area, and added gates. The expansion of terminal passenger facilities, such as ticketing lobbies and the concessions areas, has resulted in SAN being able to accommodate additional passengers (San Diego International Airport 2017d; San Diego International Airport 2017e). Putting the âGreenâ in Green Build âGreen Buildâ was chosen as the name for SANâs improvement project to convey the sus- tainability attributes incorporated into the airportâs updated facilities and also to allude to the jobs and paychecks created by the project because money is âgreen.â Prior to the project, SANâs existing buildings were unable to support photovoltaic solar panels, but once they were upgraded as part of the Green Build, solar panels were incorporated to produce renew- able energy for the airport (San Diego International Airport 2017f). The project sought to reduce water usage and energy consumption where possible, as well as maximize energy Figure 8. Exterior of terminal building renovated as part of the Green Build (Source: San Diego International Airport).
Case Examples 25 efficiency. Construction waste, such as concrete, was recycled and used again elsewhere at the airport. From the project outset, airport staff sought LEED certification for the termi- nal portion of the Green Build. In 2014, SAN ultimately achieved LEED Platinum for the redevelopment of its terminal as part of the Green Build, becoming the first airport termi- nal in the world to achieve this level of LEED certification. It also earned the Institute for Sustainable Infrastructureâs Envision Platinum Award. In total, the Green Build has won 41 awards for achievements in areas such as small disadvantaged business outreach, sustain- ability, public relations, and construction. This recognition demonstrates the wide-ranging streams of value that can be captured across all components of the EONS framework by adopting a sustainability approach. Through the Green Build, SAN looked to maximize economic benefits for the region and community, in addition to continuing to maintain the airportâs existing contributions to the growing regional economy. The project created approximately 1,000 jobs during its peak, and in total contributed $1 billion in construction expenditures (San Diego International Airport 2017f). The project also incorporated significant outreach to small, minority-owned, women-owned, and disabled veteran businesses. Many initiatives to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) through the Green Build were rooted in the 2008 Sustainability Policy and a Memorandum of Understanding between the airport and the Cali- fornia Attorney General, which focused on goals for reducing GHGs. Airport staff also attributes the high level of sustainability incorporation in the project to stringent environmental review criteria in California, including the permits required from the California Coastal Commission because of SANâs location adjacent to the San Diego Bay. Parking Plaza at Terminal 2 As part of the Green Build, SAN intended to build a new parking structure, known as the parking plaza at Terminal 2. While the other aspects of the project were approved by the Air- port Authority Board (the Board) in 2008, this parking structure was the subject of opposition from neighboring communities and transportation agencies. Communities were concerned that the parking structure would bring more vehicle trips, congestion, traffic, and, ultimately, more vehicle emissions. There was also opposition due to aesthetic reasons, because SAN is located so Figure 9. Interior of terminal building renovated as part of the Green Build (Source: San Diego International Airport).
26 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity close to the waterfront and this was the very first parking structure at the airport along a scenic coastal road. The parking plaza was later approved in 2014. To attain community acceptance and receive approval from the Board, the SAN leveraged environmental benefits of the new parking plaza, showing the community that the additional parking structure would translate to fewer miles driven and lower emissions. The parking plaza would result in fewer trips to the airport because passengers could make two trips to park at the airport, instead of passengers making four trips to be dropped off and then picked up from the airport. The parking plaza was approved and is under construction, slated to open in 2018 (San Diego International Airport 2017g). SAN also incorporated environmental measures into the design of the structure. The 16 most convenient parking spots have been designated for use by electric vehicles (EVs) only, and additional conduit will be run so that the number of EV charging stations can be increased in the futureâproviding an additional 145 spots. The facility will also incorporate a rainwater catchment system, so that stormwater can be captured and reused for non-potable uses. It will be the airportâs most significant stormwater initiative, capturing approximately 2 million gallons of water per year, saving the airport money and reducing discharge into the San Diego Bay. As a result of its experience with the parking plaza and other Green Build projects, SANâs standard operating procedure is to incorporate sustainability in initiatives to further enhance community relations. Communicating and Engaging via Sustainability Airport staff acknowledge that creating an internal culture that revolves around sustain- ability has been invaluable to their successful inclusion of sustainability concepts in projects such as the Green Build. This culture has been established through initiatives for the airport employees. The airport leadership seeks sustainability suggestions from as wide an audience of employees as possible, including maintenance staff, to involve employees and give them ownership. Airport leadership incentivizes such efforts with the creation of a Sustainability Champion award that is given by the airport CEO and includes a monetary award. Fur- thermore, the airport (a) strives to involve every department in developing the annual sus- tainability reports, (b) issues monthly newsletters highlighting sustainability, and (c) hosts âlunch-and-learnâ events on sustainable initiatives going on at the airport. SAN undertakes efforts to incorporate sustainable innovations, both for the airport and its concessionaires. Airport staff view sustainability and innovation as one and the same. The air- port now has an innovation lab, primarily focused on customer experience improvements, and sustainability and environmental initiatives, where it partners with startups and other companies to develop and put into practice new, innovative ideas (San Diego International Airport 2017h). For exam- ple, SANâs AtYourGate service emerged from the innovation lab and is undergoing testing. AtYourGate will allow customers to purchase food and goods and have their items delivered directly at their gate. The airportâs sustainability and innovation efforts are also comple- mented by the airportâs outreach to its concessionaires. Airport staff run a Green Concessions Program that aims to educate concession employees and managers, as well as feature and encourage the good deeds of the concessionaires. The educational messaging varies; to managers, it is more about how sustainable undertakings benefit the airport and businesses and, to front line staff, it focuses on a personal Through proactive communication about sustainability, SAN âwas able to implement major airport improvements on schedule, and was able to guide the discussion with advocacy groups and ultimately build a relationship of trust between them and the airport.â âKim Becker, President/CEO, San Diego International Airport
Case Examples 27 level and the importance of social, economic, and environmental efforts to the community. To the greatest extent possible, SAN staff also encourages concessionaire engagement with its respective corporate offices, so that these initiatives are not simply airport-centric. Airport staff in the Planning and Environmental Affairs department note that creating this internal culture centered on sustainability is invaluable to the airportâs capacity-enhancing projects that affect external organizations and the community at large. This extension of sus- tainability has proven immensely valuable and beneficial to SAN; airport staff note that they have established rapport with special interest and advocacy groupsâsuch as those focused on water quality, environmental health, and other issues. This rapport has allowed SAN to guide the discussion rather than wait for push-back. In addition to simply being good prac- tice, this has saved the airport time and money in the review process for projects such as the Green Build. SANâs incorporation and communication of sustainability as part of the parking plaza is indicative of its often used approach of planning and undertaking strong sustainability efforts, and then highlighting these initiatives to generate and ensure buy-in from a wide range of stakeholders. Countless communication undertakings exemplify this approach, including SANâs Terminals to Tarmac tour, airport staff attendance at community meetings, sponsor- ship of fundraisers for environmental groups, and outreach directly to the business commu- nity. Other examples include participation in local government environmental and energy working groups, as well as digital outreach such as videos, sustainability microsites, press releases, and social media. Before receiving approval for the Environmental Impact Report for the Green Build, SAN staff also undertook a public process to ensure community mem- bers had the opportunity to provide feedback to the airport about the proposed Green Build improvements. As required by California State law, public and agency review comments were recorded and incorporated into mitigation measures. In addition, the California Coastal Commission reviewed and required special conditions related to avoiding impacts to coastal resources because of the SANâs proximity to San Diego Bay before issuing a coastal development permit. Further, the airport staff worked with environmental watch-dog agencies to develop sustainable practices related to energy efficiency, reducing water consumption, and sustainable design. SAN began publishing annual sustainability reports as a result of reporting on the Green Buildâs progress. An even better example of communicating the sustainability message is the name of the project itself: âGreen Build.â The original name of the terminal update project was âTerminal Redevelopment.â Changing the name to Green Build conveyed sustainability and helped foster buy-in. Takeaways and Lessons Learned Airport leadership at SAN branded its development initiative the Green Build to reflect the holistic approach of the initiative and help generate buy-in for the projectâs advancement. As exemplified by the parking plaza, the sustainability efforts were instrumental in obtaining the approval of governing entities and public buy-in for this expansion and capacity-enhancing project. SAN staff views the communication and outreach associated with its sustainability undertakings as valuable for establishing trust with its stakeholders. The sustainability commu- nication and outreach has been an integral part of showing the regulatory bodies and the public that the airport is establishing not just a policy but a practice. Beyond enhanced relationships with stakeholders, sustainability at SAN has brought about benefits such as increased legitimacy within the community, a strong reputation within the aviation industry as an innovative leader, cost-saving opportunities, and operational efficiencies.
28 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA) SEA Key Highlights â¢ Background: Spurred by the tech boom, the Seattle metro area is experiencing unparalleled growth and economic developmentâleading to high passenger growth at SEA. â¢ Sustainability Context: SEAâs sustainability initiatives are guided by its Port of Seattle Commission members, and institutionalized through several documents and policies, including the Century Agenda and an Environmental Strategy Plan. â¢ Featured Project: The Optimized Baggage Handling System centralized SEAâs outbound baggage processing, saving money, energy, and processing time. â¢ Capacity Enhancement: The Optimized Baggage Handling System increased the airportâs baggage throughput capacity. â¢ Stakeholder Engagement: SEA staff engaged extensively with its oversight Commission and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) on the project and intends to communicate the energy efficiency of the project. â¢ Date: Construction of the Optimized Baggage Handling System began in 2017, and construction is expected to be complete in 2023. Growth and Constraints at SEA SEA, owned and operated by the Port of Seattle, is located just outside Seattle, Washington, in the city of SeaTac. SEA is the busiest airport in Washington State, with 21,887,110 enplanements in 2016 (FAA 2017c). The airport is in an urban area and is land constrained by the surrounding development. SEA has no additional property on which to expand and no plans for acquiring additional land for expansion or new runways. With these constraints, SEA has had to become innovative and efficient to meet the tremendous growth in enplaned passengers: 7.1% in 2014, 12.6% in 2015, and 8.6% in 2016 that has been spurred by the regionâs tech boom and resulting economic development (FAA 2017c). SEA Sustainability Efforts SEA adopted an Environmental Strategy Plan in 2009, which has served as the basis for future sustainability frameworks and initiatives. The plan laid out 20 different environmental goals, including those related to GHG emissions, stormwater, wildlife habitat, solid waste, and green building. The goals associated with this plan have been updated as of 2017, but not yet published. In conjunction with these efforts, the Port of Seattle prepared its Century Agenda, which lays out the vision for the future of the Port. The Century Agenda includes strate- gic objectives beyond environmental goals, such as those relating to pro- moting workforce development, facilitating small business growth, and expanding passenger and cargo service. These varied efforts are currently being coordinated as part of a revised sustainability strategy; they will be integrated in the airportâs ongoing redevelopment of its Master Plan to ultimately create a Sustainable Airport Master Plan. SEA also publicly reports on its progress in the environmental sustainability arena through Environmental Progress Reports. These reports highlight achievements and specific, often quantitative, progress toward its goals. On sustainability: âItâs culture. Itâs who we are. Itâs the right thing to do. So, letâs do it.â âThatâs primarily why I work here, because of what I saw in the Century Agenda goals.â âMike Tasker, Senior Manager of Facilities and Infrastructure, Port of Seattle
Case Examples 29 SEA staff notes that the direction for sustainability comes from its Port of Seattle Commis- sion. The Port of Seattleâs tagline heralds this mission: âWhere a sustainable world is headed.â This Commission is made up of elected Seattle locals. Because these representatives come from the community, they embody the Seattle and general Pacific Northwest valuesâwhich include sustainability. The Commission imparts direction through the establishment of goals, and through high-level project management and top-level decision-making. The Commission is thus involvedâand lending its sustainable valuesâin multiple innovative efforts to accommo- date capacity increases at SEA (Port of Seattle 2017a). The Optimized Baggage Handling System: Background SEAâs baggage handling system originally encompassed several small systems serving dif- ferent sections of the airport (see Figure 10). Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, when the TSA required baggage to be scanned at airports, SEAâalong with all other commercial ser- vice airportsâinstalled Computer Tomography X-ray (CTX) scanning machines. The original deployment of CTXs was done as quickly as possible for security reasons, and this meant that time was not taken for extensive study of the optimal arrangement and structure of their use. SEA deployed 28 CTXs as part of six different, decentralized systems. Optimized Baggage Handling System: Study and Deployment CTX baggage scanners last about 10 years, meaning that SEA needed to replace its scanners in 2011 and 2012. Rather than replacing all of them outright, SEA coordinated with TSA to study and determine an optimal system. Forecasts in 2012 estimated that SEA would serve 45 million passengers in 2029, meaning that with the original, decentralized system, the airport would have needed more than the original 28 CTXs installed. Furthermore, in 2017, SEA surpassed 45 million annual passengers, and is now projected to need to accommodate 60 million passen- gers by 2029 (Port of Seattle 2017b; Port of Seattle 2017c). Meeting this increased capacity with Note: Figure 10 has been converted from color to grayscale for printing. Areas C1, C25, C60, C61, C88, and C96 have different systems. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color version. Figure 10. SEAâs original, decentralized baggage system. Each color represents a different system (Source: Port of Seattle).
30 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity the decentralized system would have required even more CTXs. Notably, CTX scanners cost about $1 million each, and thus potential savings from increases in efficiency were significant. SEAâs studies found that a centralized system could better meet its forecasted capacity needs. With six separate systems, each had different peaks in demand and each needed to be designed for those different peaksâwhereas the centralized system can be more evenly dis- tributed. SEAâs studies also determined that using a combination of variable-frequency drive motors, and multiple smaller motors and conveyor beltsâas opposed to one large motor and long beltâmeant the system required less energy. Since there is no independent rating system, such as LEED, for baggage systems, SEA internally tested, evaluated, and compared different manufacturerâs motors and belts, so that project managers could determine which options were the most efficient. With the centralized baggage system, SEA requires fewer CTXs (see Figure 11). TSA sup- ported this initiative because of its potential for cost savings at SEA, and the potential for cost savings at other airports that might learn from SEAâs efforts. TSA agreed to fund $94 million (of the total $445 million) of the project costs. The project is being undertaken as a design- bid-build project, partly because the system needed to continue operating while under construc- tion. Construction began in 2017 and should be complete by 2023. Communicating Sustainability: Internally When approaching the oversight Commission for approval of the project, SEA highlighted the role of sustainability to better ensure Commission acceptance of the project. SEA discussed the sustainability benefitsânotably that it would save both costs and energy. Airport leadership proposed to the Commission that they would aim to reduce energy consumption by 30% com- pared with the existing system, while meeting all capacity needs. Figure 11. Graphic depicting the flow of baggage through SEAâs separate systems and through its optimized system (Source: Port of Seattle).
Case Examples 31 Communicating Sustainability: Externally Airport staff knew that there were relatively few construction contractors that specialize in baggage systems, and that many airports would also need to purchase CTXs and upgrade their baggage handling systems approximately 10 years after 9/11. Since they were aware that there would be unprecedented demand, perhaps making finding a baggage system construction con- tractor more difficult or expensive, SEA sought to set itself apart from other airports to ensure baggage system construction contractors were competing for its business. To do this, the airport leveraged the potential for extra visibility by incorporating sustainability practices into the proj- ect. SEAâs Senior Manager of Facilities and Infrastructure says that this focus on sustainability let the contractors know that if they received SEAâs business they were part of something larger. Given the tremendous focus on sustainability at SEA, as seen in its communications, and the resulting public interest received, SEA leveraged this so that contractors knew they would receive external attention as well. SEA staff notes that given the strong interest from contractors, the approach proved to be successful. SEA has a dedicated website about the Optimized Baggage Handling System that highlights its efficiencies and associated energy savings, with additional outreach planned in the future. One of the most effective communication strategies at SEA is the Sustainable Insights program (see Figure 12). This program is designed to highlight initiatives that passengers would not normally realize or notice as sustainability initiatives. The program includes educational blurbs for passengers to read, which are posted on windows or walls inside the terminal near the cor- responding equipment or initiative. SEA staff has written Sustainable Insights features on its preconditioned air, electric Ground Support Equipment, and waste recycling. The plaques are worded in a comedic way that speaks to the culture of Seattle and the regionâs emphasis on the environment. SEA sustainability staff are also developing a Sustainable Insights feature on the Optimized Baggage Handling System. Takeaways and Lessons Learned SEA staff believe there are many good sustainability ideas that should be implemented, but sometimes it costs money upfront to save money in the long run. Agencies will often refrain from looking at total cost of ownership, because of corporate cultures and histories that have always based decisions on upfront costs. Basing decisions on upfront costs often hurts those agencies Figure 12. Sustainable Insights examples (Source: Port of Seattle).
32 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity in the long run, and while it is a habit that can be difficult to change, it can be beneficial in the long run to make evaluations utilizing life-cycle costs. In the case of the Optimized Baggage Handling System, SEA achieved cost savings by selecting the most energy-efficient components and streamlining the system in such a way as to purchase fewer CTX machines. Furthermore, the new system increases operational efficiency by providing flexibility, reducing screening machine demand, and increasing reliability by eliminating single points of failure (Port of Seattle 2017c). The cultural emphasis on sustainability within SEAâs governing body and its surrounding community served as the impetus for incorporating operational efficiency and natural resource consumption reduction strategies into the Optimized Baggage Handling System. The project team wanted the best, most efficient system available to fully adhere to its drive for the most sustainable solutions. Airport staff attribute having explicit energy reduction goals as a driver of sustainability efforts such as those undertaken as part of the Optimized Baggage Handling Sys- tem, but that an even stronger driver is the underlying culture, which, in turn, is heavily spurred by the Century Agenda and goals. Tampa International Airport (TPA) TPA Key Highlights â¢ Background: TPAâs 2012 Airport Master Plan Update, approved in 2013, projected passenger growth requiring expansion of existing airport facilities. â¢ Sustainability Context: TPA staff participated in FAAâs Sustainable Master Plan Pilot Program and completed its SMP in 2014. The Sustainable Design Criteria Manual was a companion document to the SMP that has been incorporated into project development at TPA. â¢ Featured Project: TPAâs 2012 Airport Master Plan Update set forth a three-phase capital improvement program focused on decongestion, enabling, and expanding. â¢ Capacity Enhancement: As part of the decongestion phase of the capital improvement program, TPA increased landside capacity by expanding its main terminal and building a new CONRAC and automated people mover. In future phases, TPA has plans for commercial development, additional lanes at curb- sides, and additional gates, thus eventually increasing airside capacity. â¢ Stakeholder Engagement: Community members were deeply involved in the development of TPAâs SMP and have various channels through which to learn about and provide input on TPAâs sustainability initiatives. â¢ Date: The first phase of the capital improvement program was largely completed in 2018. Planning for Growth at TPA TPA is a commercial service airport located in Tampa, Florida, and publicly owned by the Hillsborough County Aviation Authority (HCAA). TPA is the fourth busiest airport in Florida, with 9,194,994 enplanements in 2016 (FAA 2017c). In late 2011, HCAA embarked on a master planning update process for TPA to address changes since the previous update in 2005 and capacity needs for the airport. The Master Plan Update was approved in 2013 and forecasted an average 2.71% annual growth in passenger enplanements out to 2031 (see Figure 13).
Case Examples 33 The airport has thus far experienced year after year of growth in total passengers between fiscal year 2010 and 2017 and is projected to handle 20,483,727 passengers during fiscal year 2018 (see Figure 14). TPAâs updated Master Plan provides for the airport to accommodate up to 34 million annual passengers by 2041, and has a three-phase construction structure: decongestion, enabling, and expansion (Tampa International Airport 2013). The first phase, largely completed in early 2018, addresses congestion through the expansion of the main terminal by 55,000 sq ft, a new 2.6-million-sq-ft CONRAC, and the SkyConnect, a new 1.4-mi APM (Tampa International Airport 2017a). Rental cars were previously located in TPAâs long-term parking and off-site locations. With the relocation to the new consolidated facility, TPA is regaining space in its long-term parking garage, freeing up curbsides, and eliminating 2.7 million annual car trips from the airport roadways. The reduction in vehicle trips will result in an annual reduction of 1,617 tons of carbon (Tampa International Airport 2016). The next phase, now in the procurement and design phase, includes curbside expansion and commercial development around the CONRAC, while the future third phase will include the construction of 16 addi- tional gates for domestic and international flights. Sustainability Planning at TPA In 2013, the same year the updated Master Plan was approved, HCAA received a grant to develop an SMP for TPA as part of FAAâs Sustainable Master Plan Pilot Program. Because TPAâs Master Plan began implementation around the same time the grant was awarded, HCAA was able to incorporate sustainable planning policies in the future development and operations of the airport. In its SMP, which was completed in 2014, TPA defines sustainability using a triple bottom line framework of people, planet, and collective prosperity. The SMP also sets forth TPAâs sustainability vision: âto be world-class leaders in promoting prosperity for the Tampa Figure 13. Forecast of passenger enplanements in 2012 Airport Master Plan Update (Source: Tampa International Airport).
34 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity Bay region through efficient, responsible growth, while cherishing the natural beauty and quality of life in our communityâ (Tampa International Airport 2017b). The SMP was developed through a collaborative process with input from the following airport stakeholders: authority staff; airport tenants and business partners; local community; traveling public; and airport peers (see Figure 15). Stakeholders were engaged using a variety of channels, including surveys, workshops, social media, and conferences. They helped shape TPAâs sustainability program by providing input to the foundational document that launched the program. The SMP is structured around seven sustainability priority topics that fall under the three overarching categories of people, planet, and prosperity. The SMP provides a baseline for each area by capturing relevant initiatives already underway, and establishes goals and per- formance targets moving forward. TPA created a Sustainability Manager position in 2015 as a result of the SMP development. TPA has earned praise from the aviation industry for its sustainability program, known as Legacy of Environmental Actions for Our Future (LEAF). The program won Airports Council International-North Americaâs 2016 Environmental Achievement Award for the Environmental Management category and the J. Bryan Cooper Environmental Award for positively affecting the Florida aviation system (Tampa International Airport 2017c). In addition, TPA received Honorable Mention for the 2015 Airportâs Going Green Award for âoutstanding leadership in the pursuit of sustainability within the aviation industryâ (Tampa International Airport 2017c). In September 2017, TPA became 1 of 27 North American airports to join the Airports Council International Airport Carbon Accreditation program, a global carbon management program for airports (Tampa International Airport 2017d). Connecting TPAâs SMP and Master Plan Projects The decongestion phase of TPAâs three-phase expansion program was already underway as the SMP was being finalized, but sustainability components were nevertheless incorporated into the terminal expansion, CONRAC, and APM. TPAâs consultants were familiar with green design, and thus incorporated elements such as daylight sensors and LED lighting into the expansion. The Note: Tampa International Airport is projected to handle 20,483,727 passengers during FY2018, a 5.1% increase versus FY2017âs full year projections. Figure 14. Fiscal year 2018 passenger projection for TPA (Source: Tampa International Airport).
Case Examples 35 energy savings from these design elements are in addition to the carbon savings from moving all the car rental companies and vehicles into the new rental car facility. With the SMP and LEAF in place as of 2014, TPA has leveraged them to better incorporate environmental sustainability in the next phases of the expansion program. For example, in the enabling phase of the program, TPA plans to demolish the current administrative building that houses HCAA staff to make room for additional curb space and construct a new office building near the new CONRAC. Based on the experiences incorporating environmentally friendly design within the first phase, and having both the SMP and LEAF to serve as guides, the airport will pursue LEED certification for the new office building. The TPA Sustainable Design Criteria Manual (SDCM) was developed as an accompany- ing document to the SMP. The SDCM provides guidance to project design teams regarding Figure 15. TPA SMP stakeholder process (Source: Tampa International Airport).
36 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity which green building strategies to use in support of TPAâs sustainability vision and SMP goals. The SDCM highlights HCAAâs commitment to sustainability and green building for projects emerging from the 2013 Master Plan. TPA has institutionalized the design criteria from the SDCM by transforming the criteria into a checklist incorporated into the process of developing capital improvement projects. Now, as part of any project development process, the check- list is reviewed for opportunities to incorporate sustainability components into the project, and project directors meet with Melissa Solberg, TPAâs Sustainability Manager, to discuss it. Through this process, strategies such as including maintenance in the design process, doing electronic submissions, and incorporating recycling of construction waste into specifications are becoming standard practice. Beyond environmental strategies, the SDCM includes criteria related to TPAâs community as well as the healthy, safety, and security of the airportâs workers and occupants. Ms. Solberg participates in monthly meetings about the status of the Master Plan projects, where sustainability aspects are discussed. Communicating Sustainability at TPA When Ms. Solberg first came on board, she met with the staff of every department through- out the airport organization and gave them a âSustainability 101â presentation so sustainabil- ity would become part of each employeeâs vocabulary. She continues to attend departmental meetings whenever sustainability questions need to be addressed. Departmental representa- tives, and, more recently, tenants, participate in TPAâs LEAF team meetings, which focus on sustainability initiatives and events. Sustainability has been incorporated into new employee orientation, including what it means at the airport, how it impacts employee positions, and what role each employee has in its success. In 2017, TPA launched the Be WELL program to engage its employees on the social aspects of sustainability, with an emphasis on health and well-being. TPA uses multiple strategies to communicate sustainability externally, including sus- tainability strategies used in the Master Plan expansion projects. TPA has a sustainability website, which serves as a repository for all airport sustainability news, and links to a page with more information about the Master Plan. The Master Plan page has videos and other graphics with construction progress and incorporates data related to people, planet, and prosperity, such as jobs created. TPA also highlights sustainability information through its biweekly newsletter, social media channels, and monitors placed around the airport. TPA has a walking program which encourages good health, and helps airport information reach a greater audience. TPA staff participates in and hosts community events, such as a 5-km race, that provide opportunities to promote TPAâs sustainability initiatives through informational booths and one-on-one conversations with community members. TPA has also taken an active role in local government, nonprofit, and educational arenas. The airport has sponsored sustainability-related programs at local schools and become involved in boards such as the local Clean Cities Coalition, an organization focused on alternative fuels. As the sustainability spokesperson for the airport, Ms. Solberg participates in speaking engagements and conference panels to get the word out and learn from airport peers. TPA periodically receives inquiries from community members about its sustainability program and has received positive feedback on items such as the electric car charging stations at the airport. TPA is considering installing water bottle refill stations because several community members have expressed interest in having them. âThe more you can do, the better. However you can reach your commu- nity audienceâwhether itâs social media, local events, sponsorship participationâ helps them realize the significant sustain- ability work happening at the airport.â âMelissa Solberg, Sustainability Manager, Tampa International Airport
Case Examples 37 Takeaways and Lessons Learned TPA had strong support and sustainability leadership from its CEO while developing its SMP and subsequently incorporating sustainability into the long-term planning for the airport. Sustainability at TPA has resulted in deeper engagement with internal and external stakeholders, savings from reductions in natural resource consumption, the creation of a culture of continual improvement, and an enhanced reputation within the Tampa Bay community. For sustainability champions in airports without top-down support, Ms. Solberg recom- mends leading by example and then presenting the results to airport leadership to obtain buy-in. For example, airport employees can take it upon themselves to embark on initiatives such as paper reduction or turning off landscaping vehicles instead of letting them idle. Once the environmental and financial benefits are accrued, the results can be presented to airport leadership as a starting point to making them more broadly institutionalized across the organization. Vancouver International Airport (YVR) With the CEO as a strong champion, TPA is working to ensure that sustainability is integrated with the airportâs future growth and development. YVR Key Highlights â¢ Background: YVR operates as a community-based private not-for-profit organi- zation with a board of directors drawn from community representatives. â¢ Sustainability Context: Vancouver, British Columbia, is a city striving to become the âgreenest city in the worldâ by 2020. One of YVRâs three-year Strategic Plan (2015â2017) objectives is to be a leader in sustainability. â¢ Featured Project: YVR developed a customized Sustainability Case Document (SCD) to assess social, governance, economic, and environment impacts of new operations and facilities. This document uses a weighted matrix of metrics reflective of the four objectives in the Strategic Plan. â¢ Capacity Enhancement: YVR has brought in new airlines and increased passen- ger service by 10% from 2015 to 2016, guided by a goal of serving 25 million passengers annually by 2020. â¢ Stakeholder Engagement: YVR works with its tenants to demonstrate the value of reducing environmental impact and engages businesses across the air- port to develop sustainability targets and metrics. Community members have provided input to YVRâs future initiatives through an ongoing Master Plan development effort. â¢ Date: The SCD was first used in 2015. Governance at YVR YVR is an international airport with commercial passenger service. It is located at the mouth of the Fraser River in Vancouver, British Columbia. YVR is the second busiest airport in Canada, with 22,284,496 passengers in 2016 (Vancouver International Airport 2017a). Prior to the creation of the Vancouver Airport Authority in 1992, the airport was government operated by Transport Canada. The Vancouver Airport Authority is a community-based non-profit that occupies land still owned by Transport Canada, which requires the Airport Authority to pay rent back to the government, while at the same time it is not a beneficiary of government funding.
38 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity This structure has encouraged airport leadership to adopt an entre- preneurial operational culture, since the airport must be self-sufficient. This operational structure also lends itself well to the adoption of sus- tainability initiatives as profits can be invested back into projects that reflect the communityâs interests and culture. The airportâs board of directors is responsible for overseeing the business conduct and activities of YVRâs management team. YVRâs executive team oversees the operation and management of the airport. YVRâs board comprises representatives from the surrounding community and key communities of interest to the airport such as the Law Society of British Columbia, the Association of Professional Engineers and Geo- scientists of British Columbia, orders of government, and the Greater Vancouver Board of Trade (Vancouver International Airport 2017b). Because the airportâs governing body is made up of a representative sample of the community, it inherently reflects the local community and its values. Sustainability Policies The City of Vancouver has developed a Greenest City Action Plan, with goals and targets that serve as a roadmap to âbecoming the greenest city in the world by 2020â (City of Vancouver 2017). The regionâs emphasis on environmental leadership has made it possible for the airport to adopt progressive standards and incorporate sustainable practices throughout its operations. The airportâs community-based governance structure also means that profitsâbeyond those generated for paying the rentâare invested back into the organization in ways that reflect its communityâs values, notably sustainability. Marion Town, Director of Environment at YVR, explains this cycle in the following way: âThe community makes us successful and defines who we are, so itâs a necessity for us to put all that back into innovative sustainability programs.â YVRâs sustainability values are reflected in the airportâs policies. YVR has a Social Policy that commits the airport to being a socially responsible organization, embracing the United Nations Global Compact and ISO26000 standards (Vancouver International Airport 2017c). The Social Policy outlines commitments in seven areas: â¢ Adherence to sound corporate activitiesâbusiness ethics and transparency â¢ Respect for human beings â¢ Consideration of our supply chain â¢ Positive employee relations â¢ Protection of the natural environment â¢ Support for community and consumer â¢ Communication The airport also has a Safety, Security, and Environment Policy, which reiterates to all employees their individual responsibility for the airportâs effects on othersâ safety, security, and the environment (Vancouver International Airport 2017d). This policy has been signed by all members of the executive team, which includes the President and CEO, Senior Vice Presidents, and Vice Presidents across all areas of airport operations. Furthermore, YVRâs Strategic Plan for 2015â2017 put a spotlight on the airportâs sustainability initiatives (Vancouver International Airport 2017e). One of the four objectives in the Plan is to be a leader in sustainability; the others are to create a con- necting hub between Asia and the Americas, deliver remarkable customer experiences, and build on [YVRâs] strong foundation. These objectives, driven by the executive team and board of directors, are all in support of the goal to serve a forecasted 25 million passengers annually by 2020. YVRâs sustainability efforts are championed by the airportâs board of directors, which comprises community stakeholders. âSustainability is just another way of saying innovative. Sustainability helps us define who we are and what we could become.â âMarion Town, Director of Environment, Vancouver International Airport
Case Examples 39 Capacity Enhancement at YVR In pursuit of its efforts to increase passengers, YVR launched an initiative focused on com- prehensive engagement with key stakeholders. The initiative is a direct and coordinated market- ing program to local community members and business partners such as airlines and tourism organizations. YVR staff regularly reaches out to surrounding communities to determine where people are most interested in going when they leave the airport. Additionally, YVR conducts targeted outreach to airlines the airport wants to bring in and works to provide a supporting infrastructure for them. Part of this infrastructure includes engaging tourism organizations to encourage regional and international travel and thus ensure the airlines are operating at high capacity. In addition to these efforts, YVR adjusted its rates to be more competitive and attract airlines to operate at the airport. YVRâs Sustainability Case Document To facilitate integration of sustainability into the airportâs capacity-enhancing efforts and day-to-day decision-making, YVR developed an SCD for conducting âsustainability assessments for new operations and facilities, focusing on how these operations and facilities will affect the environment and communitiesâ (Vancouver International Airport 2017f). The SCD is similar to a business case insofar as it includes financial attributes, but it goes beyond simple, short-term metrics such as upfront cost or return on investment and considers project and project alterna- tives through an environmental, social, and governance lens. The SCD supports YVR in assess- ing business decisions and investments through a weighted matrix that indicates the level of impact (both positive and negative) in these four areas. The four components in the SCD reflect YVRâs broad and comprehensive definition of sustainability. The SCD was developed entirely in-house at YVR without consultant support, ensuring that the assessment criteria used within it complements YVRâs existing initiatives and plans. The criteria used within each SCD can be tailored for the project at hand, thus ensuring the SCD is adaptable to the airportâs changing needs and sustainability goals. Because of YVRâs coordinated capacity enhancement measures, staff is beginning to plan for incremental terminal expansions; the SCD will serve an integral role in the development process of these projects. Internal Outreach YVR staff demonstrates the benefits of sustainability to the airport tenants. One such initiative, Project Green YVR, details policies and environmental programs to tenants, and assists them in mapping and reducing their footprints. YVR brings in a third party to facili- tate tenantsâ mapping of GHG emissions, energy and water consumption, and waste, as well as to set improvement targets and develop strategies for reaching those targets. YVR is now in its third year of this program, and even though it is run at-cost to the airport, YVR finds value in demonstrating to its tenants that sustainability initiatives can benefit the environment while simultaneously saving them money. YVR was recognized for its outreach efforts to ten- ants, winning (a) the Airport Council International Outreach, Education and (b) Community Involvement award for its Waste Wars program and the 2017 Airports Going Green Award for Project Green YVR. YVR undertakes additional outreach and communication tactics to educate its internal communities about its sustainability efforts. For instance, the YVR Strategic Plan is formulated by the executive team and board of directors, but supporting objectives, targets, and goals are crafted by department staff. Each department takes on the responsibility of developing key per- formance indicators that support strategic performance indicators. These efforts help YVR ensure its employees gain a sense of ownership with sustainability and the ways it applies to their roles.
40 Sustainabilityâs Role in Enhancing Airport Capacity External Outreach The airportâs largest opportunity for external engagement is via the Annual and Sustainability Report (see Figure 16), which captures the story of all the airportâs initiatives. This document, following the objectives of the Strategic Plan, details efforts from gender diversity, to aborigi- nal engagement, to waste reduction, as well as the increases in passengers served and business development activities. The airport also hosts an annual public meeting to present its financial, operational, environmental, and community accomplishments over the past year. Community members are encouraged to submit questions ahead of the livestreamed meeting. YVR updates its Master Plan every 10 years, providing another opportunity to engage com- munity members on sustainability. Starting in 2015, YVR has been going through a master planning update process, referred to as YVR 2037, that has included multiple strategies to solicit feedback from and engage with the public to determine what they would like to see from the airport over the next 20 years. These strategies include soliciting comments through a website, online survey, and email; holding in-person meetings, workshops, and an open house; and con- ducting community road show events. The discussions held through these channels often focus on sustainability. These check-ins with stakeholders allow YVR staff to explain the current sus- tainability initiatives as well as explore innovative ideas from others for future initiatives. The YVR 2037 Master Plan is anticipated to be approved in the 2017â2018 timeframe. YVR also has two public committees that represent citizens and key stakeholder organiza- tions. The Environmental Advisory Committee âprovides input and suggestions on YVRâs envi- ronmental practices and programs, and represents diverse interests, including community and environmental groups, industry, government and the Musqueam Indian Bandâ (Vancouver International Airport 2017g). The Aeronautical Noise Management Committee âprovides a forum for community and industry stakeholders to discuss and ask questions about noise management at YVRâ (Vancouver International Airport 2017h). Each committee posts minutes publicly. Figure 16. YVR Annual and Sustainability Report (Source: Vancouver International Airport).
Case Examples 41 Another way YVR staff engages with stakeholders is through its social media channels, where sustainability initiatives are regularly highlighted (see Figure 17). The airportâs Speakers Bureau program also sends airport representatives out into the community to highlight YVRâs efforts and collaborate with stakeholders to gain feedback on how the airport can better serve the community. Takeaways and Lessons Learned YVR equates sustainability with innovation. The airport staff views sustainability as a mecha- nism to look at options differently, and ultimately make smarter business decisions. Sustain- ability helps engage and retain airport employees; it provides the framework for them to connect their aspirations with tangible successes. YVR also considers risk management to be directly correlated to sustainability. Incorporating sustainability practices supports a thoughtful multi- faceted decision-making framework that has the potential to mitigate risk and advance asset management. Many of the risks to YVRâs business and operations can be better defined and possibly mitigated by evaluating the potential social, financial, governance, and environmental factors when making decisions. YVR staff notes that airports that are new to sustainability can start with items on their organizationâs risk matrix that they would like to mitigate, most likely associated with issues related to governance, social, environmental, or financial risks, and from there to build up supportive action plans, protocols, and policies that also advance sustainability. The biggest lesson learned at YVR was to have a third party benchmark its performance. In 2014, YVR used an external firm to benchmark its sustainability performance using a com- prehensive set of criteria across more than 300 different practicesâfrom light pollution to gender diversity policy. This process led YVR staff to realize that the airport still had areas for improvement, and that it could be undertaking additional initiatives and formalizing its efforts to a greater extent. Throughout YVRâs growth in passengers servedâwhich increased by 10% between 2015 and 2016 and is on track to grow similarly between 2016 and 2017âYVR has con- tinued using sustainability benchmarks to hold itself accountable, and to support and maintain its growth so that it can truly be sustained into the future. Figure 17. YVR social media post recognizes the Airport Carbon Accreditation achievement as part of its sustainability program. (Source: Vancouver International Airport).