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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY Committee on the Evaluation of the Use of Chemical Dispersants in Oil Spill Response Ocean Studies Board Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies This prepublication version of The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response has been provided to the public to facilitate timely access to the report. Although the substance of the report is final, editorial changes may be made throughout the text and citations will be checked prior to publication. The final report will be available through the National Academies Press in the summer 2019. A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the American Petroleum Institute (#2016-110715), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (#M15PC00004/M17PD00027), Clean Caribbean and Americas, the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Gulf Research Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (#EP-C-14- 005, TO# 17). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25161 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25161. PREPUBLICATION COPY

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY

COMMITTEE ON THE EVALUATION OF THE USE OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS IN OIL SPILL RESPONSE Committee MARY E. LANDRY, Chair, (Retired) U.S. Coast Guard, Belmont, Massachusetts E. ERIC ADAMS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ADRIANA BEJARANO, Research Planning Inc., Columbia, South Carolina MICHEL BOUFADEL, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark GINA COELHO, (Retired) Sponson Group Inc., Mansfield, Texas THOMAS S. COOLBAUGH, ExxonMobil, Spring, Texas CORTIS COOPER, (Retired) Chevron Corporation, Kensington, California DOMINIC DI TORO (NAE), University of Delaware, Newark JULIA GOHLKE, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN (NAM), University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania TERRY HAZEN, University of Tennessee, Knoxville KENNETH LEE, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia STEVE MURAWSKI, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg W. SCOTT PEGAU, Prince William Sound Science Center, Cordova, Alaska RON TJEERDEMA, University of California, Davis DAVID L. VALENTINE, University of California, Santa Barbara HELEN WHITE, Haverford College, Pennsylvania Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director, Ocean Studies Board STACEE KARRAS, Program Officer TRENT CUMMINGS, Senior Program Assistant SHELLY-ANN FREELAND, Financial Associate Note: See Appendix B, Disclosure of Conflict of Interest. PREPUBLICATION COPY v

OCEAN STUDIES BOARD Members LARRY A. MAYER, Chair, University of New Hampshire, Durham KEVIN R. ARRIGO, Stanford University, California CLAUDIA BENITEZ-NELSON, University of South Carolina, Columbia RITA R. COLWELL, University of Maryland, College Park THOMAS R. CHANCE, ASV Global, LLC, Broussard, Louisiana SARAH W. COOKSEY, State of Delaware, Dover JAMES A. ESTES, University of California, Santa Cruz DAVID HALPERN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California PATRICK HEIMBACH, University of Texas, Austin SUSAN E. HUMPHRIES, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts S. BRADLEY MORAN, University of Alaska, Fairbanks STEVEN A. MURAWSKI, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg JOHN A. ORCUTT, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California H. TUBA ÖZKAN-HALLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis RUTH M. PERRY, Shell Exploration & Production Company, Houston, Texas MARTIN D. SMITH, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina MARK H. SPALDING, The Ocean Foundation, Washington, District of Columbia MARGARET SPRING, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California DOUGLAS WARTZOK, Florida International University, Miami LISA D. WHITE, University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco State University ROBERT S. WINOKUR, Michigan Tech Research Institute, Silver Spring, Maryland Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director STACEE KARRAS, Program Officer EMILY TWIGG, Program Officer TRENT CUMMINGS, Senior Program Assistant SHELLY-ANN FREELAND, Financial Associate PREPUBLICATION COPY vi

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Members WILLIAM H. FARLAND, Chair, Colorado State University, Fort Collins LESA AYLWARD, Summit Toxicology, LLP, Falls Church, Virginia RICHARD A. BECKER, American Chemistry Council, Washington, District of Columbia E. WILLIAM COLGLAZIER, AAAS, Washington, District of Columbia DOMINIC M. DI TORO, University of Delaware, Newark DAVID C. DORMAN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh GEORGE GRAY, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia R. JEFFREY LEWIS, ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annandale, New Jersey ROBERT PERCIASEPE, Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington, Virginia R. CRAIG POSTLEWAITE, Department of Defense, Burke, Virginia REZA J. RASOULPOUR, Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, Indiana JOAN B. ROSE, Michigan State University, East Lansing GINA SOLOMON, Public Health Institute, Oakland, California DEBORAH L. SWACKHAMER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis PETER THORNE, The University of Iowa, Iowa City Staff CLIFFORD DUKE, Director RAYMOND WASSEL, Director of Environmental Studies ELLEN MANTUS, Director of Risk Assessment SUSAN MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology ELIZABETH BOYLE, Program Officer TAMARA DAWSON, Program Associate JESSICA WOLFMAN, Senior Program Assistant LAURA LLANOS, Financial Associate PREPUBLICATION COPY vii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: MACE BARRON, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, Florida C.J. BEEGLE-KRAUSE, SINTEF Ocean AS, Trondheim, Norway ROBERT DICKEY, The University of Texas at Austin, Port Aransas JOSEPH KATZ, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland NANCY KINNER, University of New Hampshire, Durham MAUREEN LICHTVELD, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana JACQUELINE MICHEL, Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, South Carolina ROGER PRINCE, (Retired) ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., Annandale, New Jersey CHRISTOPHER REDDY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts DANNY REIBLE, Texas Tech University, Lubbock TOM PARKERTON, ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc. Spring, Texas ANN HAYWARD WALKER, SEA Consulting Group, Cape Charles, Virginia Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Carys Mitchelmore, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, and Richard Luthy, Stanford University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. The Committee would also like to thank Scott Socolofsky, Texas A&M, and Jonas Gros, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany, for their expertise and consulting. Furthermore, the Committee expresses gratitude to those that participated in public meetings and others who provided written comments and information. PREPUBLICATION COPY ix

CONTENTS SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................................. 1 Oil Spill Response Decision-Making ........................................................................................................ 2 Fate and Transport of Dispersants and Oil................................................................................................ 3 Aquatic Toxicology and Biological Effects .............................................................................................. 6 Human Health Considerations .................................................................................................................. 9 Selection of Response Options ............................................................................................................... 12 Comparative Studies of Response Methods............................................................................................ 13 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 15 Historical Context for Dispersant Use .................................................................................................... 17 Tools to Evaluate Response Tradeoffs and Strategies ............................................................................ 19 Rationale for Current Study .................................................................................................................... 20 Statement of Task and Report Organization ........................................................................................... 22 CHAPTER 2: FATE AND TRANSPORT ................................................................................................. 25 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 25 Fate and Transport of Dispersant Components ....................................................................................... 25 Characterization of Oil Chemistry .......................................................................................................... 26 The Effect of Natural Gas in Blowouts ................................................................................................... 28 Oil Fate ................................................................................................................................................... 32 Transport Processes ................................................................................................................................ 54 Findings and Recommendations ............................................................................................................. 69 CHAPTER 3: AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS............................................ 71 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 71 Aquatic Toxicology ................................................................................................................................ 74 Modeling the Toxicity of Oil .................................................................................................................. 88 A Path Forward for Aquatic Toxicity Testing ...................................................................................... 110 Biological Effects.................................................................................................................................. 112 Application to the Context of Field Exposures ..................................................................................... 118 Findings and Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 120 CHAPTER 4: HUMAN HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS ........................................................................ 123 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 123 Direct Human Health Considerations ................................................................................................... 124 Indirect Human Health Considerations ................................................................................................. 145 Findings and Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 149 CHAPTER 5: TOOLS FOR DECISION-MAKING ................................................................................ 153 PREPUBLICATION COPY xi

xii The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 153 Decision-Making Tools ........................................................................................................................ 154 Integrated Models ................................................................................................................................. 156 The CERA Approach ............................................................................................................................ 166 The SIMA Approach............................................................................................................................. 169 Comparative Risk Analysis................................................................................................................... 172 Ecosystem Services ............................................................................................................................... 173 Findings and Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 176 CHAPTER 6: COMPARING RESPONSE OPTIONS ............................................................................ 179 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 179 Summary of Key Offshore Response Options ...................................................................................... 179 Surface Dispersant Operations .............................................................................................................. 182 Subsea Dispersant Injection (SSDI) ...................................................................................................... 184 At-Sea Mechanical Recovery................................................................................................................ 188 Controlled (In Situ) Burning ................................................................................................................. 189 Monitored Natural Attenuation (natural recovery) ............................................................................... 190 Additional Considerations .................................................................................................................... 192 Uncertainty in Decision-Making Tools................................................................................................. 197 Comparison Studies of Response Methods ........................................................................................... 199 Findings and Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 211 CHAPTER 7: RESEARCH AND DECISION-MAKING PROTOCOLS ............................................... 213 Oil Fate and Transport .......................................................................................................................... 213 Environmental and Aquatic Toxicity .................................................................................................... 232 Human Health ....................................................................................................................................... 234 Tools for Oil Spill Response Decision-Making .................................................................................... 238 Findings and Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 242 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 245 APPENDIX A: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES ............................................................... 304 APPENDIX B: DISCLOSURE OF CONFLICT OF INTEREST ............................................................ 310 APPENDIX C: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................ 312 APPENDIX D: MINORITY REPORT..................................................................................................... 316 APPENDIX E: CONSULTANT’S REPORT ........................................................................................... 332 APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA ................................................ 360 PREPUBLICATION COPY

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Whether the result of an oil well blowout, vessel collision or grounding, leaking pipeline, or other incident at sea, each marine oil spill will present unique circumstances and challenges. The oil type and properties, location, time of year, duration of spill, water depth, environmental conditions, affected biomes, potential human community impact, and available resources may vary significantly. Also, each spill may be governed by policy guidelines, such as those set forth in the National Response Plan, Regional Response Plans, or Area Contingency Plans. To respond effectively to the specific conditions presented during an oil spill, spill responders have used a variety of response options—including mechanical recovery of oil using skimmers and booms, in situ burning of oil, monitored natural attenuation of oil, and dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants. Because each response method has advantages and disadvantages, it is important to understand specific scenarios where a net benefit may be achieved by using a particular tool or combination of tools.

This report builds on two previous National Research Council reports on dispersant use to provide a current understanding of the state of science and to inform future marine oil spill response operations. The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill included an unprecedented use of dispersants via both surface application and subsea injection. The magnitude of the spill stimulated interest and funding for research on oil spill response, and dispersant use in particular. This study assesses the effects and efficacy of dispersants as an oil spill response tool and evaluates trade-offs associated with dispersant use.

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